Special Issue "Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology"

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant, Algae and Fungi Cell Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Christophe Dunand
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, UPS, UMR 5546, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan, France
Interests: plant; developement; evolution; terestrialisation; cell wall; peroxidase; reactive oxygen species
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Elisabeth Jamet
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 24 Chemin de Borde Rouge, Auzeville-Tolosane 31320, France
Interests: plant; cell wall biology; development; evolution; proteomics; post-translational modification; cell wall architecture; protein/protein; protein/polysaccharide interaction
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Plant cells are surrounded by extracellular matrixes. These structures, also called cell walls, are highly variable between species and organs and during plant development. Primary cell walls are mainly composed of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins), but they also contain a large diversity of peptides and cell wall proteins (CWPs). These latter are part of the cell wall structure through covalent and noncovalent scaffolds or interactions with polysaccharides, and they are critical players in cell wall dynamic processes. They are also capable of sensing the cell wall structure changes during development or in response to environmental constraints and accordingly convert them to signals triggering appropriate physiological responses. Secondary cell walls may contain aromatic polymers which contribute to cell wall rigidification and cell death for particular tissues.

The perception of biotic and abiotic signals via plasma membrane receptor-like kinases is well documented. By contrast, the sensing of cell wall integrity, in order to balance and restore cell wall homeostasis, is still puzzling. Another fascinating subject concerns the cell wall dynamics and constraints during lateral organ formation. Indeed, cell walls which are necessary to maintain cell structure and integrity in response to cell turgescence need to be locally loosened to allow lateral organ emergence. To summarize, the plant cell wall is a solid, plastic, intelligent exoskeleton capable of sensing and responding to all types of stimuli.

This Special Issue welcomes reviews and original research articles dealing with plant cell wall biology in the green lineage with a particular focus on cell wall integrity and dynamics.

Prof. Christophe Dunand
Dr. Elisabeth Jamet
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cells is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cell wall proteins
  • dynamics
  • integrity
  • plasticity
  • signaling

