Special Issue "Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Isabel Coelhoso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: design of biopolymer membranes for biotechnology applications; biodegradable polymers and nanocomposites for food packaging
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The relevance of developing environmentally-friendly materials for the preparation of films and coatings is attracting a great deal of attention. This ambitious challenge is crucial for a more sustainable approach in the production of packaging for food products and medical devices. Films and coatings with antimicrobial properties are important in health applications: Antimicrobial surgical sutures, wound dressings for burn injuries and chronic wounds, antimicrobial scaffolds for tissue engineering and coatings of metallic implants and fixation devices. Films and coatings with antimicrobial, as well as antioxidant properties, are also needed in food applications for increasing shelf-life and enhancing the microbial safety of food products. This Special Issue aims to collect key contributions to the field and give an overview about the use of films and coatings in food and health applications.

Dr. Isabel Coelhoso
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Films and coatings
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antioxidant
  • Wound dressings
  • Medical devices
  • Food shelflife
  • Packaging

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Efficacy of Sweet Potato Starch-Based Coating to Improve Quality and Safety of Hen Eggs during Storage
Coatings 2019, 9(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9030205 - 22 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Egg deterioration occurs during storage time, which leads to quality loss. Thus, different preservations methods have been used to extend the shelf-life and maintain the safety of eggs. Edible coating materials based on biopolymers, such as starches and other renewable sources, have been [...] Read more.
Egg deterioration occurs during storage time, which leads to quality loss. Thus, different preservations methods have been used to extend the shelf-life and maintain the safety of eggs. Edible coating materials based on biopolymers, such as starches and other renewable sources, have been used for different food products and been identified as an effective method of food preservation. In this study, eggs were coated with edible coatings prepared from sweet potato starch (SPS) and varying levels of thyme essential oil (TEO), including 0 (control), 2%, 4%, and 6%. The quality and safety of the coated and uncoated eggs during five weeks of storage at 25 °C were studied. The application of 4% TEO in SPS-based coatings maintained the quality and safety of eggs two weeks longer than non-coated eggs. This study showed that the SPS-TEO coating could be useful in extending the shelf life of eggs during storage time, by delaying changes in egg quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
Chitosan/Thyme Oil Systems as Affected by Stabilizing Agent: Physical and Antimicrobial Properties
Coatings 2019, 9(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9030165 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
Antimicrobial biopolymer films and coatings are of great interest for many applications. Different chitosan systems were prepared and characterized to evaluate the effect of their composition on the physical and antimicrobial properties. Three types of emulsifiers (Tween 20, 80, and 85) were used [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial biopolymer films and coatings are of great interest for many applications. Different chitosan systems were prepared and characterized to evaluate the effect of their composition on the physical and antimicrobial properties. Three types of emulsifiers (Tween 20, 80, and 85) were used as stabilizing agents, combined with thyme essential oil (from two producers) applied as an active substance. A predominant role of the applied stabilizer and its hydrophilic–lipophilic balance value was proven. The incorporation of thyme essential oil and surfactant into the chitosan matrix led to a significant decrease of particle size in film-forming solutions, as well as a thickness increase and the enhancement of the barrier properties in chitosan films. Antimicrobial effects were provided even at the lowest tested concentration of thyme essential oil. Hence, the prepared chitosan films represent promising candidates in antimicrobial packaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
Application of Transglutaminase Crosslinked Whey Protein–Pectin Coating Improves Egg Quality and Minimizes the Breakage and Porosity of Eggshells
Coatings 2018, 8(12), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8120438 - 29 Nov 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
It is well known that an effective way to improve the quality attributes of food is the use of coatings. Moreover, there is evidence of the use of dairy byproducts to design coatings to improve the shelf life of food products. This study [...] Read more.
