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Special Issue "Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Elisabeth Jamet
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 24 Chemin de Borderouge-Auzeville, BP42617, Castanet-Tolosan 31326, France
Interests: plant; cell wall biology; development; evolution; proteomics; post-translational modification; cell wall architecture; protein/protein; protein/polysaccharide interaction
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Christophe Dunand
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Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, UPS, UMR 5546, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan, France
Interests: plant; developement; evolution; terestrialisation; cell wall; peroxidase; reactive oxygen species
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, “Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development”, will cover a selection of recent research topics in the field of cell wall biology focused on cell wall proteins and their roles during development. Experimental papers, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries will be welcome.

Plant cell walls surround cells and provide both an external protection and a mean for cell-to-cell communication. They mainly comprise polymers like polysaccharides and lignin in lignified secondary walls and a minute amount of cell wall proteins (CWPs). CWPs are major players of cell wall remodeling and signaling. Cell wall proteomics, as well as numerous genetic or biochemical studies, have revealed the high diversity of CWPs, among which proteins acting on polysaccharides, proteases, oxido-reductases, lipid-related proteins and structural proteins. CWPs may have enzymatic activities such as cutting/ligating polymers or processing/degrading proteins. They may also contribute to the supra-molecular assembly of cell walls via protein/protein or protein/polysaccharide interactions. Thanks to these biochemical activities, they contribute to the dynamincs and the functionality of cell walls. Even though many researches have already been pursued to shed light on the many roles of CWPs, many functions still remain to be discovered especially for proteins identified in cell wall proteomes with yet unknown function.

Dr. Elisabeth Jamet
Prof. Christophe Dunand
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cell wall
  • development
  • peptide
  • plant
  • polysaccharide remodeling
  • protein
  • signaling

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082731 - 15 Apr 2020
Abstract
Plant cell walls surround cells and provide both external protection and a means of cell-to-cell communication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Cell Wall PAC (Proline-Rich, Arabinogalactan Proteins, Conserved Cysteines) Domain-Proteins Are Conserved in the Green Lineage
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072488 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Plant cell wall proteins play major roles during plant development and in response to environmental cues. A bioinformatic search for functional domains has allowed identifying the PAC domain (Proline-rich, Arabinogalactan proteins, conserved Cysteines) in several proteins (PDPs) identified in cell wall proteomes. This [...] Read more.
Plant cell wall proteins play major roles during plant development and in response to environmental cues. A bioinformatic search for functional domains has allowed identifying the PAC domain (Proline-rich, Arabinogalactan proteins, conserved Cysteines) in several proteins (PDPs) identified in cell wall proteomes. This domain is assumed to interact with pectic polysaccharides and O-glycans and to contribute to non-covalent molecular scaffolds facilitating the remodeling of polysaccharidic networks during rapid cell expansion. In this work, the characteristics of the PAC domain are described in detail, including six conserved Cys residues, their spacing, and the predicted secondary structures. Modeling has been performed based on the crystal structure of a Plantago lanceolata PAC domain. The presence of β-sheets is assumed to ensure the correct folding of the PAC domain as a β-barrel with loop regions. We show that PDPs are present in early divergent organisms from the green lineage and in all land plants. PAC domains are associated with other types of domains: Histidine-rich, extensin, Proline-rich, or yet uncharacterized. The earliest divergent organisms having PDPs are Bryophytes. Like the complexity of the cell walls, the number and complexity of PDPs steadily increase during the evolution of the green lineage. The association of PAC domains with other domains suggests a neo-functionalization and different types of interactions with cell wall polymers Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Cell Wall Proteome of Wheat Grain Endosperm and Outer Layers at Two Key Stages of Early Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010239 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 1Correction
Abstract
The cell wall is an important compartment in grain cells that fulfills both structural and functional roles. It has a dynamic structure that is constantly modified during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Non-structural cell wall proteins (CWPs) are key [...] Read more.