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Defects in Cell Wall Differentiation of the Arabidopsis Mutant rol1-2 Is Dependent on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase CDK8
Cells 2021, 10(3), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030685 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Plant cells are encapsulated by cell walls whose properties largely determine cell growth. We have previously identified the rol1-2 mutant, which shows defects in seedling root and shoot development. rol1-2 is affected in the Rhamnose synthase 1 (RHM1) and shows alterations [...] Read more.
Plant cells are encapsulated by cell walls whose properties largely determine cell growth. We have previously identified the rol1-2 mutant, which shows defects in seedling root and shoot development. rol1-2 is affected in the Rhamnose synthase 1 (RHM1) and shows alterations in the structures of Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) and RG II, two rhamnose-containing pectins. The data presented here shows that root tissue of the rol1-2 mutant fails to properly differentiate the cell wall in cell corners and accumulates excessive amounts of callose, both of which likely alter the physical properties of cells. A surr (suppressor of the rol1-2 root developmental defect) mutant was identified that alleviates the cell growth defects in rol1-2. The cell wall differentiation defect is re-established in the rol1-2 surr mutant and callose accumulation is reduced compared to rol1-2. The surr mutation is an allele of the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), which encodes a component of the mediator complex that influences processes central to plant growth and development. Together, the identification of the surr mutant suggests that changes in cell wall composition and turnover in the rol1-2 mutant have a significant impact on cell growth and reveals a function of CDK8 in cell wall architecture and composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Interactions between Cellulose and (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and Arabinoxylans in the Regenerating Wall of Suspension Culture Cells of the Ryegrass Lolium multiflorum
Cells 2021, 10(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010127 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 474
Abstract
Plant cell walls (PCWs) form the outer barrier of cells that give the plant strength and directly interact with the environment and other cells in the plant. PCWs are composed of several polysaccharides, of which cellulose forms the main fibrillar network. Enmeshed between [...] Read more.
Plant cell walls (PCWs) form the outer barrier of cells that give the plant strength and directly interact with the environment and other cells in the plant. PCWs are composed of several polysaccharides, of which cellulose forms the main fibrillar network. Enmeshed between these fibrils of cellulose are non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCPs), pectins, and proteins. This study investigates the sequence, timing, patterning, and architecture of cell wall polysaccharide regeneration in suspension culture cells (SCC) of the grass species Lolium multiflorum (Lolium). Confocal, superresolution, and electron microscopies were used in combination with cytochemical labeling to investigate polysaccharide deposition in SCC after protoplasting. Cellulose was the first polysaccharide observed, followed shortly thereafter by (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, which is also known as mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), arabinoxylan (AX), and callose. Cellulose formed fibrils with AX and produced a filamentous-like network, whereas MLG formed punctate patches. Using colocalization analysis, cellulose and AX were shown to interact during early stages of wall generation, but this interaction reduced over time as the wall matured. AX and MLG interactions increased slightly over time, but cellulose and MLG were not seen to interact. Callose initially formed patches that were randomly positioned on the protoplast surface. There was no consistency in size or location over time. The architecture observed via superresolution microscopy showed similarities to the biophysical maps produced using atomic force microscopy and can give insight into the role of polysaccharides in PCWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Role of Brachypodium distachyon Wall-Associated Kinases (WAKs) in Cell Expansion and Stress Responses
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112478 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 518
Abstract
The plant cell wall plays a critical role in signaling responses to environmental and developmental cues, acting as both the sensing interface and regulator of plant cell integrity. Wall-associated kinases (WAKs) are plant receptor-like kinases located at the wall—plasma membrane—cytoplasmic interface and implicated [...] Read more.
The plant cell wall plays a critical role in signaling responses to environmental and developmental cues, acting as both the sensing interface and regulator of plant cell integrity. Wall-associated kinases (WAKs) are plant receptor-like kinases located at the wall—plasma membrane—cytoplasmic interface and implicated in cell wall integrity sensing. WAKs in Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to bind pectins in different forms under various conditions, such as oligogalacturonides (OG)s in stress response, and native pectin during cell expansion. The mechanism(s) WAKs use for sensing in grasses, which contain relatively low amounts of pectin, remains unclear. WAK genes from the model monocot plant, Brachypodium distachyon were identified. Expression profiling during early seedling development and in response to sodium salicylate and salt treatment was undertaken to identify WAKs involved in cell expansion and response to external stimuli. The BdWAK2 gene displayed increased expression during cell expansion and stress response, in addition to playing a potential role in the hypersensitive response. In vitro binding assays with various forms of commercial polysaccharides (pectins, xylans, and mixed-linkage glucans) and wall-extracted fractions (pectic/hemicellulosic/cellulosic) from both Arabidopsis and Brachypodium leaf tissues provided new insights into the binding properties of BdWAK2 and other candidate BdWAKs in grasses. The BdWAKs displayed a specificity for the acidic pectins with similar binding characteristics to the AtWAKs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Integrative Study Showing the Adaptation to Sub-Optimal Growth Conditions of Natural Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: A Focus on Cell Wall Changes
Cells 2020, 9(10), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9102249 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 593
Abstract
In the global warming context, plant adaptation occurs, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly described. Studying natural variation of the model plant Arabidopsisthaliana adapted to various environments along an altitudinal gradient should contribute to the identification of new traits related to [...] Read more.
In the global warming context, plant adaptation occurs, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly described. Studying natural variation of the model plant Arabidopsisthaliana adapted to various environments along an altitudinal gradient should contribute to the identification of new traits related to adaptation to contrasted growth conditions. The study was focused on the cell wall (CW) which plays major roles in the response to environmental changes. Rosettes and floral stems of four newly-described populations collected at different altitudinal levels in the Pyrenees Mountains were studied in laboratory conditions at two growth temperatures (22 vs. 15 °C) and compared to the well-described Col ecotype. Multi-omic analyses combining phenomics, metabolomics, CW proteomics, and transcriptomics were carried out to perform an integrative study to understand the mechanisms of plant adaptation to contrasted growth temperature. Different developmental responses of rosettes and floral stems were observed, especially at the CW level. In addition, specific population responses are shown in relation with their environment and their genetics. Candidate genes or proteins playing roles in the CW dynamics were identified and will deserve functional validation. Using a powerful framework of data integration has led to conclusions that could not have been reached using standard statistical approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Root Border Cells and Mucilage Secretions of Soybean, Glycine Max (Merr) L.: Characterization and Role in Interactions with the Oomycete Phytophthora Parasitica
Cells 2020, 9(10), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9102215 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
Root border cells (BCs) and their associated secretions form a protective structure termed the root extracellular trap (RET) that plays a major role in root interactions with soil borne microorganisms. In this study, we investigated the release and morphology of BCs of Glycine [...] Read more.
Root border cells (BCs) and their associated secretions form a protective structure termed the root extracellular trap (RET) that plays a major role in root interactions with soil borne microorganisms. In this study, we investigated the release and morphology of BCs of Glycine max using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also examined the occurrence of cell-wall glycomolecules in BCs and secreted mucilage using immunofluorescence microscopy in conjunction with anti-glycan antibodies. Our data show that root tips released three populations of BCs defined as spherical, intermediate and elongated cells. The mechanism of shedding seemed to be cell morphotype-specific. The data also show that mucilage contained pectin, cellulose, extracellular DNA, histones and two hemicellulosic polysaccharides, xyloglucan and heteromannan. The latter has never been reported previously in any plant root secretions. Both hemicellulosic polysaccharides formed a dense fibrillary network embedding BCs and holding them together within the mucilage. Finally, we investigated the effect of the RET on the interactions of root with the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora parasitica early during infection. Our findings reveal that the RET prevented zoospores from colonizing root tips by blocking their entry into root tissues and inducing their lysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Structures, Biosynthesis, and Physiological Functions of (1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans
Cells 2021, 10(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030510 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
(1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans, also named as mixed-linkage glucans, are unbranched non-cellulosic polysaccharides containing both (1,3)- and (1,4)-β-linkages. The linkage ratio varies depending upon species origin and has a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans. (1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans were [...] Read more.
(1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans, also named as mixed-linkage glucans, are unbranched non-cellulosic polysaccharides containing both (1,3)- and (1,4)-β-linkages. The linkage ratio varies depending upon species origin and has a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans. (1,3;1,4)-β-d-Glucans were thought to be unique in the grasses family (Poaceae); however, evidence has shown that (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans are also synthesized in other taxa, including horsetail fern Equisetum, algae, lichens, and fungi, and more recently, bacteria. The enzyme involved in (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan biosynthesis has been well studied in grasses and cereal. However, how this enzyme is able to assemble the two different linkages remains a matter of debate. Additionally, the presence of (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan across the species evolutionarily distant from Poaceae but absence in some evolutionarily closely related species suggest that the synthesis is either highly conserved or has arisen twice as a result of convergent evolution. Here, we compare the structure of (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans present across various taxonomic groups and provide up-to-date information on how (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans are synthesized and their functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Cell Wall Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Cell wall properties determine genotype-specific response to cold in Miscanthus x giganteus plant
Authors: Anna Bilska
Affiliation: Instytut Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roślin
Abstract: Among numerous functions of the cell wall, its involvement into plant response to abiotic stresses is indicated. The role of the cell wall in the C4 plant's response to cold is still poorly understood. Miscanthus × giganteus, a C4 perennial grass is generally considered as cold-tolerant plant and in the contrast to other thermophilic species such as maize or sorgo is able to maintain a relative high efficiency of photosynthesis at low ambient temperature. However, differentiation in the response to chilling within different genotypes/ecotypes was found what makes Miscanthus an interesting research object in the aspect of cold acclimation mechanisms. In our previous studies, we established that inhibition of photosynthesis due to cold in maize is related to the changes in the plasmodesmata ultrastructure (Bilska and Sowiński, 2010, Ann Bot 106:675-686). In the present work on Miscanthus we found that observed genotypic variability in the response to cold, determined by CO2 assimilation measurements, is not only associated with altered plasmodesmata ultrastructure but also with biochemical profile and biomechanical properties of the cell wall. Using diverse techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), gas-exchange measurements, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and biomechanical tests (Instron) we demonstrated evidence for the implication of the cell wall genotype-specific response to cold in Miscanthus x giganteus plants.

Title: Identifying a new gene involved in root hair development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by whole exome sequencing
Authors: Iwona Szarejko
Affiliation: Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
Abstract: Briefly, in this paper we describe a barley mutant that exhibits the inhibition of root hair growth shortly after root hair initiation. Using exome capture we revealed that the mutant carries changes in the HvCSLC1 gene that encodes a protein with glucan synthase activity and may be involved in XyG biosynthesis in root hairs. Using three other allelic mutants carrying different mutations in this gene we proved the involvement of HvCSLC1 in root hair morphogenesis in barley. Furthermore, we examined different zones of barley roots regarding the expression of HvCSLC1 and genes responsible for linking xylose and specific sugar residues to the xyloglucan backbone and other genes involved in XyG metabolism. We discussed the role of HvCSLC1 as an important component of tip-growing root-hair cells which provides the structural capacity and flexibility during synthesis of the root hair cell wall.

Title: Integument-Specific Transcriptional Regulation in the Mid-Stage of Flax Seed Development Influence the Release of Mucilage and the Seed Oil Production
Authors: F. Miart et al.
Affiliation: Université de Picardie Jules Verne
Abstract: Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed oil, which accumulates in the embryo, and mucilage, synthetized in the seed coat, are of great economic importance for food, feed, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Current theories on the link between oil and mucilage production in seeds consists in the spatio-temporal competition of both compounds for photosynthates during the very early stages of seed development. In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between seed oil production and seed coat mucilage extrusion in the agronomic model species flax. We selected three recombinant inbred lines for low, medium and high mucilage and seed oil contents and conducted metabolite and transcript profiling (1H NMR and DNA oligo-microarrays) on the seeds during seed development. These analyses showed major changes in the seed coat transcriptome during the mid-phase of seed development (25 Days Post-Anthesis), once the mucilage biosynthesis and modification processes are thought to be finished. These transcriptome changes comprised genes that are putatively involved in mucilage chemical modification and oil synthesis, as well as gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism. The results of our integrative biology approach, suggest that transcriptional regulations of seed oil and fatty acid (FA) metabolism could occur in the seed coat during the mid-stage of seed development, once the seed coat carbon supplies have been used for mucilage biosynthesis and mechanochemical properties of the mucilage secretory cells.

Title: Toward the identification of molecular actors responsible for the generation of maturation stress in the secondary cell wall of poplar tension wood fibres
Authors: Françoise Laurans1, Véronique Lainé-Prade1, Marie Capron2, Olivier Arnould2, Amra Secerovic1, Tancrède Almèras2, Bruno Clair2, Annabelle Déjardin1, Gilles Pilate1
Affiliation: 1 BioForA, INRAE ONF, 45000 Orléans, France 2 LMGC, CNRS, Montpellier University, 34000 Montpellier, France
Abstract: Tension wood (TW) produced by temperate hardwood trees is known for its outstanding mechanical properties. The tensile force responsible for the specific mechanical properties of TW is likely to originate from physical changes in the high porosity hydrogel identified in the G-layer, a supplemental cell wall layer specific to TW fibres. Otherwise, we know that in flax phloem fibres, which have a lot in common with poplar TW fibres, the hydrolysis of pectin rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) side chains by a β-galactosidase results in a shift in fibre mechanical strength. In accordance, we found a good correlation during poplar TW formation between the kinetic of β-galactosidase activities and the labelling profiles of LM5 (specific to RG-I side chains) and RU1 (specific to RG-I backbone) antibodies used as markers for RG-I side-chain hydrolysis. In addition, using Atomic Force Microscopy to monitor the stiffening of the cell wall layers during TW fibre differentiation, we established that in fact RG-I side chain hydrolysis occurred long after cell wall stiffening. The labelling profiles of several other antibodies led to the identification of other candidate molecules potentially responsible for TW peculiar mechanical properties. These results are discussed with regards to other studies performed on related biological models.

Title: The cell wall proteome of Craterostigma plantagineum cell cultures habituated to dichlobenil and isoxaben
Authors: Gea Guerriero
Affiliation: Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), L-4940 Hautcharage, Luxembourg
Abstract: The remarkable desiccation tolerance of the vegetative tissues in the resurrection species Craterostigma plantagineum (Hochst.) is favored by its unique cell wall folding mechanism that allows the ordered and reversible shrinking of the cells without damaging neither the cell wall nor the underlying plasma membrane. The ability to withstand extreme drought is also maintained in abscisic acid pre-treated calli, which can be cultured both on solid and in liquid culture media. Cell wall researches have greatly advanced thanks to the use of inhibitors affecting the biosynthesis of e.g. cellulose, since they allowed the identification of the compensatory mechanisms underlying habituation. Considering the innate cell wall plasticity of C. plantagineum, the goal of this investigation was to understand whether habituation to the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil and isoxaben entailed or not identical mechanisms as non-resurrection species and to decipher the cell wall proteome of habituated cells. The results obtained showed that exposure of C. plantagineum calli/cells triggered abnormal phenotypes as reported in non-resurrection species. Additionally, the data demonstrated that it was possible to habituate Craterostigma cells to dichlobenil and isoxaben and that gene expression and proteomics did not follow the same trend. Shotgun and gel-based proteomics revealed a common set of proteins induced upon habituation, but also identified candidates solely induced by habituation to one of the two inhibitors. Finally, it is hypothesized that alterations in auxin levels are responsible for the increased abundance of cell wall-related proteins upon habituation.

Title: Identification and characterization of Olive prolyl 4 hydroxylases and Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in response to a salinity stress
Authors: Azariadis A.1, Kouhen M.1, Rizou M.1, Mekkaoui K.1, Blazakis K.1, Salameh I.1, Ezzatt L.1, Dandachi F.1, Kostelenos G.2, Shalha, B.1, Kalaitzis, P.1
Affiliation: 1 Department of Horticultural Genetics & Biotechnology, Mediterranean Agronomic Institute 2 Kostelenos Olive Nurseries, 18020 Poros Trizinias, Greece
Abstract: Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region and recently the cultivation expands rapidly in areas with climatic constraints such as limited rainfall. The olive cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water can significantly affect plant productivity. Studies in model plant species such as tobacco, rice, poplar and tomato have already linked abiotic stress with alterations in the protein abundance of cell wall glycoproteins such as arabinogalactans (AGPs). The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of prolyl 4 hydroxylases (P4Hs) and AGPs in the adaptive mechanism of abiotic stress in four olive cultivars with different tolerance levels in salt stress. Eleven olive P4Hs were identified in the olive genome and a bioinformatics pipeline was adapted to identify olive AGPs. Four olive cultivars, Koroneiki, Gaidourelia, Lefkolia and Arvanitolia were subjected to salinity treatment during the summer period in the greenhouse for a 90-day time course. Sampling of roots and leaves was performed in three time points, 0- , 45- and 90-day. The expression patterns of the olive P4Hs and AGPs were determined in roots and leaves during the salinity time course. The content of AGPs bound-epitopes was studied by western blot analysis in root and leaf of all cultivars using LM2 and JIM13 monoclonal antibodies. At the protein level, two patterns of AGP-bound epitopes in response to salinity were observed while two variations were detected in the first pattern; major and minor downregulations in the sensitive and the tolerant cultivars, respectively. The second pattern showed an upregulation of AGP content in response to long term salinity in the drought tolerant cv Gaidourelia. In addition, immunolocalization studies were performed in cross-section of roots with the same antibodies for Lefkolia and Koroneiki cultivars in order to identify cell specific changes in AGPs-epitopes as well as morphological changes under salinity. Our studies suggest an involvement of P4Hs and AGPs under salinity stress in four Greek olive cultivars with differential response to this abiotic stress.

Back to TopTop