Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Tribology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2024) | Viewed by 29151

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
Interests: powder composites; advanced composite materials; nanopowders; additive manufacturing technologies; MAX-phases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue on “Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties”.

Modern working conditions in various sections of the field of mechanical engineering, aerospace, medicine, energy, and other areas have increased the requirements for the properties of products. In particular, requirements of the surface properties of products, which are determined by coatings, are becoming more stringent. This has led to new methods for obtaining coatings and coating materials beginning to be developed.

Composites are advanced materials capable of delivering an outstanding coating performance. At the same time, the capabilities of composite coatings make it possible to create coatings with different properties by depth, as well as unique properties that are inaccessible to single-component coatings.

This Special Issue aims to present cutting-edge practical and theoretical research on the structure and properties of composite coatings. Works on the modeling, production, and research of composite coatings obtained by the modern methods of powder metallurgy, CVD, PVD, and other methods are encouraged. Of particular interest are works devoted to composite coatings on additively manufactured parts.

For this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Composite coatings including metal, ceramic, and/or polymer components;
  • Protective coatings on additively manufactured parts;
  • The mathematical modeling of coatings, including their implementation, effective properties, and structure modeling;
  • Novel ideas, materials, and equipment for the production of composite coatings;
  • Reactive and in situ formation of composite coatings;
  • Multilayer and gradient coatings.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Maksim Krinitcyn
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • protective coatings
  • composite coatings
  • metal-matrix composites
  • polymer-based composites
  • novel ceramics and cermets
  • PVD and CVD composite coatings
  • composite claddings and sprayed coatings
  • additively manufactured metals, alloys and composites

Published Papers (17 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties
by Maksim Krinitcyn
Coatings 2022, 12(7), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12070884 - 22 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
Coatings are being used in more and more areas of life today [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

12 pages, 5300 KiB  
Article
Titanium Carbide Coating for Hafnium Hydride Neutron Control Rods: In Situ X-ray Diffraction Study
by Dmitrii V. Sidelev, Alexey V. Pirozhkov, Denis D. Mishchenko and Maxim S. Syrtanov
Coatings 2023, 13(12), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13122053 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 846
Abstract
This article considers the possibility of using a magnetron-deposited coating for the protection of hafnium hydrides at high temperatures as a material for neutron control rods. We describe the role of TiC coating in the high-temperature behavior of hafnium hydrides in a vacuum. [...] Read more.
This article considers the possibility of using a magnetron-deposited coating for the protection of hafnium hydrides at high temperatures as a material for neutron control rods. We describe the role of TiC coating in the high-temperature behavior of hafnium hydrides in a vacuum. A 1 µm thick TiC coating was deposited through magnetron sputtering on the outer surface of disk HfHx samples, and then in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of both the uncoated and TiC-coated HfHx samples were performed using synchrotron radiation (at a wavelength of 1.64 Å) during linear heating, the isothermal stage (700 and 900 °C), and cooling to room temperature. Quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to identify the hydrogen release from the uncoated and TiC-coated hafnium hydride samples during their heating. We found the decomposition of the HfH1.7 phase to HfH1.5 and Hf and following hafnium oxidation after the significant decrease in hydrogen flow in the uncoated HfHx samples. The TiC coating can be used as a protective layer for HfHx under certain conditions (up to 700 °C); however, the fast hydrogen release can occur in the case of a coating failure. This study shows the temperature range for the possible application of TiC coatings for the protection of hafnium hydride from hydrogen release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 6955 KiB  
Article
Resistance of Graphene/Epoxy Resin—Based Composite Materials to γ Radiation Damage and Their Mechanical Properties
by Hongxia Wang, Xiaoyuan Pei, Ruiqi Shao, Shengkai Liu, Wei Wang, Cun Zhao and Zhiwei Xu
Coatings 2023, 13(9), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13091536 - 1 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