The cell wall is an important compartment in grain cells that fulfills both structural and functional roles. It has a dynamic structure that is constantly modified during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Non-structural cell wall proteins (CWPs) are key players in the remodeling of the cell wall during events that punctuate the plant life. Here, a subcellular and quantitative proteomic approach was carried out to identify CWPs possibly involved in changes in cell wall metabolism at two key stages of wheat grain development: the end of the cellularization step and the beginning of storage accumulation. Endosperm and outer layers of wheat grain were analyzed separately as they have different origins (maternal and seed) and functions in grains. Altogether, 734 proteins with predicted signal peptides were identified (CWPs). Functional annotation of CWPs pointed out a large number of proteins potentially involved in cell wall polysaccharide remodeling. In the grain outer layers, numerous proteins involved in cutin formation or lignin polymerization were found, while an unexpected abundance of proteins annotated as plant invertase/pectin methyl esterase inhibitors were identified in the endosperm. In addition, numerous CWPs were accumulating in the endosperm at the grain filling stage, thus revealing strong metabolic activities in the cell wall during endosperm cell differentiation, while protein accumulation was more intense at the earlier stage of development in outer layers. Altogether, our work gives important information on cell wall metabolism during early grain development in both parts of the grain, namely the endosperm and outer layers. The wheat cell wall proteome is the largest cell wall proteome of a monocot species found so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Arabidopsis Trichome Contains Two Plasma Membrane Domains with Different Lipid Compositions Which Attract Distinct EXO70 Subunits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153803 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Plasma membrane (PM) lipid composition and domain organization are modulated by polarized exocytosis. Conversely, targeting of secretory vesicles at specific domains in the PM is carried out by exocyst complexes, which contain EXO70 subunits that play a significant role in the final recognition [...] Read more.
Plasma membrane (PM) lipid composition and domain organization are modulated by polarized exocytosis. Conversely, targeting of secretory vesicles at specific domains in the PM is carried out by exocyst complexes, which contain EXO70 subunits that play a significant role in the final recognition of the target membrane. As we have shown previously, a mature Arabidopsis trichome contains a basal domain with a thin cell wall and an apical domain with a thick secondary cell wall, which is developed in an EXO70H4-dependent manner. These domains are separated by a cell wall structure named the Ortmannian ring. Using phospholipid markers, we demonstrate that there are two distinct PM domains corresponding to these cell wall domains. The apical domain is enriched in phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylserine, with an undetectable amount of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), whereas the basal domain is PIP2-rich. While the apical domain recruits EXO70H4, the basal domain recruits EXO70A1, which corresponds to the lipid-binding capacities of these two paralogs. Loss of EXO70H4 results in a loss of the Ortmannian ring border and decreased apical PA accumulation, which causes the PA and PIP2 domains to merge together. Using transmission electron microscopy, we describe these accumulations as a unique anatomical feature of the apical cell wall—radially distributed rod-shaped membranous pockets, where both EXO70H4 and lipid markers are immobilized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins as Markers of Temperature Stress in the Leaves of Brachypodium distachyon
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102571 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Plants frequently encounter diverse abiotic stresses, one of which is environmental thermal stress. To cope with these stresses, plants have developed a range of mechanisms, including altering the cell wall architecture, which is facilitated by the arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) and extensins (EXT). In [...] Read more.
Plants frequently encounter diverse abiotic stresses, one of which is environmental thermal stress. To cope with these stresses, plants have developed a range of mechanisms, including altering the cell wall architecture, which is facilitated by the arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) and extensins (EXT). In order to characterise the localisation of the epitopes of the AGP and EXT, which are induced by the stress connected with a low (4 °C) or a high (40 °C) temperature, in the leaves of Brachypodium distachyon, we performed immunohistochemical analyses using the antibodies that bind to selected AGP (JIM8, JIM13, JIM16, LM2 and MAC207), pectin/AGP (LM6) as well as EXT (JIM11, JIM12 and JIM20). The analyses of the epitopes of the AGP indicated their presence in the phloem and in the inner bundle sheath (JIM8, JIM13, JIM16 and LM2). The JIM16 epitope was less abundant in the leaves from the low or high temperature compared to the control leaves. The LM2 epitope was more abundant in the leaves that had been subjected to the high temperatures. In the case of JIM13 and MAC207, no changes were observed at the different temperatures. The epitopes of the EXT were primarily observed in the mesophyll and xylem cells of the major vascular bundle (JIM11, JIM12 and JIM20) and no correlation was observed between the presence of the epitopes and the temperature stress. We also analysed changes in the level of transcript accumulation of some of the genes encoding EXT, EXT-like receptor kinases and AGP in the response to the temperature stress. In both cases, although we observed the upregulation of the genes encoding AGP in stressed plants, the changes were more pronounced at the high temperature. Similar changes were observed in the expression profiles of the EXT and EXT-like receptor kinase genes. Our findings may be relevant for genetic engineering of plants with increased resistance to the temperature stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution Analysis of the Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan Proteins in Plants Shows Variable Fasciclin-AGP Domain Constitutions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081945 - 20 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) play important roles in plant development and adaptation to the environment. FLAs contain both fasciclin domains and arabinogalactan protein (AGP) regions, which have been identified in several plants. The evolutionary history of this gene family in plants is [...] Read more.
