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Special Issue "Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Elisabeth Jamet

Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 24 Chemin de Borderouge-Auzeville, BP42617, Castanet-Tolosan 31326, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: plant; cell wall biology; development; evolution; proteomics; post-translational modification; cell wall architecture; protein/protein; protein/polysaccharide interaction
Guest Editor
Prof. Christophe Dunand

Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, UPS, UMR 5546, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: plant; developement; evolution; terestrialisation; cell wall; peroxidase; reactive oxygen species

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, “Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development”, will cover a selection of recent research topics in the field of cell wall biology focused on cell wall proteins and their roles during development. Experimental papers, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries will be welcome.

Plant cell walls surround cells and provide both an external protection and a mean for cell-to-cell communication. They mainly comprise polymers like polysaccharides and lignin in lignified secondary walls and a minute amount of cell wall proteins (CWPs). CWPs are major players of cell wall remodeling and signaling. Cell wall proteomics, as well as numerous genetic or biochemical studies, have revealed the high diversity of CWPs, among which proteins acting on polysaccharides, proteases, oxido-reductases, lipid-related proteins and structural proteins. CWPs may have enzymatic activities such as cutting/ligating polymers or processing/degrading proteins. They may also contribute to the supra-molecular assembly of cell walls via protein/protein or protein/polysaccharide interactions. Thanks to these biochemical activities, they contribute to the dynamincs and the functionality of cell walls. Even though many researches have already been pursued to shed light on the many roles of CWPs, many functions still remain to be discovered especially for proteins identified in cell wall proteomes with yet unknown function.

Dr. Elisabeth Jamet
Prof. Christophe Dunand
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cell wall
  • development
  • peptide
  • plant
  • polysaccharide remodeling
  • protein
  • signaling