This study aims to explore the role of graphene in enhancing the radiation resistance of epoxy resin (EP) composites. Through the resin transfer molding process, we prepared 0.3 wt% graphene oxide (GO) and Hummer’s method reduced graphene oxide (Hh-RGO) reinforced EP composites, respectively. [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the role of graphene in enhancing the radiation resistance of epoxy resin (EP) composites. Through the resin transfer molding process, we prepared 0.3 wt% graphene oxide (GO) and Hummer’s method reduced graphene oxide (Hh-RGO) reinforced EP composites, respectively. By comparing the microstructure, free radical content, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of EP, GO/EP, and Hh-RGO/EP composites before and after γ-ray irradiation, we found that GO and Hh-RGO can effectively reduce the generation of free radicals in EP during irradiation, thereby reducing chemical bond breakage and enhancing its radiation resistance. Particularly, GO demonstrated stronger radiation damage resistance. The results showed that after γ-ray irradiation, the glass transition temperature, nano-indentation depth, and hardness of GO/EP composites decreased by 20.32%, 416.3 nm, and 16.00%, respectively, whereas EP decreased by 30.34%, 502.1 nm, and 41.82% respectively. This is mainly attributed to the fact that the addition of graphene nanoparticles as a reinforcement reduces the free radical content in EP and reduces the damage of free radicals to the EP crosslinked network during irradiation, thereby improving the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the composites. In addition, the Π electrons formed by the hexagonal honeycomb structure of GO and the Π-Π stacking effect formed with free radicals can slow down the aging of epoxy resin in a high-energy radiation environment, thereby prolonging its service life. This study provides important references for further optimization and application of graphene-modified epoxy resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 7680 KiB  
Article
Interaction of Si Atom with the (001) Surface of TiN, AlN and TaN Compounds
by Leonid Svyatkin, Sergey Ognev, Maxim Syrtanov and Yury Koroteev
Coatings 2023, 13(8), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13081453 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Nowadays, the application of multicomponent coatings with multiphase nanocrystalline structure is the most promising direction in the search for wear-resistant protective coatings with a full set of necessary operational properties. Nanocrystalline multicomponent coatings based on the Ti-Al-Ta-Si-N system have a high hardness combined [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the application of multicomponent coatings with multiphase nanocrystalline structure is the most promising direction in the search for wear-resistant protective coatings with a full set of necessary operational properties. Nanocrystalline multicomponent coatings based on the Ti-Al-Ta-Si-N system have a high hardness combined with thermal stability and oxidation resistance. Silicon atoms are weakly soluble in the TiN, Ti1−xAlxN, and TaN crystalline phases of the Ti-Al-Ta-Si-N system and interact preferentially with N atoms, forming the amorphous Si3N4 phase. In this context, it is important to first study the peculiarities of the interaction of Si atoms with the simplest structural units of the Ti-Al-Ta-Si-N system, such as TiN, AlN, and TaN compounds with the NaCl structure. This work is devoted to the study of the interaction of a Si atom with the (001) surface of AlN, TiN, and TaN compounds with the NaCl structure using ab initio calculations. This provides information for a deep understanding of the initial stages of the formation of different crystallites of the considered composite. It was established that the adsorption of silicon on the (001) surface of AlN, TiN, and TaN significantly increases the relaxation of the surface layers and leads to an increase in the corrugation observed on the clean surfaces. The largest corrugation is observed on the surface of the TaN compound. The most energetically favorable adsorption positions of Si atoms were found to be the position of Si above the N atom on the TiN and TaN surfaces and the quadruple coordinated position on the AlN surface. The valence electron density distribution and the crystal orbital Hamiltonian population were studied to identify the type of Si atom bonding with the (001) surface of AlN, TiN, and TaN compounds. It was found that silicon forms predominantly covalent bonds with the nearest metal and nitrogen atoms, except for the quadruple coordinated position on the surface of TiN and TaN, where there is a high degree of ionic bonding of silicon with surface atoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 6130 KiB  
Article
Studies on Protective Coatings for Molding Tools Applied in a Precision Glass Molding Process for a High Abbe Number Glass S-FPM3
by Chong Chen, Marcel Friedrichs, Cheng Jiang, Li-Ang Wang, Ming-Yang Dang, Tim Grunwald, Thomas Bergs and Yong-Liang Li
Coatings 2023, 13(8), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13081438 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Precision glass molding (PGM) is an efficient process used for manufacturing high-precision micro lenses with aspheric surfaces, which are key components in high-resolution systems, such as endoscopes. In PGM, production costs are significantly influenced by the lifetimes of elaborately manufactured molding tools. Protective [...] Read more.