The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) play important roles in plant development and adaptation to the environment. FLAs contain both fasciclin domains and arabinogalactan protein (AGP) regions, which have been identified in several plants. The evolutionary history of this gene family in plants is still undiscovered. In this study, we identified the FLA gene family in 13 plant species covering major lineages of plants using bioinformatics methods. A total of 246 FLA genes are identified with gene copy numbers ranging from one (Chondrus crispus) to 49 (Populus trichocarpa). These FLAs are classified into seven groups, mainly based on the phylogenetic analysis of plant FLAs. All FLAs in land plants contain one or two fasciclin domains, while in algae, several FLAs contain four or six fasciclin domains. It has been proposed that there was a divergence event, represented by the reduced number of fasciclin domains from algae to land plants in evolutionary history. Furthermore, introns in FLA genes are lost during plant evolution, especially from green algae to land plants. Moreover, it is found that gene duplication events, including segmental and tandem duplications are essential for the expansion of FLA gene families. The duplicated gene pairs in FLA gene family mainly evolve under purifying selection. Our findings give insight into the origin and expansion of the FLA gene family and help us understand their functions during the process of evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of the XTH Gene Family: New Insight to the Roles in Soybean Flooding Tolerance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092705 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) are a class of enzymes involved in the construction and remodeling of cellulose/xyloglucan crosslinks and play an important role in regulating cell wall extensibility. However, little is known about this class of enzymes in soybean. Here, 61 soybean XTH genes [...] Read more.
Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) are a class of enzymes involved in the construction and remodeling of cellulose/xyloglucan crosslinks and play an important role in regulating cell wall extensibility. However, little is known about this class of enzymes in soybean. Here, 61 soybean XTH genes (GmXTHs) were identified and classified into three subgroups through comparative phylogenetic analysis. Genome duplication greatly contributed to the expansion of GmXTH genes in soybean. A conserved amino acid motif responsible for the catalytic activity was identified in all GmXTHs. Further expression analysis revealed that most GmXTHs exhibited a distinct organ-specific expression pattern, and the expression level of many GmXTH genes was significantly associated with ethylene and flooding stress. To illustrate a possible role of XTH genes in regulating stress responses, the Arabidopsis AtXTH31 gene was overexpressed in soybean. The generated transgenic plants exhibited improved tolerance to flooding stress, with a higher germination rate and longer roots/hypocotyls during the seedling stage and vegetative growth stages. In summary, our combined bioinformatics and gene expression pattern analyses suggest that GmXTH genes play a role in regulating soybean stress responses. The enhanced soybean flooding tolerance resulting from the expression of an Arabidopsis XTH also supports the role of XTH genes in regulating plant flooding stress responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Insights from Comparative In Silico Analysis of Green Microalgal Cellulases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061782 - 15 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The assumption that cellulose degradation and assimilation can only be carried out by heterotrophic organisms was shattered in 2012 when it was discovered that the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr), can utilize cellulose for growth under CO2-limiting conditions. Publications of [...] Read more.