It is well known that an effective way to improve the quality attributes of food is the use of coatings. Moreover, there is evidence of the use of dairy byproducts to design coatings to improve the shelf life of food products. This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a film forming solution containing whey protein–pectin complex enzymatically reticulated by transglutaminase (TGase) applied as a coating on eggshells to preserve the internal quality of eggs stored under environmental conditions (25 ± 1 °C and 35% HR) during 15 days storage. Eggs properties tested included yolk index, albumen and yolk pH, albumen CO2 content, water loss, shell strength, and microbial permeability through the shell. The results showed that the coating maintained a higher yolk index and albumen carbon dioxide content, reduced the weight loss and increased both albumen and yolk pH values with respect to the uncoated eggs. All coated eggshells showed greater strength than those of uncoated eggs. Moreover, by using Blue Lake dye penetration method we demonstrated that the coating reduced the Blue Lake dye penetration confirming the effectiveness of the coating on the reduction of post-wash bacterial penetration. These results suggest that the studied coating can be useful to preserve internal egg quality but also to reduce the breakage of eggshell and egg microbial contamination. Based on this result we can conclude that the coating made with whey protein–pectin crosslinked by TGase could be an effective strategy to increase the shelf life of eggs preserved in environmental conditions and to reduce economic losses due to the eggs breakage during their marketing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
Preparation and Characterization of Bioplastics from Grass Pea Flour Cast in the Presence of Microbial Transglutaminase
Coatings 2018, 8(12), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8120435 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
The aim of this work was to prepare bioplastics, from renewable and biodegradable molecules, to be used as edible films. In particular, grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) flour was used as biopolymer source, the proteins of which were structurally modified by means [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to prepare bioplastics, from renewable and biodegradable molecules, to be used as edible films. In particular, grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) flour was used as biopolymer source, the proteins of which were structurally modified by means of microbial transglutaminase, an enzyme able to catalyze isopeptide bonds between glutamines and lysines. We analyzed, by means of Zeta-potential, the flour suspension with the aim to determine which pH is more stable for the production of film-forming solutions. The bioplastics were produced by casting and they were characterized according to several technological properties. Optical analysis demonstrated that films cast in the presence of the microbial enzyme are more transparent compared to the untreated ones. Moreover, the visualization by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the enzyme-modified films possessed a more compact and homogeneous structure. Furthermore, the presence of microbial transglutaminase allowed to obtain film more mechanically resistant. Finally, digestion experiments under physiological conditions performed in order to obtain information useful for applying these novel biomaterials as carriers in the industrial field, indicated that the enzyme-treated coatings might allow the delivery of bioactive molecules in the gastro-intestinal tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
Preparation and Properties of Ginger Essential Oil β-Cyclodextrin/Chitosan Inclusion Complexes
Coatings 2018, 8(9), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8090305 - 29 Aug 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
The ginger essential oil/β-cyclodextrin (GEO/β-CD) composite, ginger essential oil/β-cyclodextrin/chitosan (GEO/β-CD/CTS) particles and ginger essential oil/β-cyclodextrin/chitosan (GEO/β-CD/CTS) microsphere were prepared with the methods of inclusion, ionic gelation and spray drying. Their properties were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), [...] Read more.
The ginger essential oil/β-cyclodextrin (GEO/β-CD) composite, ginger essential oil/β-cyclodextrin/chitosan (GEO/β-CD/CTS) particles and ginger essential oil/β-cyclodextrin/chitosan (GEO/β-CD/CTS) microsphere were prepared with the methods of inclusion, ionic gelation and spray drying. Their properties were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the particle size of GEO/β-CD composite was smaller than that of β-CD and GEO/β-CD/CTS particles were loose and porous, while the microsphere obtained by spray drying had certain cohesiveness and small particle size. Besides, results also indicated that β-CD/CTS could modify properties and improve the thermal stability of GEO, which would improve its application value in food and medical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
Shelf Life Assessment of Fresh Poultry Meat Packaged in Novel Bionanocomposite of Chitosan/Montmorillonite Incorporated with Ginger Essential Oil
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050177 - 05 May 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3294
Abstract
Active packaging incorporated with natural extracts is a promising technology to extend shelf life of perishable food. Therefore, this study aimed to produce a bionanocomposite based on chitosan reinforced with sodium montmorillonite (MMT) and incorporated with ginger essential oil (GEO). In vitro activity [...] Read more.