Precision glass molding (PGM) is an efficient process used for manufacturing high-precision micro lenses with aspheric surfaces, which are key components in high-resolution systems, such as endoscopes. In PGM, production costs are significantly influenced by the lifetimes of elaborately manufactured molding tools. Protective coatings are applied to the molding tools to withstand severe cyclic thermochemical and thermomechanical loads in the PGM process and, in this way, extend the life of the molding tools. This research focuses on a new method which combines metallographic analysis and finite element method (FEM) simulation to study the interaction of three protective coatings—diamond-like carbon (DLC), PtIr and CrAlN—each in contact with the high Abbe number glass material S-FPM3 in a precision glass molding process. Molding tools are analyzed metallographically using light microscopy, white light interferometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the DLC coating improved process durability more than the PtIr and CrAlN coatings, in which the phenomenon of coating delamination and glass adhesion can be observed. To identify potential explanations for the metrological results, FEM is applied to inspect the stress state and stress distribution in the molding tools during the molding process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 10351 KiB  
Article
Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing of the Ti6Al4V Alloy Parts
by Maksim Krinitcyn, Alexandr Pervikov, Natalya Svarovskaya, Alexandr Lozhkomoev and Marat Lerner
Coatings 2023, 13(6), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13061067 - 8 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1394
Abstract
The paper shows the possibility of synthesizing microparticles coated with nanoparticles by electric explosion of a wire made of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Particles in which the core is a microparticle and the shell of a nanoparticle can provide effective sliding of the microparticles relative [...] Read more.
The paper shows the possibility of synthesizing microparticles coated with nanoparticles by electric explosion of a wire made of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Particles in which the core is a microparticle and the shell of a nanoparticle can provide effective sliding of the microparticles relative to each other and are promising for obtaining flowable metal-polymer compositions filled with powder up to 70 vol.%. Such compositions are promising feedstocks for the additive molding of complex metal parts, for example, customized implants from the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, by material extrusion. The article describes the properties of feedstock based on micro- and nanoparticles of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the microstructure and some mechanical properties of sintered samples. The structure, bending strength and Vickers hardness of additively formed samples sintered at a temperature of 1200 °C was investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 16865 KiB  
Article
Structure and Properties of Ti3AlC2-SiC and Ti3AlC2-TiC Materials Obtained by Powder Injection Molding Technology
by Maksim Krinitcyn, Sharif Sharafeev and Alexandr Afanasyev
Coatings 2023, 13(6), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13061013 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
Powder injection melting (PIM) and material extrusion additive manufacturing (MEAM) are promising production technologies that allow us to obtain products from modern composite materials. These technologies make it possible to obtain products of complex shape from ceramic composite materials, which is a non-trivial [...] Read more.
Powder injection melting (PIM) and material extrusion additive manufacturing (MEAM) are promising production technologies that allow us to obtain products from modern composite materials. These technologies make it possible to obtain products of complex shape from ceramic composite materials, which is a non-trivial task. A highly filled polymer feedstock is used as a source material in such technologies. In this work, a study of the structures and properties of samples obtained from SiC-Ti3AlC2 and TiC-Ti3AlC2 feedstocks by the PIM method was performed. The main purpose of this work was to study the influence of the powder compositions in feedstocks on the rheological properties and the structures of the obtained samples, as well as to determine the sintering parameters of samples of these compositions. In the future, it is planned to use the received and studied feedstocks in material extrusion additive manufacturing (MEAM). It was found that the investigated compositions had different MFI values depending on the composition. The effect of the sintering parameters on the structure and properties was shown. During the sintering of SiC-Ti3AlC2 ceramics in the temperature range of 1200–1400 °C in a vacuum, the main components of the mixture interacted with the formation of Ti3SiC2 and TiC. For materials of the TiC-Ti3AlC2 composition, partial oxidation of the material and the formation of titanium and aluminum oxides was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 6126 KiB  
Article
Structure, Phase Composition, and Properties of Ti3AlC2—Nano-Cu Powder Composites
by Maksim Krinitcyn and Nikita Toropkov
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12121928 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Composites based on the MAX-phases are promising materials for wide range application. Composites MAX-phase–copper can be used in electrical engineering as wear-resistant and durable sliding contact materials. Such composites can be used as coatings on sliding contacts to improve local strength and wear-resistance [...] Read more.