The assumption that cellulose degradation and assimilation can only be carried out by heterotrophic organisms was shattered in 2012 when it was discovered that the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr), can utilize cellulose for growth under CO2-limiting conditions. Publications of genomes/transcriptomes of the colonial microalgae, Gonium pectorale (Gp) and Volvox carteri (Vc), between 2010–2016 prompted us to look for cellulase genes in these algae and to compare them to cellulases from bacteria, fungi, lower/higher plants, and invertebrate metazoans. Interestingly, algal catalytic domains (CDs), belonging to the family GH9, clustered separately and showed the highest (33–42%) and lowest (17–36%) sequence identity with respect to cellulases from invertebrate metazoans and bacteria, respectively, whereas the identity with cellulases from plants was only 27–33%. Based on comparative multiple alignments and homology models, the domain arrangement and active-site architecture of algal cellulases are described in detail. It was found that all algal cellulases are modular, consisting of putative novel cysteine-rich carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and proline/serine-(PS) rich linkers. Two genes were found to encode a protein with a putative Ig-like domain and a cellulase with an unknown domain, respectively. A feature observed in one cellulase homolog from Gp and shared by a spinach cellulase is the existence of two CDs separated by linkers and with a C-terminal CBM. Dockerin and Fn-3-like domains, typically found in bacterial cellulases, are absent in algal enzymes. The targeted gene expression analysis shows that two Gp cellulases consisting, respectively, of a single and two CDs were upregulated upon filter paper addition to the medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Organ and Tissue-Specific Localisation of Selected Cell Wall Epitopes in the Zygotic Embryo of Brachypodium distachyon
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030725 - 03 Mar 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The plant cell wall shows a great diversity regarding its chemical composition, which may vary significantly even during different developmental stages. In this study, we analysed the distribution of several cell wall epitopes in embryos of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium). We also described the [...] Read more.
The plant cell wall shows a great diversity regarding its chemical composition, which may vary significantly even during different developmental stages. In this study, we analysed the distribution of several cell wall epitopes in embryos of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium). We also described the variations in the nucleus shape and the number of nucleoli that occurred in some embryo cells. The use of transmission electron microscopy, and histological and immunolocalisation techniques permitted the distribution of selected arabinogalactan proteins, extensins, pectins, and hemicelluloses on the embryo surface, internal cell compartments, and in the context of the cell wall ultrastructure to be demonstrated. We revealed that the majority of arabinogalactan proteins and extensins were distributed on the cell surface and that pectins were the main component of the seed coat and other parts, such as the mesocotyl cell walls and the radicula. Hemicelluloses were localised in the cell wall and outside of the radicula protodermis, respectively. The specific arrangement of those components may indicate their significance during embryo development and seed germination, thus suggesting the importance of their protective functions. Despite the differences in the cell wall composition, we found that some of the antibodies can be used as markers to identify specific cells and the parts of the developing Brachypodium embryo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Phyllotaxis Turns Over a New Leaf—A New Hypothesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031145 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Phyllotaxis describes the periodic arrangement of plant organs most conspicuously floral. Oscillators generally underlie periodic phenomena. A hypothetical algorithm generates phyllotaxis regulated by the Hechtian growth oscillator of the stem apical meristem (SAM) protoderm. The oscillator integrates biochemical and mechanical force that regulate [...] Read more.
Phyllotaxis describes the periodic arrangement of plant organs most conspicuously floral. Oscillators generally underlie periodic phenomena. A hypothetical algorithm generates phyllotaxis regulated by the Hechtian growth oscillator of the stem apical meristem (SAM) protoderm. The oscillator integrates biochemical and mechanical force that regulate morphogenetic gradients of three ionic species, auxin, protons and Ca2+. Hechtian adhesion between cell wall and plasma membrane transduces wall stress that opens Ca2+ channels and reorients auxin efflux “PIN” proteins; they control the auxin-activated proton pump that dissociates Ca2+ bound by periplasmic arabinogalactan proteins (AGP-Ca2+) hence the source of cytosolic Ca2+ waves that activate exocytosis of wall precursors, AGPs and PIN proteins essential for morphogenesis. This novel approach identifies the critical determinants of an algorithm that generates phyllotaxis spiral and Fibonaccian symmetry: these determinants in order of their relative contribution are: (1) size of the apical meristem and the AGP-Ca2+ capacitor; (2) proton pump activity; (3) auxin efflux proteins; (4) Ca2+ channel activity; (5) Hechtian adhesion that mediates the cell wall stress vector. Arguably, AGPs and the AGP-Ca2+ capacitor plays a decisive role in phyllotaxis periodicity and its evolutionary origins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview
Cell Wall Proteins Play Critical Roles in Plant Adaptation to Phosphorus Deficiency
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215259 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Phosphorus is one of the mineral nutrient elements essential for plant growth and development. Low phosphate (Pi) availability in soils adversely affects crop production. To cope with low P stress, remodeling of root morphology and architecture is generally observed in plants, which must [...] Read more.