Active packaging incorporated with natural extracts is a promising technology to extend shelf life of perishable food. Therefore, this study aimed to produce a bionanocomposite based on chitosan reinforced with sodium montmorillonite (MMT) and incorporated with ginger essential oil (GEO). In vitro activity was assessed through migration assay and antimicrobial study against foodborne bacteria. Phenolic compounds were diffused within 48 h of contact, and retained some of their antioxidant activity. Films demonstrated antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria tested. The effect on the shelf life of fresh poultry meat was determined on samples wrapped in the biopolymers and stored under refrigeration for 15 days, through physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Compared to unwrapped poultry meat, samples wrapped in the bionanocomposites showed a reduction in microorganisms count of 1.2–2.6 log CFU/g, maintained color and pH values and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) index increased at a lower rate, extending fresh poultry meat shelf life. The incorporation of GEO enhanced the biopolymer activity, by reducing lipid oxidation and microbiological growth of the poultry meat. In contrast, reinforcement with MMT imprisoned the active compounds in the polymeric chain, hindering its activity. In conclusion, the bionanocomposites tested represent promising substitutes to commercial and unsustainable plastic films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
The Effect of Xanthan Gum and Flaxseed Mucilage as Edible Coatings in Cheddar Cheese during Ripening
Coatings 2018, 8(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8020080 - 23 Feb 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2718
Abstract
The object of this study was to investigate the possibility of using xanthan gum and flaxseed mucilage as edible coatings for Cheddar cheese during ripening for 90 days. Five samples of Cheddar cheese blocks were coated with different coating materials in triplicate as [...] Read more.
The object of this study was to investigate the possibility of using xanthan gum and flaxseed mucilage as edible coatings for Cheddar cheese during ripening for 90 days. Five samples of Cheddar cheese blocks were coated with different coating materials in triplicate as follows: Coated with polyvinyl acetate as control (C), coated with 0.5% xanthan gum (XG), coated with 0.75% flaxseed mucilage (FM1), coated with 1% flaxseed mucilage (FM2), and coated with 1.25% flaxseed mucilage (FM3). All samples were kept at 8 ± 2 °C in a cold room for 90 days. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the moisture content of the samples decreased and the protein content increased during the ripening period (P < 0.01). The pH, acidity, fat in dry matter, and TCA-SN/TN of samples were significantly affected by xanthan gum and flaxseed mucilage treatment (P < 0.01). The free fatty acid composition of samples was significantly affected by edible coatings. Edible coatings affected the growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria and the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria in a non-significant manner (P > 0.01). The growth of starter bacteria was significantly altered under the effect of edible coating materials (P < 0.05). Tyrosine and tryptophan contents as an index of proteolysis, lipolysis, and sensory evaluation of samples were not significantly different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Potato Protein Isolate-Based Films
Coatings 2018, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8020058 - 05 Feb 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
Potato protein isolate (PPI) was studied as a source for bio-based polymer films. The objective of this study was the determination of the packaging-relevant properties, including the mechanical properties and barrier performance, of casted potato protein films. Furthermore, the films were analyzed for [...] Read more.