Composites based on the MAX-phases are promising materials for wide range application. Composites MAX-phase–copper can be used in electrical engineering as wear-resistant and durable sliding contact materials. Such composites can be used as coatings on sliding contacts to improve local strength and wear-resistance without a significant increase in production costs. In this work, Ti3AlC2—nano-Cu composites with the ratio Ti3AlC2:Cu = 1:1 by weight or approximately 4:1 by volume were studied. The main task of the study is to obtain a dense structure, as well as to study the effect of the sintering temperature of the samples on their structure, phase composition, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity. In addition, the sintered specimens were subjected to a hot isostatic pressing to possibly further increase the density. It was found that the best combination of strength, density, and electrical conductivity is achieved after sintering at 1050 °C. A further increase in the sintering temperature leads to an intensification of the MAX phase decomposition process, and at a lower sintering temperature, the copper matrix remains incompletely formed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 10732 KiB  
Article
Duplex Treatment of AISI 420 Steel by RF-ICP Nitriding and CrAlN Coating Deposition: The Role of Nitriding Duration
by Dmitrii Vladimirovich Sidelev, Ekaterina Dmitrievna Voronina and Egor Borisovich Kashkarov
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111709 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
The duplex treatment of AISI 420 steel samples by nitriding in a radiofrequency inductively coupled plasma (RF-ICP) discharge of Ar + N2 + H2 atmosphere followed by CrAlN coating deposition was performed in this study. The influence of plasma nitriding (PN) [...] Read more.
The duplex treatment of AISI 420 steel samples by nitriding in a radiofrequency inductively coupled plasma (RF-ICP) discharge of Ar + N2 + H2 atmosphere followed by CrAlN coating deposition was performed in this study. The influence of plasma nitriding (PN) duration (10, 20, 40, and 60 min) on the structural and functional properties of the duplex-treated samples was determined. A non-linear dependence of AISI 420 steel nitriding kinetics was found on the square root of the PN duration. The thicknesses of the compound layer (CL) and nitrogen diffusion zone (DZ) in the samples and their phase composition resulted in different critical loads of coating failures under adhesion tests. Increasing the load-bearing capacity by the PN caused coating hardening in duplex-treated samples. The role of the PN duration on the wear characteristics of the AISI 420 steel samples after the duplex treatment has been discussed. Corrosion tests of AISI 420 steel demonstrated the significant enhancement (5–67 times) of its corrosion resistance in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution after duplex treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 10716 KiB  
Article
Protective Cr Coatings with ZrO2/Cr Multilayers for Zirconium Fuel Claddings
by Dmitrii Vladimirovich Sidelev, Sergey Evgeneyvich Ruchkin, Ivan Andreevich Shelepov, Nikolay Sergeevich Saburov, Andrey Gennadievich Malgin, Kirill Konstantinovich Polunin, Kirill Vicheslavovich Stoykov and Andrey Andreevich Mokrushin
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101409 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
This article described the protective properties of Cr coatings with a barrier layer composed of ZrO2/Cr multilayers deposited onto E110 zirconium alloy. The coatings with a ZrO2/Cr multilayer thickness of 100, 250, and 750 nm and single-layer (1.5 µm) [...] Read more.
This article described the protective properties of Cr coatings with a barrier layer composed of ZrO2/Cr multilayers deposited onto E110 zirconium alloy. The coatings with a ZrO2/Cr multilayer thickness of 100, 250, and 750 nm and single-layer (1.5 µm) ZrO2 barrier were obtained by multi-cathode magnetron sputtering in Ar + O2 atmosphere. Then, cracking resistance and oxidation behavior were studied under conditions of thermal cycling (1000 °C) in air and high-temperature oxidation at 1200–1400 °C in a water steam. The role of the ZrO2/Cr multilayers and multilayer thickness on cracking resistance of the experimental coatings and oxidation resistance of the coated E110 alloy was discussed. It was shown that the coatings with more quantity of the ZrO2/Cr multilayers have higher cracking resistance, but such types of samples have a large amount of coating spallation under thermal cycling. The high-temperature steam oxidation (1200–1400 °C) demonstrated that interfaces of the ZrO2/Cr multilayers can act as a source of cavities formed by the Kirkendall mechanism that results in accelerating Cr–Zr interdiffusion for Cr-coated E110 alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 12043 KiB  
Article
Oxide Nanostructured Coating for Power Lines with Anti-Icing Effect
by Andrey Vladimirovcih Blinov, Dmitry Aleksandrovich Kostyukov, Maria Anatolevna Yasnaya, Pavel Aleksandrovich Zvada, Lyudmila Pavlovna Arefeva, Valery Nikolaevich Varavka, Roman Aleksandrovich Zvezdilin, Alexander Aleksandrovich Kravtsov, David Guramievich Maglakelidze, Alexey Borisovich Golik, Alexey Alekseevich Gvozdenko, Natalia Viatcheslavovna Lazareva, Elena Nikolaevna Kushch, Vadim Nikolaevich Goncharov, Maxim Andreevich Kolodkin, Mohammad Ali Shariati and Andrey Ashotovich Nagdalian
Coatings 2022, 12(9), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12091346 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
This paper presents the results of the development of a technology to obtain a nanostructured coating for the protection of overhead wires and the possibility of their application in the electric power industry. The paper provides an analysis of available data on methods [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of the development of a technology to obtain a nanostructured coating for the protection of overhead wires and the possibility of their application in the electric power industry. The paper provides an analysis of available data on methods of combating ice in different countries, ways to protect the surface of metals from environmental influences, and new materials used for protection. We studied the possibility of using a protective nanostructured coating to protect overhead wires. A technology for obtaining a protective nanostructured coating based on silicon oxide and methods for applying it to the wire of overhead lines are proposed. The analysis of the elemental composition and surface morphology of overhead line wires with protective coating is carried out by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the nanostructured coating on the high-frequency signal bandwidth and wire resistance using a PCIe-6351 data acquisition board, equipped with a BNC-2120 terminal module generating a frequency signal were determined using the National Instruments LabVIEW software package. The subject of the study was a 110 kV overhead power line with a protective coating developed in this work. By analyzing the calculation, we obtained the operating requirements of the developed nanostructured coating. As a result, we developed a protective coating satisfying the working conditions and investigated its properties. In the final phase of the experiment, we tested the electrical characteristics of overhead wires with the developed protective coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 10187 KiB  
Article
Nanoscale Composite Protective Preparation for Cars Paint and Varnish Coatings
by Andrey Vladimirovich Blinov, Andrey Ashotovich Nagdalian, Lyudmila Pavlovna Arefeva, Valery Nikolaevich Varavka, Oleg Vyacheslavovich Kudryakov, Alexey Alekseevich Gvozdenko, Alexey Borisovich Golik, Anastasiya Aleksandrovna Blinova, David Guramievich Maglakelidze, Dionis Demokritovich Filippov, Vyacheslav Anatolievich Lapin, Ekaterina Dmitrievna Nazaretova and Mohammad Ali Shariati
Coatings 2022, 12(9), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12091267 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
In this work we have developed a nanoscale composite protective preparation for car paint and varnish coatings. We developed methods to obtain SiO2-TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2, SiO2-ZrO2 and SiO2-TiO2-ZrO2 [...] Read more.
In this work we have developed a nanoscale composite protective preparation for car paint and varnish coatings. We developed methods to obtain SiO2-TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2, SiO2-ZrO2 and SiO2-TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites, which are crystallization centers for the formation of a nanoscale composite protective coating with certain morphology and roughness. The phase composition of the samples and stability in alkaline media were studied. It is shown that SiO2-TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites with a content of titanium dioxide from 8%–9.5% and zirconium dioxide from 0.5%–2% exhibit complete insolubility in a highly alkaline medium, allow to form uniform structure on paint and varnish coatings, and protect the car surface from exposure to ultraviolet radiation. We determined the optimal composition of the preparation components for the formation of a nanoscale composite protective coating with hydrophobic properties and a wetting contact angle of more than 120 degrees: tetraethoxysilane ≤ 10 vol.%., titanium tetraisopropylate ≥ 2 vol.% and plant resin ≥ 8 vol.% Practical approval of the developed preparation on BMW X6 showed a pronounced hydrophobic effect. Evaluation of the stability of the nanoscale composite protective coating to the washing process showed that the developed preparation is able to maintain its hydrophobic properties for more than 150 washing cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4376 KiB  
Article
Component Design of Environmentally Friendly High-Temperature Resistance Coating for Oriented Silicon Steel and Effects on Anti-Corrosion Property
by Ying Liu, Lin Wu, Ao Chen, Chang Xu, Xiaoyu Yang, Yilai Zhou, Zhiyuan Liao, Baoguo Zhang, Ya Hu and Hailiang Fang
Coatings 2022, 12(7), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12070959 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Oriented silicon steel is vital for power transformer cores, while the high-temperature annealing process limits the industrialization of environmentally friendly coatings on the surface. In this paper, the high-temperature binders Al(H2PO4)3 solution and silica sol were introduced innovatively. [...] Read more.
Oriented silicon steel is vital for power transformer cores, while the high-temperature annealing process limits the industrialization of environmentally friendly coatings on the surface. In this paper, the high-temperature binders Al(H2PO4)3 solution and silica sol were introduced innovatively. They condensed into macromolecular polymer chains, network structures and SiO2 particles at high temperatures, providing high-temperature stability and adhesion. The influence of types of silica sol, additives and functional fillers on the corrosion resistance of the coating was studied. The prepared environmentally friendly inorganic insulating coating for oriented silicon steel has excellent corrosion resistance after curing at 475 °C and annealing at 800 °C, which was matched with the currently rolling process of oriented silicon steel. The salt-spray resistance can last for more than 24 h and up to 72 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2974 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Properties of PMMA Functionalized with CuFe2O4/Cu2O/CuO Nanoparticles
by Elena Glazkova, Olga Bakina, Nikolay Rodkevich, Andrey Mosunov, Maxim Evstigneev, Vladislav Evstigneev, Viktor Klimenko and Marat Lerner
Coatings 2022, 12(7), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12070957 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
We have prepared a composite thin coating by incorporation of CuFe2O4/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix by using the solution casting method. The electrical explosion of two twisted wires (EETW) was used to obtain multicomponent CuFe [...] Read more.
We have prepared a composite thin coating by incorporation of CuFe2O4/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix by using the solution casting method. The electrical explosion of two twisted wires (EETW) was used to obtain multicomponent CuFe2O4/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles with an average particle size of 20–70 nm. The microscopic studies showed that the nanoparticles in the composite coatings are evenly distributed. However, nanoparticles are strongly agglomerated as the powder concentration in the coating increases to 5 wt.% and 10 wt.%, as the size of particle agglomerates increases to 50 and 100 μm, respectively. Therefore, nanoparticles were pre-treated with ultrasound when introduced into the PMMA matrix. The thermal stability of the composite coating does not change with the introduction of CuFe2O4/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles in the amount of 5 wt.%. The inclusion of nanoparticles in the PMMA matrix significantly enhances its antibacterial activity. The addition of 5 wt.% nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli by 100% and the growth of MRSA by 99.94% compared to pure PMMA already after 3 h of exposure of bacteria on the surface of the composites. This research provides an easy-to-manufacture and cost-efficient method for producing a CuFe2O4/Cu2O/CuO/PMMA composite coating with a broad application as an antibacterial material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4727 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Epitaxial Film–Substrate Interaction Potential
by Sergey V. Belim, Ilya V. Tikhomirov and Igor V. Bychkov
Coatings 2022, 12(6), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12060853 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
The formation of the substrate surface potential based on the Lennard-Jones two-particle potential is investigated in this paper. A simple atom’s square lattice on the substrate surface is considered. The periodic potential of the substrate atoms is decomposed into a Fourier series. The [...] Read more.