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Characterization of the XTH Gene Family: New Insight to the Roles in Soybean Flooding Tolerance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092705
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) are a class of enzymes involved in the construction and remodeling of cellulose/xyloglucan crosslinks and play an important role in regulating cell wall extensibility. However, little is known about this class of enzymes in soybean. Here, 61 soybean XTH genes
[...] Read more.
Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) are a class of enzymes involved in the construction and remodeling of cellulose/xyloglucan crosslinks and play an important role in regulating cell wall extensibility. However, little is known about this class of enzymes in soybean. Here, 61 soybean XTH genes (GmXTHs) were identified and classified into three subgroups through comparative phylogenetic analysis. Genome duplication greatly contributed to the expansion of GmXTH genes in soybean. A conserved amino acid motif responsible for the catalytic activity was identified in all GmXTHs. Further expression analysis revealed that most GmXTHs exhibited a distinct organ-specific expression pattern, and the expression level of many GmXTH genes was significantly associated with ethylene and flooding stress. To illustrate a possible role of XTH genes in regulating stress responses, the Arabidopsis AtXTH31 gene was overexpressed in soybean. The generated transgenic plants exhibited improved tolerance to flooding stress, with a higher germination rate and longer roots/hypocotyls during the seedling stage and vegetative growth stages. In summary, our combined bioinformatics and gene expression pattern analyses suggest that GmXTH genes play a role in regulating soybean stress responses. The enhanced soybean flooding tolerance resulting from the expression of an Arabidopsis XTH also supports the role of XTH genes in regulating plant flooding stress responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Insights from Comparative In Silico Analysis of Green Microalgal Cellulases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061782
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The assumption that cellulose degradation and assimilation can only be carried out by heterotrophic organisms was shattered in 2012 when it was discovered that the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr), can utilize cellulose for growth under CO2-limiting conditions. Publications of
[...] Read more.
The assumption that cellulose degradation and assimilation can only be carried out by heterotrophic organisms was shattered in 2012 when it was discovered that the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr), can utilize cellulose for growth under CO2-limiting conditions. Publications of genomes/transcriptomes of the colonial microalgae, Gonium pectorale (Gp) and Volvox carteri (Vc), between 2010–2016 prompted us to look for cellulase genes in these algae and to compare them to cellulases from bacteria, fungi, lower/higher plants, and invertebrate metazoans. Interestingly, algal catalytic domains (CDs), belonging to the family GH9, clustered separately and showed the highest (33–42%) and lowest (17–36%) sequence identity with respect to cellulases from invertebrate metazoans and bacteria, respectively, whereas the identity with cellulases from plants was only 27–33%. Based on comparative multiple alignments and homology models, the domain arrangement and active-site architecture of algal cellulases are described in detail. It was found that all algal cellulases are modular, consisting of putative novel cysteine-rich carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and proline/serine-(PS) rich linkers. Two genes were found to encode a protein with a putative Ig-like domain and a cellulase with an unknown domain, respectively. A feature observed in one cellulase homolog from Gp and shared by a spinach cellulase is the existence of two CDs separated by linkers and with a C-terminal CBM. Dockerin and Fn-3-like domains, typically found in bacterial cellulases, are absent in algal enzymes. The targeted gene expression analysis shows that two Gp cellulases consisting, respectively, of a single and two CDs were upregulated upon filter paper addition to the medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessArticle Organ and Tissue-Specific Localisation of Selected Cell Wall Epitopes in the Zygotic Embryo of Brachypodium distachyon
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030725
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The plant cell wall shows a great diversity regarding its chemical composition, which may vary significantly even during different developmental stages. In this study, we analysed the distribution of several cell wall epitopes in embryos of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium). We also described the
[...] Read more.
The plant cell wall shows a great diversity regarding its chemical composition, which may vary significantly even during different developmental stages. In this study, we analysed the distribution of several cell wall epitopes in embryos of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium). We also described the variations in the nucleus shape and the number of nucleoli that occurred in some embryo cells. The use of transmission electron microscopy, and histological and immunolocalisation techniques permitted the distribution of selected arabinogalactan proteins, extensins, pectins, and hemicelluloses on the embryo surface, internal cell compartments, and in the context of the cell wall ultrastructure to be demonstrated. We revealed that the majority of arabinogalactan proteins and extensins were distributed on the cell surface and that pectins were the main component of the seed coat and other parts, such as the mesocotyl cell walls and the radicula. Hemicelluloses were localised in the cell wall and outside of the radicula protodermis, respectively. The specific arrangement of those components may indicate their significance during embryo development and seed germination, thus suggesting the importance of their protective functions. Despite the differences in the cell wall composition, we found that some of the antibodies can be used as markers to identify specific cells and the parts of the developing Brachypodium embryo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Multifaceted Role of Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitors (PMEIs)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102878
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
Plant cell walls are complex and dynamic structures that play important roles in growth and development, as well as in response to stresses. Pectin is a major polysaccharide of cell walls rich in galacturonic acid (GalA). Homogalacturonan (HG) is considered the most abundant
[...] Read more.
Plant cell walls are complex and dynamic structures that play important roles in growth and development, as well as in response to stresses. Pectin is a major polysaccharide of cell walls rich in galacturonic acid (GalA). Homogalacturonan (HG) is considered the most abundant pectic polymer in plant cell walls and is partially methylesterified at the C6 atom of galacturonic acid. Its degree (and pattern) of methylation (DM) has been shown to affect biomechanical properties of the cell wall by making pectin susceptible for enzymatic de-polymerization and enabling gel formation. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyze the removal of methyl-groups from the HG backbone and their activity is modulated by a family of proteinaceous inhibitors known as pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). As such, the interplay between PME and PMEI can be considered as a determinant of cell adhesion, cell wall porosity and elasticity, as well as a source of signaling molecules released upon cell wall stress. This review aims to highlight recent updates in our understanding of the PMEI gene family, their regulation and structure, interaction with PMEs, as well as their function in response to stress and during development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview Membrane-Bound Class III Peroxidases: Unexpected Enzymes with Exciting Functions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2876; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102876
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
Class III peroxidases are heme-containing proteins of the secretory pathway with a high redundance and versatile functions. Many soluble peroxidases have been characterized in great detail, whereas only a few studies exist on membrane-bound isoenzymes. Membrane localization of class III peroxidases has been
[...] Read more.
Class III peroxidases are heme-containing proteins of the secretory pathway with a high redundance and versatile functions. Many soluble peroxidases have been characterized in great detail, whereas only a few studies exist on membrane-bound isoenzymes. Membrane localization of class III peroxidases has been demonstrated for tonoplast, plasma membrane and detergent resistant membrane fractions of different plant species. In silico analysis revealed transmembrane domains for about half of the class III peroxidases that are encoded by the maize (Zea mays) genome. Similar results have been found for other species like thale-cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) and rice (Oryza sativa). Besides this, soluble peroxidases interact with tonoplast and plasma membranes by protein–protein interaction. The topology, spatiotemporal organization, molecular and biological functions of membrane-bound class III peroxidases are discussed. Besides a function in membrane protection and/or membrane repair, additional functions have been supported by experimental data and phylogenetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview Feeding the Walls: How Does Nutrient Availability Regulate Cell Wall Composition?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092691
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Nutrients are critical for plants to grow and develop, and nutrient depletion severely affects crop yield. In order to optimize nutrient acquisition, plants adapt their growth and root architecture. Changes in growth are determined by modifications in the cell walls surrounding every plant
[...] Read more.
Nutrients are critical for plants to grow and develop, and nutrient depletion severely affects crop yield. In order to optimize nutrient acquisition, plants adapt their growth and root architecture. Changes in growth are determined by modifications in the cell walls surrounding every plant cell. The plant cell wall, which is largely composed of complex polysaccharides, is essential for plants to attain their shape and to protect cells against the environment. Within the cell wall, cellulose strands form microfibrils that act as a framework for other wall components, including hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and, in some cases, callose, lignin, and suberin. Cell wall composition varies, depending on cell and tissue type. It is governed by synthesis, deposition and remodeling of wall components, and determines the physical and structural properties of the cell wall. How nutrient status affects cell wall synthesis and organization, and thus plant growth and morphology, remains poorly understood. In this review, we aim to summarize and synthesize research on the adaptation of root cell walls in response to nutrient availability and the potential role of cell walls in nutrient sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview Fascinating Fasciclins: A Surprisingly Widespread Family of Proteins that Mediate Interactions between the Cell Exterior and the Cell Surface
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061628
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Fasciclin 1 (FAS1) domain is an ancient structural motif in extracellular proteins present in all kingdoms of life and particularly abundant in plants. The FAS1 domain accommodates multiple interaction surfaces, enabling it to bind different ligands. The frequently observed tandem FAS1 arrangement
[...] Read more.
The Fasciclin 1 (FAS1) domain is an ancient structural motif in extracellular proteins present in all kingdoms of life and particularly abundant in plants. The FAS1 domain accommodates multiple interaction surfaces, enabling it to bind different ligands. The frequently observed tandem FAS1 arrangement might both positively and negatively regulate ligand binding. Additional protein domains and post-translational modifications are partially conserved between different evolutionary clades. Human FAS1 family members are associated with multiple aspects of health and disease. At the cellular level, mammalian FAS1 proteins are implicated in extracellular matrix structure, cell to extracellular matrix and cell to cell adhesion, paracrine signaling, intracellular trafficking and endocytosis. Mammalian FAS1 proteins bind to the integrin family of receptors and to protein and carbohydrate components of the extracellular matrix. FAS1 protein encoding plant genes exert effects on cellulosic and non-cellulosic cell wall structure and cellular signaling but to establish the modes of action for any plant FAS1 protein still requires biochemical experimentation. In fungi, eubacteria and archaea, the differential presence of FAS1 proteins in closely related organisms and isolated biochemical data suggest functions in pathogenicity and symbiosis. The inter-kingdom comparison of FAS1 proteins suggests that molecular mechanisms mediating interactions between cells and their environment may have evolved at the earliest known stages of evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Other

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Open AccessConcept Paper The Role of the Primary Cell Wall in Plant Morphogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092674
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
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Abstract
Morphogenesis remains a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. It remains a formidable problem viewed from many different perspectives of morphology, genetics, and computational modelling. We propose a biochemical reductionist approach that shows how both internal and external physical forces contribute
[...] Read more.
Morphogenesis remains a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. It remains a formidable problem viewed from many different perspectives of morphology, genetics, and computational modelling. We propose a biochemical reductionist approach that shows how both internal and external physical forces contribute to plant morphogenesis via mechanical stress–strain transduction from the primary cell wall tethered to the plasma membrane by a specific arabinogalactan protein (AGP). The resulting stress vector, with direction defined by Hechtian adhesion sites, has a magnitude of a few piconewtons amplified by a hypothetical Hechtian growth oscillator. This paradigm shift involves stress-activated plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and auxin-activated H+-ATPase. The proton pump dissociates periplasmic AGP-glycomodules that bind Ca2+. Thus, as the immediate source of cytosolic Ca2+, an AGP-Ca2+ capacitor directs the vectorial exocytosis of cell wall precursors and auxin efflux (PIN) proteins. In toto, these components comprise the Hechtian oscillator and also the gravisensor. Thus, interdependent auxin and Ca2+ morphogen gradients account for the predominance of AGPs. The size and location of a cell surface AGP-Ca2+ capacitor is essential to differentiation and explains AGP correlation with all stages of morphogenetic patterning from embryogenesis to root and shoot. Finally, the evolutionary origins of the Hechtian oscillator in the unicellular Chlorophycean algae reflect the ubiquitous role of chemiosmotic proton pumps that preceded DNA at the dawn of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Membrane-bound class III peroxidases: Overlooked enzymes with exciting functions
Authors: Sabine Lüthje and Teresa Martinez-Cortes
Abstract: Class III peroxidases are heme-containing peroxidases of the secretory pathway with a high redundance and versatile functions. In the past this peroxidase super family was belived as soluble proteins. Meanwhile class III peroxidases have been identified in tonoplast and plasma membranes of different plant tissues and species. In silico analysis revealed a membrane localization for about half of the class III peroxidases that are encoded by the maize (Zea mays) genome. Similar results has been found for other species like thale-cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). Although a function in membrane protection and/or membrane repair appear obvious, other functions have been suggested by in silico analysis and experimental data for some of these proteins.

Title: Plant cell wall proteomics: a focus on monocot species, Brachypodium distachyon, sugarcane and rice
Authors: Maria J. Calderan-Rodrigues1*, Juliana G. Fonseca1, Fabricio E. de Moraes1, Lais V. Setem1, Amanda C. Begossi1, Carlos A. Labate1, Elisabeth Jamet2.
*Address all correspondence to: phdjuliana@gmail.com
1Department of Genetics, Max Feffer Laboratory of Plant Genetics, Luiz de Queiroz, College of Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Padua Dias 11, CP 83, 13400-970, Piracicaba, Brazil.
2 Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Vegetales, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 24 chemin de Borde Rouge, Auzeville, BP42617, 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France
E-mail addresses: phdjuliana@gmail.com, j.g.fonseca@usp.br; fabricioedgar.m@gmail.com; lala_arnz@hotmail.com; amanda.lpp@hotmail.com; calabate@usp.br; jamet@lrsv.ups乚tlse.fr.
Abstract: Plant cell walls mostly comprise polysaccharides and proteins. The composition of monocots primary cell walls differ from that of dicots walls with respect to the type of hemicelluloses, the reduction of pectin abundance and the presence of aromatic molecules. Besides, cell wall proteins (CWPs) are also different among plant species. In addition, their distribution in functional classes varies according to cell types, organs developmental stages and/or environmental conditions. In this review, we go deeper into the findings of cell wall proteomics in monocot species and make a comparative analysis of the CWPs identified considering their predicted functions, the organs analyzed, the plant developmental stage and their possible use as targets for biofuel production. Arabidopsis thaliana CWPs were settled as a reference to allow comparisons among different monocots, i.e. Brachypodium distachyon, sugarcane and rice. Altogether, 1169 CWPs have been acknowledged, and specificities and similarities are discussed. In particular, a search for A. thaliana homologs of CWPs identified so far in monocots allows defining monocot specificities. Finally, the analysis of monocot CWPs appears as a powerful tool to identify candidate proteins of interest for tailoring cell walls to increase biomass yield of transformation for second generation fuels production.
Keywords: Brachypodium distachyon, plant cell wall, proteome, monocot, Oryza sativa, Saccharum spp.

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