Phosphorus is one of the mineral nutrient elements essential for plant growth and development. Low phosphate (Pi) availability in soils adversely affects crop production. To cope with low P stress, remodeling of root morphology and architecture is generally observed in plants, which must be accompanied by root cell wall modifications. It has been documented that cell wall proteins (CWPs) play critical roles in shaping cell walls, transmitting signals, and protecting cells against environmental stresses. However, understanding of the functions of CWPs involved in plant adaptation to P deficiency remains fragmentary. The aim of this review was to summarize advances in identification and functional characterization of CWPs in responses to P deficiency, and to highlight the critical roles of CWPs in mediating root growth, P reutilization, and mobilization in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
Open AccessReview
Overview of the Role of Cell Wall DUF642 Proteins in Plant Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133333 - 06 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The DUF642 protein family is found exclusively in spermatophytes and is represented by 10 genes in Arabidopsis and in most of the 24 plant species analyzed to date. Even though the primary structure of DUF642 proteins is highly conserved in different spermatophyte species, [...] Read more.
The DUF642 protein family is found exclusively in spermatophytes and is represented by 10 genes in Arabidopsis and in most of the 24 plant species analyzed to date. Even though the primary structure of DUF642 proteins is highly conserved in different spermatophyte species, studies of their expression patterns in Arabidopsis have shown that the spatial-temporal expression pattern for each gene is specific and consistent with the phenotypes of the mutant plants studied so far. Additionally, the regulation of DUF642 gene expression by hormones and environmental stimuli was specific for each gene, showing both up- and down-regulation depending of the analyzed tissue and the intensity or duration of the stimuli. These expression patterns suggest that the DUF642 genes are involved throughout the development and growth of plants. In general, changes in the expression patterns of DUF642 genes can be related to changes in pectin methyl esterase activity and/or to changes in the degree of methyl-esterified homogalacturonans during plant development in different cell types. Thus, the regulation of pectin methyl esterases mediated by DUF642 genes could contribute to the regulation of the cell wall properties during plant growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview
Plasmodesmata-Related Structural and Functional Proteins: The Long Sought-After Secrets of a Cytoplasmic Channel in Plant Cell Walls
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122946 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Plant cells are separated by cellulose cell walls that impede direct cell-to-cell contact. In order to facilitate intercellular communication, plant cells develop unique cell-wall-spanning structures termed plasmodesmata (PD). PD are membranous channels that link the cytoplasm, plasma membranes, and endoplasmic reticulum of adjacent [...] Read more.
Plant cells are separated by cellulose cell walls that impede direct cell-to-cell contact. In order to facilitate intercellular communication, plant cells develop unique cell-wall-spanning structures termed plasmodesmata (PD). PD are membranous channels that link the cytoplasm, plasma membranes, and endoplasmic reticulum of adjacent cells to provide cytoplasmic and membrane continuity for molecular trafficking. PD play important roles for the development and physiology of all plants. The structure and function of PD in the plant cell walls are highly dynamic and tightly regulated. Despite their importance, plasmodesmata are among the few plant cell organelles that remain poorly understood. The molecular properties of PD seem largely elusive or speculative. In this review, we firstly describe the general PD structure and its protein composition. We then discuss the recent progress in identification and characterization of PD-associated plant cell-wall proteins that regulate PD function, with particular emphasis on callose metabolizing and binding proteins, and protein kinases targeted to and around PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview
Plant Cell Wall Proteomics: A Focus on Monocot Species, Brachypodium distachyon, Saccharum spp. and Oryza sativa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081975 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Plant cell walls mostly comprise polysaccharides and proteins. The composition of monocots’ primary cell walls differs from that of dicots walls with respect to the type of hemicelluloses, the reduction of pectin abundance and the presence of aromatic molecules. Cell wall proteins (CWPs) [...] Read more.
Plant cell walls mostly comprise polysaccharides and proteins. The composition of monocots’ primary cell walls differs from that of dicots walls with respect to the type of hemicelluloses, the reduction of pectin abundance and the presence of aromatic molecules. Cell wall proteins (CWPs) differ among plant species, and their distribution within functional classes varies according to cell types, organs, developmental stages and/or environmental conditions. In this review, we go deeper into the findings of cell wall proteomics in monocot species and make a comparative analysis of the CWPs identified, considering their predicted functions, the organs analyzed, the plant developmental stage and their possible use as targets for biofuel production. Arabidopsis thaliana CWPs were considered as a reference to allow comparisons among different monocots, i.e., Brachypodium distachyon, Saccharum spp. and Oryza sativa. Altogether, 1159 CWPs have been acknowledged, and specificities and similarities are discussed. In particular, a search for A. thaliana homologs of CWPs identified so far in monocots allows the definition of monocot CWPs characteristics. Finally, the analysis of monocot CWPs appears to be a powerful tool for identifying candidate proteins of interest for tailoring cell walls to increase biomass yield of transformation for second-generation biofuels production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview
The Multifaceted Role of Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitors (PMEIs)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102878 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
Plant cell walls are complex and dynamic structures that play important roles in growth and development, as well as in response to stresses. Pectin is a major polysaccharide of cell walls rich in galacturonic acid (GalA). Homogalacturonan (HG) is considered the most abundant [...] Read more.
Plant cell walls are complex and dynamic structures that play important roles in growth and development, as well as in response to stresses. Pectin is a major polysaccharide of cell walls rich in galacturonic acid (GalA). Homogalacturonan (HG) is considered the most abundant pectic polymer in plant cell walls and is partially methylesterified at the C6 atom of galacturonic acid. Its degree (and pattern) of methylation (DM) has been shown to affect biomechanical properties of the cell wall by making pectin susceptible for enzymatic de-polymerization and enabling gel formation. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyze the removal of methyl-groups from the HG backbone and their activity is modulated by a family of proteinaceous inhibitors known as pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). As such, the interplay between PME and PMEI can be considered as a determinant of cell adhesion, cell wall porosity and elasticity, as well as a source of signaling molecules released upon cell wall stress. This review aims to highlight recent updates in our understanding of the PMEI gene family, their regulation and structure, interaction with PMEs, as well as their function in response to stress and during development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview
Membrane-Bound Class III Peroxidases: Unexpected Enzymes with Exciting Functions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2876; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102876 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Class III peroxidases are heme-containing proteins of the secretory pathway with a high redundance and versatile functions. Many soluble peroxidases have been characterized in great detail, whereas only a few studies exist on membrane-bound isoenzymes. Membrane localization of class III peroxidases has been [...] Read more.
Class III peroxidases are heme-containing proteins of the secretory pathway with a high redundance and versatile functions. Many soluble peroxidases have been characterized in great detail, whereas only a few studies exist on membrane-bound isoenzymes. Membrane localization of class III peroxidases has been demonstrated for tonoplast, plasma membrane and detergent resistant membrane fractions of different plant species. In silico analysis revealed transmembrane domains for about half of the class III peroxidases that are encoded by the maize (Zea mays) genome. Similar results have been found for other species like thale-cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) and rice (Oryza sativa). Besides this, soluble peroxidases interact with tonoplast and plasma membranes by protein–protein interaction. The topology, spatiotemporal organization, molecular and biological functions of membrane-bound class III peroxidases are discussed. Besides a function in membrane protection and/or membrane repair, additional functions have been supported by experimental data and phylogenetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview
Feeding the Walls: How Does Nutrient Availability Regulate Cell Wall Composition?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092691 - 10 Sep 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Nutrients are critical for plants to grow and develop, and nutrient depletion severely affects crop yield. In order to optimize nutrient acquisition, plants adapt their growth and root architecture. Changes in growth are determined by modifications in the cell walls surrounding every plant [...] Read more.
Nutrients are critical for plants to grow and develop, and nutrient depletion severely affects crop yield. In order to optimize nutrient acquisition, plants adapt their growth and root architecture. Changes in growth are determined by modifications in the cell walls surrounding every plant cell. The plant cell wall, which is largely composed of complex polysaccharides, is essential for plants to attain their shape and to protect cells against the environment. Within the cell wall, cellulose strands form microfibrils that act as a framework for other wall components, including hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and, in some cases, callose, lignin, and suberin. Cell wall composition varies, depending on cell and tissue type. It is governed by synthesis, deposition and remodeling of wall components, and determines the physical and structural properties of the cell wall. How nutrient status affects cell wall synthesis and organization, and thus plant growth and morphology, remains poorly understood. In this review, we aim to summarize and synthesize research on the adaptation of root cell walls in response to nutrient availability and the potential role of cell walls in nutrient sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessReview
Fascinating Fasciclins: A Surprisingly Widespread Family of Proteins that Mediate Interactions between the Cell Exterior and the Cell Surface
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061628 - 31 May 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
The Fasciclin 1 (FAS1) domain is an ancient structural motif in extracellular proteins present in all kingdoms of life and particularly abundant in plants. The FAS1 domain accommodates multiple interaction surfaces, enabling it to bind different ligands. The frequently observed tandem FAS1 arrangement [...] Read more.
The Fasciclin 1 (FAS1) domain is an ancient structural motif in extracellular proteins present in all kingdoms of life and particularly abundant in plants. The FAS1 domain accommodates multiple interaction surfaces, enabling it to bind different ligands. The frequently observed tandem FAS1 arrangement might both positively and negatively regulate ligand binding. Additional protein domains and post-translational modifications are partially conserved between different evolutionary clades. Human FAS1 family members are associated with multiple aspects of health and disease. At the cellular level, mammalian FAS1 proteins are implicated in extracellular matrix structure, cell to extracellular matrix and cell to cell adhesion, paracrine signaling, intracellular trafficking and endocytosis. Mammalian FAS1 proteins bind to the integrin family of receptors and to protein and carbohydrate components of the extracellular matrix. FAS1 protein encoding plant genes exert effects on cellulosic and non-cellulosic cell wall structure and cellular signaling but to establish the modes of action for any plant FAS1 protein still requires biochemical experimentation. In fungi, eubacteria and archaea, the differential presence of FAS1 proteins in closely related organisms and isolated biochemical data suggest functions in pathogenicity and symbiosis. The inter-kingdom comparison of FAS1 proteins suggests that molecular mechanisms mediating interactions between cells and their environment may have evolved at the earliest known stages of evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Cherkaoui, M., Lollier, V., Geairon, A., Bouder, A., Larré, C., Rogniaux, H., Jamet, E., Guillon, F. and Francin-Allami, M. Cell Wall Proteome of Wheat Grain Endosperm and Outer Layers at Two Key Stages of Early Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 239
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051740 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
Open AccessConcept Paper
The Role of the Primary Cell Wall in Plant Morphogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092674 - 09 Sep 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Morphogenesis remains a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. It remains a formidable problem viewed from many different perspectives of morphology, genetics, and computational modelling. We propose a biochemical reductionist approach that shows how both internal and external physical forces contribute [...] Read more.
Morphogenesis remains a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. It remains a formidable problem viewed from many different perspectives of morphology, genetics, and computational modelling. We propose a biochemical reductionist approach that shows how both internal and external physical forces contribute to plant morphogenesis via mechanical stress–strain transduction from the primary cell wall tethered to the plasma membrane by a specific arabinogalactan protein (AGP). The resulting stress vector, with direction defined by Hechtian adhesion sites, has a magnitude of a few piconewtons amplified by a hypothetical Hechtian growth oscillator. This paradigm shift involves stress-activated plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and auxin-activated H+-ATPase. The proton pump dissociates periplasmic AGP-glycomodules that bind Ca2+. Thus, as the immediate source of cytosolic Ca2+, an AGP-Ca2+ capacitor directs the vectorial exocytosis of cell wall precursors and auxin efflux (PIN) proteins. In toto, these components comprise the Hechtian oscillator and also the gravisensor. Thus, interdependent auxin and Ca2+ morphogen gradients account for the predominance of AGPs. The size and location of a cell surface AGP-Ca2+ capacitor is essential to differentiation and explains AGP correlation with all stages of morphogenetic patterning from embryogenesis to root and shoot. Finally, the evolutionary origins of the Hechtian oscillator in the unicellular Chlorophycean algae reflect the ubiquitous role of chemiosmotic proton pumps that preceded DNA at the dawn of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Wall Proteins and Development)
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