Potato protein isolate (PPI) was studied as a source for bio-based polymer films. The objective of this study was the determination of the packaging-relevant properties, including the mechanical properties and barrier performance, of casted potato protein films. Furthermore, the films were analyzed for cross-linking properties depending on the plasticizer concentration, and compared with whey protein isolate (WPI)-based films. Swelling tests and water sorption isotherm measurements were performed to determine the degree of swelling, the degree of cross-linking, and the cross-linking density using the Flory–Rehner approach. The effects of different plasticizer types and contents on compatibility with potato protein were studied. Glycerol was the most compatible plasticizer, as it was the only plasticizer providing flexible standalone films in the investigated concentration range after three weeks of storage. Results indicated that increasing glycerol content led to decreasing cross-linking, which correlated in an inversely proportional manner to the swelling behavior. A correlation between cross-linking and functional properties was also reflected in mechanical and barrier characterization. An increasing number of cross-links resulted in higher tensile strength and Young’s modulus, whereas elongation was unexpectedly not affected. Similarly, barrier performance was significantly improved with increasing cross-linking. The overall superior functional properties of whey protein-based films were mainly ascribed to their higher percentage of cross-links. This was primarily attributed to a lower total cysteine content of PPI (1.6 g/16 g·N) compared to WPI (2.8 g/16 g·N), and the significant lower solubility of potato protein isolate in water at pH 7.0 (48.1%), which was half that of whey protein isolate (96%). Comparing on an identical glycerol level (66.7% (w/w protein)), the performance of potato protein isolate was about 80% that of whey protein isolate regarding cross-linking, as well as mechanical and barrier properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
Surface Free Energy Utilization to Evaluate Wettability of Hydrocolloid Suspension on Different Vegetable Epicarps
Coatings 2018, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8010016 - 30 Dec 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3037
Abstract
Surface free energy is an essential physicochemical property of a solid and it greatly influences the interactions between vegetable epicarps and coating suspensions. Wettability is the property of a solid surface to reduce the surface tension of a liquid in contact with it [...] Read more.
Surface free energy is an essential physicochemical property of a solid and it greatly influences the interactions between vegetable epicarps and coating suspensions. Wettability is the property of a solid surface to reduce the surface tension of a liquid in contact with it such that it spreads over the surface and wets it, resulting from intermolecular interactions when the two are brought together. The degree of wetting (wettability) is determined by an energy balance between adhesive and cohesive work. The spreading coefficient (Scf/food) is the difference between the work of adhesion and the work of cohesion. Surface wettability is measured by the contact angle, which is formed when a droplet of a liquid is placed on a surface. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), κ-carrageenan, glycerol, and cellulose nanofiber (CNF) concentrations on the wettability of edible coatings on banana and eggplant epicarps. Coating suspension wettability on both epicarps were evaluated by contact angle measurements. For the (Scf/food) values obtained, it can be concluded that the surfaces were partially wet by the suspensions. Scf/food on banana surface was influenced mainly by κ-carrageenan concentration, HPMC-glycerol, κ-carrageenan-CNF, and glycerol-CNF interactions. Thus, increasing κ-carrageenan concentrations within the working range led to a 17.7% decrease in Scf/banana values. Furthermore, a HPMC concentration of 3 g/100 g produced a 10.4% increase of the Scf/banana values. Finally, Scf/fruit values for banana epicarps were higher (~10%) than those obtained for eggplant epicarp, indicating that suspensions wetted more the banana than the eggplant surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
Modified Starch-Chitosan Edible Films: Physicochemical and Mechanical Characterization
Coatings 2017, 7(12), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7120224 - 07 Dec 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3341
Abstract
Starch and chitosan are widely used for preparation of edible films that are of great interest in food preservation. This work was aimed to analyze the relationship between structural and physical properties of edible films based on a mixture of chitosan and modified [...] Read more.
Starch and chitosan are widely used for preparation of edible films that are of great interest in food preservation. This work was aimed to analyze the relationship between structural and physical properties of edible films based on a mixture of chitosan and modified starches. In addition, films were tested for antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CT), waxy (WS), oxidized (OS) and acetylated (AS) corn starches and their mixtures. The CT-starches films showed improved barrier and mechanical properties as compared with those made from individual components, CT-OS film presented the lowest thickness (74 ± 7 µm), water content (11.53% ± 0.85%, w/w), solubility (26.77% ± 1.40%, w/v) and water vapor permeability ((1.18 ± 0.48) × 10−9 g·s−1·m−1·Pa−1). This film showed low hardness (2.30 ± 0.19 MPa), low surface roughness (Rq = 3.20 ± 0.41 nm) and was the most elastic (Young’s modulus = 0.11 ± 0.06 GPa). In addition, films made from CT-starches mixtures reduced CT antimicrobial activity against L. innocua, depending on the type of modified starch. This was attributed to interactions between acetyl groups of AS with the carbonyl and amino groups of CT, leaving CT with less positive charge. Interaction of the pyranose ring of OS with CT led to increased OH groups that upon interaction with amino groups, decreased the positive charge of CT, and this effect is responsible for the reduced antimicrobial activity. It was found that the type of starch modification influenced interactions with chitosan, leading to different films properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Article
Characterization of Barnyard Millet Starch Films Containing Borage Seed Oil
Coatings 2017, 7(11), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7110183 - 01 Nov 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2920
Abstract
In this study, barnyard millet starch (BMS) was used to prepare edible films. Antioxidant activity was conferred to the BMS film by incorporating borage seed oil (BO). The physical, optical, and thermal properties as well as antioxidant activities of the films were evaluated. [...] Read more.
In this study, barnyard millet starch (BMS) was used to prepare edible films. Antioxidant activity was conferred to the BMS film by incorporating borage seed oil (BO). The physical, optical, and thermal properties as well as antioxidant activities of the films were evaluated. The incorporation of BO into the BMS films decreased the tensile strength from 9.46 to 4.69 MPa and increased the elongation at break of the films from 82.49% to 103.87%. Water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the BMS films decreased with increasing BO concentration, whereas Hunter b value and opacity increased, L and a values of the films decreased. The BMS films containing BO exhibited antioxidant activity that increased proportionally with increased BO concentration. In particular, the BMS film with 1.0% BO exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and light barrier properties among the BMS films. Therefore, the BMS films with added BO can be used as an antioxidant packaging material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Review

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Review
The Functionalization of Nanostructures and Their Potential Applications in Edible Coatings
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050160 - 26 Apr 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3263
Abstract
Nowadays, edible coatings incorporated with nanostructures as systems of controlled release of flavors, colorants and/or antioxidants and antimicrobial substances, also used for thermal and environmental protection of active compounds, represent a gap of opportunity to increase the shelf life of food highly perishable, [...] Read more.
Nowadays, edible coatings incorporated with nanostructures as systems of controlled release of flavors, colorants and/or antioxidants and antimicrobial substances, also used for thermal and environmental protection of active compounds, represent a gap of opportunity to increase the shelf life of food highly perishable, as well as for the development of new products. These functionalized nanostructures have the benefit of incorporating natural substances obtained from the food industry that are rich in polyphenols, dietary fibers, and antimicrobial substances. In addition, the polymers employed on its preparation, such as polysaccharides, solid lipids and proteins that are low cost and developed through sustainable processes, are friendly to the environment. The objective of this review is to present the materials commonly used in the preparation of nanostructures, the main ingredients with which they can be functionalized and used in the preparation of edible coatings, as well as the advances that these structures have represented when used as controlled release systems, increasing the shelf life and promoting the development of new products that meet the characteristics of functionality for fresh foods ready to eat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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Review
Starch-Based Coatings for Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050152 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4914
Abstract
Considerable research has focused on the control of the physiological activity of fruits and vegetables in postharvest conditions as well as microbial decay. The use of edible coatings (ECs) carrying active compounds (e.g., antimicrobials) represents an alternative preservation technology since they can modify [...] Read more.
Considerable research has focused on the control of the physiological activity of fruits and vegetables in postharvest conditions as well as microbial decay. The use of edible coatings (ECs) carrying active compounds (e.g., antimicrobials) represents an alternative preservation technology since they can modify the internal gas composition by creating a modified atmosphere through the regulation of the gas exchange (oxygen, carbon dioxide, volatiles) while also limiting water transfer. Of the edible polymers able to form coating films, starch exhibits several advantages, such as its ready availability, low cost and good filmogenic capacity, forming colourless and tasteless films with high oxygen barrier capacity. Nevertheless, starch films are highly water sensitive and exhibit limited water vapour barrier properties and mechanical resistance. Different compounds, such as plasticizers, surfactants, lipids or other polymers, have been incorporated to improve the functional properties of starch-based films/coatings. This paper reviews the starch-based ECs used to preserve the main properties of fruits and vegetables in postharvest conditions as well as the different factors affecting the coating efficiency, such as surface properties or incorporation of antifungal compounds. The great variability in the plant products requires specific studies to optimize the formulation of coating forming products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Films and Coatings for Food and Health Applications)
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