The formation of the substrate surface potential based on the Lennard-Jones two-particle potential is investigated in this paper. A simple atom’s square lattice on the substrate surface is considered. The periodic potential of the substrate atoms is decomposed into a Fourier series. The amplitude ratio for different frequencies has been examined numerically. The substrate potential is approximated with high accuracy by the Frenkel–Kontorova potential at most parameter values. There is a field of parameters in which the term plays a significant role, with a period half as long as the period of the substrate atoms. The ground state of the monoatomic film is modeled on the substrate potential. The film may be in both crystalline and amorphous phases. The transition to the amorphous phase is associated with a change in the landscape of the substrate potential. There are introduced order parameters for structural phase transition in the thin film. When changing the parameters of the substrate, the order parameter experiences a jump when changing the phase of the film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 10605 KiB  
Article
A Tool for Removing Metal Inclusions from the Surface of Paint and Varnish Car Coatings
by Andrey Vladimirovich Blinov, Andrey Ashotovich Nagdalian, Alexey Alekseevich Gvozdenko, Anastasiya Aleksandrovna Blinova, David Guramievich Maglakelidze, Alexey Borisovich Golik, Kristina Sergeevna Slyadneva, Igor Petrovich Makeenko, Viktor Vasilievich Mikhaylenko, Tatyana Ivanovna Shpak, Igor Spartakovich Baklanov, Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin, Muthu Thiruvengadam and Mohammad Ali Shariati
Coatings 2022, 12(6), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12060807 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3290
Abstract
In this article, we presents the synthesis and research of a tool for removing metal inclusions from the surface of car paint coatings. The optimal composition of the product was determined, which includes sodium laureth sulfate, citric acid, sulfosalicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and [...] Read more.
In this article, we presents the synthesis and research of a tool for removing metal inclusions from the surface of car paint coatings. The optimal composition of the product was determined, which includes sodium laureth sulfate, citric acid, sulfosalicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and water. As a result of the conducted studies, a connection was established between the composition and the physicochemical, surface-active properties of the developed agent. Approbation of this tool was carried out, which confirmed its effectiveness and showed that within 30–45 s after applying the developed tool, not only are metal inclusions on the surface of car paint coating removed but also mineral contaminants in the form of sand, earth, clay and other particles. The aim of the work was to develop and optimize a method for obtaining a low-toxicity, highly effective agent for removing metal inclusions from the surface of car paint coatings and to investigate its effectiveness, as well as its physicochemical, optical and surface-active properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

22 pages, 3120 KiB  
Review
The Development of Cement-Based, Intumescent and Geopolymer Fire-Retardation Coatings for Metal Structures: A Review
by Kaibao Wang and Huirong Le
Coatings 2023, 13(3), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13030495 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Coating, as one of the significant applications in the building and construction sector, is crucial to prevent steel from reaching critical temperature and fire-induced structural collapse. This article reviews the current use of conventional coatings and assesses the potential use of novel geopolymer [...] Read more.
Coating, as one of the significant applications in the building and construction sector, is crucial to prevent steel from reaching critical temperature and fire-induced structural collapse. This article reviews the current use of conventional coatings and assesses the potential use of novel geopolymer coatings on the metal substrate, particularly on the steel structure. The conventional passive fireproofing systems, including cement-based coatings and intumescent coatings, exhibit unavoidable limitations either due to the high thickness and weight or poor thermal and chemical resistance of the coating. Thus, innovations in conventional and novel coatings are constantly developing and growing rapidly. In recent years, geopolymer coatings have attracted much attention due to their higher mechanical strength and excellent resistance to chemicals and heat. Moreover, the green and environmentally friendly characteristics make geopolymer an admirable coating material for many applications. The main challenge that lies in the development of geopolymer coating is the interfacial bonding with the metal structure. Therefore, the influencing factors, including precursor materials, alkaline activator, and curing processes on the adhesion and thermal and chemical resistance of the geopolymer coating have been well explored. The performance comparison between these coatings indicates that geopolymer coating offers a superior mechanical and thermal performance, along with a substantially lower environmental impact compared with cement-based coating. This suggests that geopolymer coatings have great potential for fire protection on steel structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protective Composite Coatings: Implementation, Structure, Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop