Special Issue "Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology"

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant, Algae and Fungi Cell Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 19848

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Christophe Dunand
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, UPS, UMR 5546, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan, France
Interests: plant; developement; evolution; terestrialisation; cell wall; peroxidase; reactive oxygen species
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Elisabeth Jamet
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 24 Chemin de Borde Rouge, 31320 Auzeville-Tolosane, France
Interests: plant; cell wall biology; development; evolution; proteomics; post-translational modification; cell wall architecture; protein/protein; protein/polysaccharide interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Plant cells are surrounded by extracellular matrixes. These structures, also called cell walls, are highly variable between species and organs and during plant development. Primary cell walls are mainly composed of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins), but they also contain a large diversity of peptides and cell wall proteins (CWPs). These latter are part of the cell wall structure through covalent and noncovalent scaffolds or interactions with polysaccharides, and they are critical players in cell wall dynamic processes. They are also capable of sensing the cell wall structure changes during development or in response to environmental constraints and accordingly convert them to signals triggering appropriate physiological responses. Secondary cell walls may contain aromatic polymers which contribute to cell wall rigidification and cell death for particular tissues.

The perception of biotic and abiotic signals via plasma membrane receptor-like kinases is well documented. By contrast, the sensing of cell wall integrity, in order to balance and restore cell wall homeostasis, is still puzzling. Another fascinating subject concerns the cell wall dynamics and constraints during lateral organ formation. Indeed, cell walls which are necessary to maintain cell structure and integrity in response to cell turgescence need to be locally loosened to allow lateral organ emergence. To summarize, the plant cell wall is a solid, plastic, intelligent exoskeleton capable of sensing and responding to all types of stimuli.

This Special Issue welcomes reviews and original research articles dealing with plant cell wall biology in the green lineage with a particular focus on cell wall integrity and dynamics.

Prof. Christophe Dunand
Dr. Elisabeth Jamet
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cells is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cell wall proteins
  • dynamics
  • integrity
  • plasticity
  • signaling

Published Papers (18 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue: Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology
Cells 2022, 11(9), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11091480 - 28 Apr 2022
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Plant cells are surrounded by extracellular matrixes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Arabinogalactan Proteins in the Digestive Glands of Dionaea muscipula J.Ellis Traps
Cells 2022, 11(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030586 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
The arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) play important roles in plant growth and developmental processes. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information on the spatial distribution of AGP in the plant organs and tissues of carnivorous plants during their carnivorous cycle. [...] Read more.
The arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) play important roles in plant growth and developmental processes. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information on the spatial distribution of AGP in the plant organs and tissues of carnivorous plants during their carnivorous cycle. The Dionaea muscipula trap forms an “external stomach” and is equipped with an effective digestive-absorbing system. Because its digestive glands are composed of specialized cells, the hypothesis that their cell walls are also very specialized in terms of their composition (AGP) compared to the cell wall of the trap epidermal and parenchyma cells was tested. Another aim of this study was to determine whether there is a spatio-temporal distribution of the AGP in the digestive glands during the secretory cycle of D. muscipula. Antibodies that act against AGPs, including JIM8, JIM13 and JIM14, were used. The localization of the examined compounds was determined using immunohistochemistry techniques and immunogold labeling. In both the un-fed and fed traps, there was an accumulation of AGP in the cell walls of the gland secretory cells. The epitope, which is recognized by JIM14, was a useful marker of the digestive glands. The secretory cells of the D. muscipula digestive glands are transfer cells and an accumulation of specific AGP was at the site where the cell wall labyrinth occurred. Immunogold labeling confirmed an occurrence of AGP in the cell wall ingrowths. There were differences in the AGP occurrence (labeled with JIM8 and JIM13) in the cell walls of the gland secretory cells between the unfed and fed traps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cell Wall Properties Determine Genotype-Specific Response to Cold in Miscanthus × giganteus Plants
Cells 2022, 11(3), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030547 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 701
Abstract
The cell wall plays a crucial role in plant growth and development, including in response to environmental factors, mainly through significant biochemical and biomechanical plasticity. The involvement of the cell wall in C4 plants’ response to cold is, however, still poorly understood. [...] Read more.
The cell wall plays a crucial role in plant growth and development, including in response to environmental factors, mainly through significant biochemical and biomechanical plasticity. The involvement of the cell wall in C4 plants’ response to cold is, however, still poorly understood. Miscanthus × giganteus, a perennial grass, is generally considered cold tolerant and, in contrast to other thermophilic species such as maize or sorgo, can maintain a relatively high level of photosynthesis efficiency at low ambient temperatures. This unusual response to chilling among C4 plants makes Miscanthus an interesting study object in cold acclimation mechanism research. Using the results obtained from employing a diverse range of techniques, including analysis of plasmodesmata ultrastructure by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and biomechanical tests coupled with photosynthetic parameters measurements, we present evidence for the implication of the cell wall in genotype-specific responses to cold in this species. The observed reduction in the assimilation rate and disturbance of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in the susceptible M3 genotype under cold conditions were associated with changes in the ultrastructure of the plasmodesmata, i.e., a constriction of the cytoplasmic sleeve in the central region of the microchannel at the mesophyll–bundle sheath interface. Moreover, this cold susceptible genotype was characterized by enhanced tensile stiffness, strength of leaf wall material, and a less altered biochemical profile of the cell wall, revealed by FTIR spectroscopy, compared to cold tolerant genotypes. These changes indicate that a decline in photosynthetic activity may result from a decrease in leaf CO2 conductance due to the formation of more compact and thicker cell walls and that an enhanced tolerance to cold requires biochemical wall remodelling. Thus, the well-established trade-off between photosynthetic capacity and leaf biomechanics found across multiple species in ecological research may also be a relevant factor in Miscanthus’ tolerance to cold. In this paper, we demonstrate that M. giganteus genotypes showing a high degree of genetic similarity may respond differently to cold stress if exposed at earlier growing seasons to various temperature regimes, which has implications for the cell wall modifications patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Spatiotemporal Distribution of Homogalacturonans and Hemicelluloses in the Placentas, Ovules and Female Gametophytes of Utricularia nelumbifolia during Pollination
Cells 2022, 11(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030475 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
Utricularia nelumbifolia is a large carnivorous plant that is endemic to Brazil. It forms an extra-ovular female gametophyte, which surpasses the entire micropylar canal and extends beyond the limit of the integument and invades the placenta tissues. Due to the atypical behavior of [...] Read more.
Utricularia nelumbifolia is a large carnivorous plant that is endemic to Brazil. It forms an extra-ovular female gametophyte, which surpasses the entire micropylar canal and extends beyond the limit of the integument and invades the placenta tissues. Due to the atypical behavior of the female gametophyte, it is interesting to determine the interaction between the gametophyte and sporophytic tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the placenta, the ovular tissues, the hypertrophied central cell and the integument in guiding the pollen tube in Utricularia nelumbifolia Gardner by studying the distribution of homogalacturonans and hemicelluloses. It was also determined whether the distribution of the homogalacturonans (HG) and hemicelluloses in Utricularia are dependent on pollination. The antibodies directed against the wall components (anti-pectin: JIM5, JIM7, LM19, LM20 and the anti-hemicelluloses: LM25, LM11, LM15, LM20, LM21) were used. Because both low- and high-esterified HG and xyloglucan were observed in the placenta, ovule (integument, chalaza) and female gametophyte of both pollinated and unpollinated flowers, the occurrence of these cell-wall components was not dependent on pollination. After fertilization, low methyl-esterified HGs were still observed in the cell walls of somatic cells and female gametophyte. However, in the case of high-esterified HG, the signal was weak and occurred only in the cell walls of the somatic cells. Because xyloglucans were observed in the cell walls of the synergids and egg cells, this suggests that they play a role in sexual reproduction. Utricularia nelumbifolia with an extra ovule-female gametophyte is presented as an attractive model for studying the male-female dialogue in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sterol Glucosyltransferases Tailor Polysaccharide Accumulation in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells
Cells 2021, 10(10), 2546; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102546 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
The conjugation of sterols with a Glc moiety is catalyzed by sterol glucosyltransferases (SGTs). A portion of the resulting steryl glucosides (SG) are then esterified with a long-chain fatty acid to form acyl-SG (ASG). SG and ASG are prevalent components of plant cellular [...] Read more.
The conjugation of sterols with a Glc moiety is catalyzed by sterol glucosyltransferases (SGTs). A portion of the resulting steryl glucosides (SG) are then esterified with a long-chain fatty acid to form acyl-SG (ASG). SG and ASG are prevalent components of plant cellular membranes and influence their organization and functional properties. Mutant analysis had previously inferred that two Arabidopsis SGTs, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1/TT15, could have specialized roles in the production of SG in seeds, despite an overlap in their enzymatic activity. Here, we establish new roles for both enzymes in the accumulation of polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells (SCEs). The rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) content of the inner layer of seed mucilage was higher in ugt80A2, whereas RG-I accumulation was lower in mutants of UGT80B1, with double mutant phenotypes indicating that UGT80A2 acts independently from UGT80B1. In contrast, an additive phenotype was observed in double mutants for increased galactoglucomannan (GGM) content. Double mutants also exhibited increased polymer density within the inner mucilage layer. In contrast, cell wall defects were only observed in mutants defective for UGT80B1, while more mucilage cellulose was only observed when UGT80A2 was mutated. The generation of a range of phenotypic effects, simultaneously within a single cell type, demonstrates that the adjustment of the SG and ASG composition of cellular membranes by UGT80A2 and UGT80B1 tailors polysaccharide accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Myxospermy Evolution in Brassicaceae: A Highly Complex and Diverse Trait with Arabidopsis as an Uncommon Model
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092470 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
The ability to extrude mucilage upon seed imbibition (myxospermy) occurs in several Angiosperm taxonomic groups, but its ancestral nature or evolutionary convergence origin remains misunderstood. We investigated seed mucilage evolution in the Brassicaceae family with comparison to the knowledge accumulated in Arabidopsis thaliana [...] Read more.
The ability to extrude mucilage upon seed imbibition (myxospermy) occurs in several Angiosperm taxonomic groups, but its ancestral nature or evolutionary convergence origin remains misunderstood. We investigated seed mucilage evolution in the Brassicaceae family with comparison to the knowledge accumulated in Arabidopsis thaliana. The myxospermy occurrence was evaluated in 27 Brassicaceae species. Phenotyping included mucilage secretory cell morphology and topochemistry to highlight subtle myxospermy traits. In parallel, computational biology was driven on the one hundred genes constituting the so-called A. thaliana mucilage secretory cell toolbox to confront their sequence conservation to the observed phenotypes. Mucilage secretory cells show high morphology diversity; the three studied Arabidopsis species had a specific extrusion modality compared to the other studied Brassicaceae species. Orthologous genes from the A. thaliana mucilage secretory cell toolbox were mostly found in all studied species without correlation with the occurrence of myxospermy or even more sub-cellular traits. Seed mucilage may be an ancestral feature of the Brassicaceae family. It consists of highly diverse subtle traits, probably underlined by several genes not yet characterized in A. thaliana or by species-specific genes. Therefore, A. thaliana is probably not a sufficient reference for future myxospermy evo–devo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
The Cell Wall Proteome of Craterostigma plantagineum Cell Cultures Habituated to Dichlobenil and Isoxaben
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092295 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
The remarkable desiccation tolerance of the vegetative tissues in the resurrection species Craterostigma plantagineum (Hochst.) is favored by its unique cell wall folding mechanism that allows the ordered and reversible shrinking of the cells without damaging neither the cell wall nor the underlying [...] Read more.
The remarkable desiccation tolerance of the vegetative tissues in the resurrection species Craterostigma plantagineum (Hochst.) is favored by its unique cell wall folding mechanism that allows the ordered and reversible shrinking of the cells without damaging neither the cell wall nor the underlying plasma membrane. The ability to withstand extreme drought is also maintained in abscisic acid pre-treated calli, which can be cultured both on solid and in liquid culture media. Cell wall research has greatly advanced, thanks to the use of inhibitors affecting the biosynthesis of e.g., cellulose, since they allowed the identification of the compensatory mechanisms underlying habituation. Considering the innate cell wall plasticity of C. plantagineum, the goal of this investigation was to understand whether habituation to the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil and isoxaben entailed or not identical mechanisms as known for non-resurrection species and to decipher the cell wall proteome of habituated cells. The results showed that exposure of C. plantagineum calli/cells triggered abnormal phenotypes, as reported in non-resurrection species. Additionally, the data demonstrated that it was possible to habituate Craterostigma cells to dichlobenil and isoxaben and that gene expression and protein abundance did not follow the same trend. Shotgun and gel-based proteomics revealed a common set of proteins induced upon habituation, but also identified candidates solely induced by habituation to one of the two inhibitors. Finally, it is hypothesized that alterations in auxin levels are responsible for the increased abundance of cell wall-related proteins upon habituation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
PopulusPtERF85 Balances Xylem Cell Expansion and Secondary Cell Wall Formation in Hybrid Aspen
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081971 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Secondary growth relies on precise and specialized transcriptional networks that determine cell division, differentiation, and maturation of xylem cells. We identified a novel role for the ethylene-induced Populus Ethylene Response Factor PtERF85 (Potri.015G023200) in balancing xylem cell expansion and secondary cell [...] Read more.
Secondary growth relies on precise and specialized transcriptional networks that determine cell division, differentiation, and maturation of xylem cells. We identified a novel role for the ethylene-induced Populus Ethylene Response Factor PtERF85 (Potri.015G023200) in balancing xylem cell expansion and secondary cell wall (SCW) formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides). Expression of PtERF85 is high in phloem and cambium cells and during the expansion of xylem cells, while it is low in maturing xylem tissue. Extending PtERF85 expression into SCW forming zones of woody tissues through ectopic expression reduced wood density and SCW thickness of xylem fibers but increased fiber diameter. Xylem transcriptomes from the transgenic trees revealed transcriptional induction of genes involved in cell expansion, translation, and growth. The expression of genes associated with plant vascular development and the biosynthesis of SCW chemical components such as xylan and lignin, was down-regulated in the transgenic trees. Our results suggest that PtERF85 activates genes related to xylem cell expansion, while preventing transcriptional activation of genes related to SCW formation. The importance of precise spatial expression of PtERF85 during wood development together with the observed phenotypes in response to ectopic PtERF85 expression suggests that PtERF85 contributes to the transition of fiber cells from elongation to secondary cell wall deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gold Nanoparticles-Induced Modifications in Cell Wall Composition in Barley Roots
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081965 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
The increased use of nanoparticles (NP) in different industries inevitably results in their release into the environment. In such conditions, plants come into direct contact with NP. Knowledge about the uptake of NP by plants and their effect on different developmental processes is [...] Read more.
The increased use of nanoparticles (NP) in different industries inevitably results in their release into the environment. In such conditions, plants come into direct contact with NP. Knowledge about the uptake of NP by plants and their effect on different developmental processes is still insufficient. Our studies concerned analyses of the changes in the chemical components of the cell walls of Hordeum vulgare L. roots that were grown in the presence of gold nanoparticles (AuNP). The analyses were performed using the immunohistological method and fluorescence microscopy. The obtained results indicate that AuNP with different surface charges affects the presence and distribution of selected pectic and arabinogalactan protein (AGP) epitopes in the walls of root cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effect of Low Temperature on Changes in AGP Distribution during Development of Bellis perennis Ovules and Anthers
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081880 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a class of heavily glycosylated proteins occurring as a structural element of the cell wall-plasma membrane continuum. The features of AGPs described earlier suggest that the proteins may be implicated in plant adaptation to stress conditions in important developmental [...] Read more.
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a class of heavily glycosylated proteins occurring as a structural element of the cell wall-plasma membrane continuum. The features of AGPs described earlier suggest that the proteins may be implicated in plant adaptation to stress conditions in important developmental phases during the plant reproduction process. In this paper, the microscopic and immunocytochemical studies conducted using specific antibodies (JIM13, JIM15, MAC207) recognizing the carbohydrate chains of AGPs showed significant changes in the AGP distribution in female and male reproductive structures during the first stages of Bellis perennis development. In typical conditions, AGPs are characterized by a specific persistent spatio-temporal pattern of distribution. AGP epitopes are visible in the cell walls of somatic cells and in the megasporocyte walls, megaspores, and embryo sac at every stage of formation. During development in stress conditions, the AGP localization is altered, and AGPs entirely disappear in the embryo sac wall. In the case of male development, AGPs are present in the tapetum, microsporocytes, and microspores in normal conditions. In response to development at lower temperature, AGPs are localized in the common wall of microspores and in mature pollen grains. Additionally, they are accumulated in remnants of tapetum cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Defects in Cell Wall Differentiation of the Arabidopsis Mutant rol1-2 Is Dependent on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase CDK8
Cells 2021, 10(3), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030685 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Plant cells are encapsulated by cell walls whose properties largely determine cell growth. We have previously identified the rol1-2 mutant, which shows defects in seedling root and shoot development. rol1-2 is affected in the Rhamnose synthase 1 (RHM1) and shows alterations [...] Read more.
Plant cells are encapsulated by cell walls whose properties largely determine cell growth. We have previously identified the rol1-2 mutant, which shows defects in seedling root and shoot development. rol1-2 is affected in the Rhamnose synthase 1 (RHM1) and shows alterations in the structures of Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) and RG II, two rhamnose-containing pectins. The data presented here shows that root tissue of the rol1-2 mutant fails to properly differentiate the cell wall in cell corners and accumulates excessive amounts of callose, both of which likely alter the physical properties of cells. A surr (suppressor of the rol1-2 root developmental defect) mutant was identified that alleviates the cell growth defects in rol1-2. The cell wall differentiation defect is re-established in the rol1-2 surr mutant and callose accumulation is reduced compared to rol1-2. The surr mutation is an allele of the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), which encodes a component of the mediator complex that influences processes central to plant growth and development. Together, the identification of the surr mutant suggests that changes in cell wall composition and turnover in the rol1-2 mutant have a significant impact on cell growth and reveals a function of CDK8 in cell wall architecture and composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interactions between Cellulose and (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and Arabinoxylans in the Regenerating Wall of Suspension Culture Cells of the Ryegrass Lolium multiflorum
Cells 2021, 10(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010127 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Plant cell walls (PCWs) form the outer barrier of cells that give the plant strength and directly interact with the environment and other cells in the plant. PCWs are composed of several polysaccharides, of which cellulose forms the main fibrillar network. Enmeshed between [...] Read more.
Plant cell walls (PCWs) form the outer barrier of cells that give the plant strength and directly interact with the environment and other cells in the plant. PCWs are composed of several polysaccharides, of which cellulose forms the main fibrillar network. Enmeshed between these fibrils of cellulose are non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCPs), pectins, and proteins. This study investigates the sequence, timing, patterning, and architecture of cell wall polysaccharide regeneration in suspension culture cells (SCC) of the grass species Lolium multiflorum (Lolium). Confocal, superresolution, and electron microscopies were used in combination with cytochemical labeling to investigate polysaccharide deposition in SCC after protoplasting. Cellulose was the first polysaccharide observed, followed shortly thereafter by (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, which is also known as mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), arabinoxylan (AX), and callose. Cellulose formed fibrils with AX and produced a filamentous-like network, whereas MLG formed punctate patches. Using colocalization analysis, cellulose and AX were shown to interact during early stages of wall generation, but this interaction reduced over time as the wall matured. AX and MLG interactions increased slightly over time, but cellulose and MLG were not seen to interact. Callose initially formed patches that were randomly positioned on the protoplast surface. There was no consistency in size or location over time. The architecture observed via superresolution microscopy showed similarities to the biophysical maps produced using atomic force microscopy and can give insight into the role of polysaccharides in PCWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Role of Brachypodium distachyon Wall-Associated Kinases (WAKs) in Cell Expansion and Stress Responses
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112478 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1116
Abstract
The plant cell wall plays a critical role in signaling responses to environmental and developmental cues, acting as both the sensing interface and regulator of plant cell integrity. Wall-associated kinases (WAKs) are plant receptor-like kinases located at the wall—plasma membrane—cytoplasmic interface and implicated [...] Read more.
The plant cell wall plays a critical role in signaling responses to environmental and developmental cues, acting as both the sensing interface and regulator of plant cell integrity. Wall-associated kinases (WAKs) are plant receptor-like kinases located at the wall—plasma membrane—cytoplasmic interface and implicated in cell wall integrity sensing. WAKs in Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to bind pectins in different forms under various conditions, such as oligogalacturonides (OG)s in stress response, and native pectin during cell expansion. The mechanism(s) WAKs use for sensing in grasses, which contain relatively low amounts of pectin, remains unclear. WAK genes from the model monocot plant, Brachypodium distachyon were identified. Expression profiling during early seedling development and in response to sodium salicylate and salt treatment was undertaken to identify WAKs involved in cell expansion and response to external stimuli. The BdWAK2 gene displayed increased expression during cell expansion and stress response, in addition to playing a potential role in the hypersensitive response. In vitro binding assays with various forms of commercial polysaccharides (pectins, xylans, and mixed-linkage glucans) and wall-extracted fractions (pectic/hemicellulosic/cellulosic) from both Arabidopsis and Brachypodium leaf tissues provided new insights into the binding properties of BdWAK2 and other candidate BdWAKs in grasses. The BdWAKs displayed a specificity for the acidic pectins with similar binding characteristics to the AtWAKs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Integrative Study Showing the Adaptation to Sub-Optimal Growth Conditions of Natural Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: A Focus on Cell Wall Changes
Cells 2020, 9(10), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9102249 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
In the global warming context, plant adaptation occurs, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly described. Studying natural variation of the model plant Arabidopsisthaliana adapted to various environments along an altitudinal gradient should contribute to the identification of new traits related to [...] Read more.
In the global warming context, plant adaptation occurs, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly described. Studying natural variation of the model plant Arabidopsisthaliana adapted to various environments along an altitudinal gradient should contribute to the identification of new traits related to adaptation to contrasted growth conditions. The study was focused on the cell wall (CW) which plays major roles in the response to environmental changes. Rosettes and floral stems of four newly-described populations collected at different altitudinal levels in the Pyrenees Mountains were studied in laboratory conditions at two growth temperatures (22 vs. 15 °C) and compared to the well-described Col ecotype. Multi-omic analyses combining phenomics, metabolomics, CW proteomics, and transcriptomics were carried out to perform an integrative study to understand the mechanisms of plant adaptation to contrasted growth temperature. Different developmental responses of rosettes and floral stems were observed, especially at the CW level. In addition, specific population responses are shown in relation with their environment and their genetics. Candidate genes or proteins playing roles in the CW dynamics were identified and will deserve functional validation. Using a powerful framework of data integration has led to conclusions that could not have been reached using standard statistical approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Root Border Cells and Mucilage Secretions of Soybean, Glycine Max (Merr) L.: Characterization and Role in Interactions with the Oomycete Phytophthora Parasitica
Cells 2020, 9(10), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9102215 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Root border cells (BCs) and their associated secretions form a protective structure termed the root extracellular trap (RET) that plays a major role in root interactions with soil borne microorganisms. In this study, we investigated the release and morphology of BCs of Glycine [...] Read more.
Root border cells (BCs) and their associated secretions form a protective structure termed the root extracellular trap (RET) that plays a major role in root interactions with soil borne microorganisms. In this study, we investigated the release and morphology of BCs of Glycine max using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also examined the occurrence of cell-wall glycomolecules in BCs and secreted mucilage using immunofluorescence microscopy in conjunction with anti-glycan antibodies. Our data show that root tips released three populations of BCs defined as spherical, intermediate and elongated cells. The mechanism of shedding seemed to be cell morphotype-specific. The data also show that mucilage contained pectin, cellulose, extracellular DNA, histones and two hemicellulosic polysaccharides, xyloglucan and heteromannan. The latter has never been reported previously in any plant root secretions. Both hemicellulosic polysaccharides formed a dense fibrillary network embedding BCs and holding them together within the mucilage. Finally, we investigated the effect of the RET on the interactions of root with the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora parasitica early during infection. Our findings reveal that the RET prevented zoospores from colonizing root tips by blocking their entry into root tissues and inducing their lysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
A Molecular Pinball Machine of the Plasma Membrane Regulates Plant Growth—A New Paradigm
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081935 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Novel molecular pinball machines of the plasma membrane control cytosolic Ca2+ levels that regulate plant metabolism. The essential components involve: 1. an auxin-activated proton pump; 2. arabinogalactan glycoproteins (AGPs); 3. Ca2+ channels; 4. auxin-efflux “PIN” proteins. Typical pinball machines release pinballs [...] Read more.
Novel molecular pinball machines of the plasma membrane control cytosolic Ca2+ levels that regulate plant metabolism. The essential components involve: 1. an auxin-activated proton pump; 2. arabinogalactan glycoproteins (AGPs); 3. Ca2+ channels; 4. auxin-efflux “PIN” proteins. Typical pinball machines release pinballs that trigger various sound and visual effects. However, in plants, “proton pinballs” eject Ca2+ bound by paired glucuronic acid residues of numerous glycomodules in periplasmic AGP-Ca2+. Freed Ca2+ ions flow down the electrostatic gradient through open Ca2+ channels into the cytosol, thus activating numerous Ca2+-dependent activities. Clearly, cytosolic Ca2+ levels depend on the activity of the proton pump, the state of Ca2+ channels and the size of the periplasmic AGP-Ca2+ capacitor; proton pump activation is a major regulatory focal point tightly controlled by the supply of auxin. Auxin efflux carriers conveniently known as “PIN” proteins (null mutants are pin-shaped) pump auxin from cell to cell. Mechanosensitive Ca2+ channels and their activation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are yet another factor regulating cytosolic Ca2+. Cell expansion also triggers proton pump/pinball activity by the mechanotransduction of wall stress via Hechtian adhesion, thus forming a Hechtian oscillator that underlies cycles of wall plasticity and oscillatory growth. Finally, the Ca2+ homeostasis of plants depends on cell surface external storage as a source of dynamic Ca2+, unlike the internal ER storage source of animals, where the added regulatory complexities ranging from vitamin D to parathormone contrast with the elegant simplicity of plant life. This paper summarizes a sixty-year Odyssey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Structure and Development of the Legume-Rhizobial Symbiotic Interface in Infection Threads
Cells 2021, 10(5), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051050 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
The intracellular infection thread initiated in a root hair cell is a unique structure associated with Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. It is characterized by inverted tip growth of the plant cell wall, resulting in a tunnel that allows invasion of host cells by bacteria [...] Read more.
The intracellular infection thread initiated in a root hair cell is a unique structure associated with Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. It is characterized by inverted tip growth of the plant cell wall, resulting in a tunnel that allows invasion of host cells by bacteria during the formation of the nitrogen-fixing root nodule. Regulation of the plant-microbial interface is essential for infection thread growth. This involves targeted deposition of the cell wall and extracellular matrix and tight control of cell wall remodeling. This review describes the potential role of different actors such as transcription factors, receptors, and enzymes in the rearrangement of the plant-microbial interface and control of polar infection thread growth. It also focuses on the composition of the main polymers of the infection thread wall and matrix and the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of the infection thread. Mutant analysis has helped to gain insight into the development of host defense reactions. The available data raise many new questions about the structure, function, and development of infection threads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Structures, Biosynthesis, and Physiological Functions of (1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans
Cells 2021, 10(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030510 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
(1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans, also named as mixed-linkage glucans, are unbranched non-cellulosic polysaccharides containing both (1,3)- and (1,4)-β-linkages. The linkage ratio varies depending upon species origin and has a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans. (1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans were [...] Read more.
(1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans, also named as mixed-linkage glucans, are unbranched non-cellulosic polysaccharides containing both (1,3)- and (1,4)-β-linkages. The linkage ratio varies depending upon species origin and has a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans. (1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans were thought to be unique in the grasses family (Poaceae); however, evidence has shown that (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans are also synthesized in other taxa, including horsetail fern Equisetum, algae, lichens, and fungi, and more recently, bacteria. The enzyme involved in (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan biosynthesis has been well studied in grasses and cereal. However, how this enzyme is able to assemble the two different linkages remains a matter of debate. Additionally, the presence of (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan across the species evolutionarily distant from Poaceae but absence in some evolutionarily closely related species suggest that the synthesis is either highly conserved or has arisen twice as a result of convergent evolution. Here, we compare the structure of (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans present across various taxonomic groups and provide up-to-date information on how (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans are synthesized and their functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop