Special Issue "Adipocytes and Metabolic Health"

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Cellular Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Kai Sun
Website
Guest Editor
Center for Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases, Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine for the Prevention of Human Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Interests: adipose tissue remodeling; brown fat activation; sympathetic innervation; lipolysis; thermogenesis; energy expenditure

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past decades, emerging evidence has accumulated to support the notion that adipose tissue is not just an inert site for lipid storage. It is also an active endocrine organ, which dynamically secrets multiple adipocyte-derived factors that exert a function on the local- and whole-body metabolism. Furthermore, adipose tissue is actively involved in a complex network of endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signals, which influence other tissues and organs, including the brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, and immune system. Adipose tissue has two types—white and brown. The adipocytes in these two types exhibit different a morphology and functions. While the white adipose tissue is the major site to store the lipids and secret adipokines/hormones, the brown adipose tissue is responsible for lipid burning and thermogenesis. During the development of obesity, adipose tissue loses its proper functions. Under the dysfunctional condition, fatty acids, together with other pathological factors, may cause cell stress, local hypoxia, and inflammation, which eventually lead to systemic insulin resistance, the hallmark of type-2 diabetes.

The primary focus of the Special Issue will be focused on a new understanding of adipose tissue biology/pathology, and its central role in the interplay with other tissues and organs. As such, the research articles and/or reviews will explore the mechanisms governing adipose tissue remodelling during obesity, and a potential link between dysfunctional adipose tissue and whole-body metabolic disorders. Findings here will therefore provide novel insights into the signalling pathways that potentially serve as targets to treat obesity and the related metabolic diseases.

Dr. Kai Sun
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • obesity
  • adipose tissue remodeling
  • energy expenditure
  • lipolysis
  • lipid signaling
  • lipogenesis
  • adipogenesis
  • inflammation
  • insulin resistance

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Ecklonia stolonifera Extract Suppresses Lipid Accumulation by Promoting Lipolysis and Adipose Browning in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice
Cells 2020, 9(4), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040871 - 02 Apr 2020
Abstract
Obesity develops due to an energy imbalance and manifests as the storage of excess triglyceride (TG) in white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent studies have determined that edible natural materials can reduce lipid accumulation and promote browning in WAT. We aimed to determine whether [...] Read more.
Obesity develops due to an energy imbalance and manifests as the storage of excess triglyceride (TG) in white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent studies have determined that edible natural materials can reduce lipid accumulation and promote browning in WAT. We aimed to determine whether Ecklonia stolonifera extract (ESE) would increase the energy expenditure in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and 3T3-L1 cells by upregulating lipolysis and browning. ESE is an edible brown marine alga that belongs to the family Laminariaceae and contains dieckol, a phlorotannin. We report that ESE inhibits body mass gain by regulating the expression of proteins involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In addition, ESE activates protein kinase A (PKA) and increases the expression of lipolytic enzymes including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) and also thermogenic genes, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16), and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). These findings indicate that ESE may represent a promising natural means of preventing obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Adipose Expression of Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)-5 Associates with the Signatures of Metabolic Inflammation in Diabetic Obese Patients
Cells 2020, 9(3), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030730 - 16 Mar 2020
Abstract
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are emerging as the metabolic transcriptional regulators in obesity/type-2 diabetes (T2D). IRF5 is implicated with macrophage polarization toward the inflammatory M1-phenotype, nonetheless, changes in the adipose expression of IRF5 in T2D and relationship of these changes with other markers [...] Read more.
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are emerging as the metabolic transcriptional regulators in obesity/type-2 diabetes (T2D). IRF5 is implicated with macrophage polarization toward the inflammatory M1-phenotype, nonetheless, changes in the adipose expression of IRF5 in T2D and relationship of these changes with other markers of adipose inflammation remain unclear. Therefore, we determined the IRF5 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue samples from 46 T2D patients including 35 obese (Body Mass Index/BMI 33.83 ± 0.42 kg/m2) and 11 lean/overweight individuals (BMI 27.55 ± 0.46 kg/m2) using real-time qRT-PCR. IRF5 protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, C-reactive protein, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL/HDL), and triglycerides were measured using commercial kits. IRF5 gene expression was compared with that of signature inflammatory markers and several clinico-metabolic indicators. The data (mean ± SEM) show the enhanced adipose IRF5 gene (p = 0.03) and protein (p = 0.05) expression in obese compared to lean/overweight diabetic patients. Adipose IRF5 transcripts in diabetic obese individuals associated positively with those of TNF-α, IL-18, IL-23A, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL7, CCR1/5, CD11c, CD68, CD86, TLR4/7/10, Dectin-1, FGL-2, MyD88, NF-κB, IRF3, and AML1 (p < 0.05). In diabetic lean/overweight subjects, IRF5 expression associated with BMI, body fat %age, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-5, and IL-1RL1 expression; while in all T2D patients, IRF5 expression correlated with that of IRF4, TLR2/8, and CD163. In conclusion, upregulated adipose tissue IRF5 expression in diabetic obese patients concurs with the inflammatory signatures and it may represent a potential marker for metabolic inflammation in obesity/T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Dietary Silk Peptide on Obesity, Hyperglycemia, and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice
Cells 2020, 9(2), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020377 - 06 Feb 2020
Abstract
Obesity is associated with excess body fat accumulation that can cause hyperglycemia and reduce skeletal muscle function and strength, which characterize the development of sarcopenic obesity. In this study, we aimed to determine the mechanism whereby acid-hydrolyzed silk peptide (SP) prevents high-fat diet [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with excess body fat accumulation that can cause hyperglycemia and reduce skeletal muscle function and strength, which characterize the development of sarcopenic obesity. In this study, we aimed to determine the mechanism whereby acid-hydrolyzed silk peptide (SP) prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and whether it regulates glucose uptake and muscle differentiation using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Our findings demonstrate that SP inhibits body mass gain and the expression of adipogenic transcription factors in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). SP also had an anti-diabetic effect in VAT and skeletal muscle because it upregulated glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression. Furthermore, SP reduced ubiquitin proteasome and promoted myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD)/myogenic factor 4 (myogenin) expression, implying that it may have potential for the treatment of obesity-induced hyperglycemia and obesity-associated sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Potential Nutraceutical Candidate Lactucin Inhibits Adipogenesis through Downregulation of JAK2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway-Mediated Mitotic Clonal Expansion
Cells 2020, 9(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020331 - 31 Jan 2020
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically worldwide in the past ~50 years. Searching for safe and effective anti-obesity strategies are urgently needed. Lactucin, a plant-derived natural small molecule, is known for anti-malaria and anti-hyperalgesia. The study is to investigate whether lactucin plays [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically worldwide in the past ~50 years. Searching for safe and effective anti-obesity strategies are urgently needed. Lactucin, a plant-derived natural small molecule, is known for anti-malaria and anti-hyperalgesia. The study is to investigate whether lactucin plays a key role in adipogenesis. To this end, in vivo male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with 20 mg/kg/day of lactucin or vehicle by gavage for seven weeks. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, Lactucin-treated mice showed lower body mass and mass of adipose tissue. Consistently, in vitro 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 20 μM of lactucin. Compared to controls, lactucin-treated cells showed significantly less lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation and lower levels of lipid synthesis markers. Mechanistically, we showed the anti-adipogenic property of lactucin was largely limited to the early stage of adipogenesis. Lactucin-treated cells fail to undergo mitotic clonal expansion (MCE). Further studies demonstrate that lactucin-induced MCE arrests might result from reduced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. We then asked whether activation of JAK2/STAT3 would restore the inhibitory effect of lactucin on adipogenesis with pharmacological STAT3 activator colivelin. Our results revealed similar levels of lipid accumulation between lactucin-treated cells and controls in the presence of colivelin, indicating that inactivation of STAT3 is the limiting factor for the anti-adipogenesis of lactucin in these cells. Together, our results provide the indication that lactucin exerts an anti-adipogenesis effect, which may open new therapeutic options for obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Analysis of the Characteristics and Differences in Adult and Newborn Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT): Newborn BAT Is a More Active/Dynamic BAT
Cells 2020, 9(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9010201 - 14 Jan 2020
Abstract
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an essential role in maintaining body temperature and in treating obesity and diabetes. The adult BAT (aBAT) and neonatal BAT (neBAT) vary greatly in capacity, but the characteristics and differences between them on the molecular level, as well [...] Read more.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an essential role in maintaining body temperature and in treating obesity and diabetes. The adult BAT (aBAT) and neonatal BAT (neBAT) vary greatly in capacity, but the characteristics and differences between them on the molecular level, as well as the related features of BAT as it develops post-delivery, have not yet been fully determined. In this study, we examined the morphological features of aBAT and neBAT of mice by using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We found that neBAT contains a smaller number and size of lipid droplets, as well as more abundant mitochondria, compared with aBAT. The dynamic morphological changes revealed that the number and size of lipid droplets increase, but the number of mitochondria gradually decrease during the post-delivery development, which consisted of some differences in RNA or protein expression levels, such as gradually decreased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression levels and mitochondrial genes, such as mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). The adipocyte differentiation-related genes, such as transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β (CEBPβ), were also continuously upregulated. Additionally, the different features of aBAT and neBAT were analyzed from the global transcription (RNA-Seq) level, which included messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), circRNA, and DNA methylation, as well as proteins (proteomics). Differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis identified 383 hyper- and 503 hypo-methylated genes, as well as 1221 new circRNA in ne-BAT and 1991 new circRNA in a-BAT, with significantly higher expression of circRNA in aBAT compared with neBAT. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that mitochondrial activity, protein synthesis, and cell life activity levels were higher in neBAT, and pathways related to ribosomes, spliceosomes, and metabolism were significantly activated in neBAT compared to aBAT. Collectively, this study describes the dynamic changes occurring throughout post-delivery development from the morphological, molecular and omics perspectives. Our study provides information that may be utilized in improving BAT functional activity through gene regulation and/or epigenetic regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Carbamazepine Enhances Adipogenesis by Inhibiting Wnt/β-Catenin Expression
Cells 2019, 8(11), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8111460 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Carbamazepine is a drug that is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. The prevalence of obesity in patients treated with carbamazepine has been frequently reported. However, whether carbamazepine affects adipogenesis, one of the critical steps in the development of [...] Read more.
Carbamazepine is a drug that is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. The prevalence of obesity in patients treated with carbamazepine has been frequently reported. However, whether carbamazepine affects adipogenesis, one of the critical steps in the development of obesity, remains unclear. Here, we show that carbamazepine increased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in 3T3-L1 cells. Notably, carbamazepine inhibited the expression levels of β-catenin, a negative regulator of adipogenesis, leading to enhanced adipogenesis. Conversely, β-catenin overexpression abolished the effect of carbamazepine on adipogenic gene expression. However, depletion of β-catenin further enhanced PPARγ expression. In addition, carbamazepine reduced β-catenin expression by lowering the levels of phospho-low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (p-LRP6) and phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β) in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, carbamazepine reduced Wnt mRNA expression and decreased the promoter activities of TCF, the target of β-catenin during adipogenesis. These results suggest that carbamazepine enhances adipogenesis by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin expression, indicating its potential effects on obesity-related metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Increased Adipose Tissue Expression of Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)-5 in Obesity: Association with Metabolic Inflammation
Cells 2019, 8(11), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8111418 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-5 is known to be involved in M1 macrophage polarization, however, changes in the adipose expression of IRF5 in obesity and their relationship with the local expression of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines are unknown. Therefore, IRF5 gene expression was determined in the [...] Read more.
Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-5 is known to be involved in M1 macrophage polarization, however, changes in the adipose expression of IRF5 in obesity and their relationship with the local expression of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines are unknown. Therefore, IRF5 gene expression was determined in the subcutaneous adipose tissue samples from 53 non-diabetic individuals (6 lean, 18 overweight, and 29 obese), using real-time RT-PCR. IRF5 protein expression was also assessed using immunohistochemistry and/or confocal microscopy. Adipose gene expression of signature immune metabolic markers was also determined and compared with adipose IRF5 gene expression. Systemic levels of C-reactive protein and adiponectin were measured by ELISA. The data show that adipose IRF5 gene (P = 0.008) and protein (P = 0.004) expression was upregulated in obese compared with lean individuals. IRF5 expression changes correlated positively with body mass index (BMI; r = 0.37/P = 0.008) and body fat percentage (r = 0.51/P = 0.0004). In obese, IRF5 changes associated positively with HbA1c (r = 0.41/P = 0.02). A good agreement was found between gene and protein expression of IRF5 in obese subjects (r = 0.65/P = 0.001). IRF5 gene expression associated positively with adipose inflammatory signatures including local expression of TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL8, CCL-2/5, IL-1β, IL-18, CXCL-9/10, CCL7, CCR-1/2/5, TLR-2/7/8/9, IRF3, MyD88, IRAK-1, and inflammatory macrophage markers (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IRF5 gene expression correlated positively with CRP (r = 0.37, P = 0.03) and negatively with adiponectin levels (r = −0.43, P = 0.009). In conclusion, elevated adipose IRF5 expression in obesity concurs with the typical inflammatory signatures, locally and systemically. Hence, the IRF5 upregulation may represent a novel adipose tissue marker for metabolic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Increased Expression of Meteorin-Like Hormone in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity and Its Association with Irisin
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101283 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing pandemic associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation. Meteorin-like hormone (METRNL) is an adipomyokine that is linked to T2D. Our objective was to evaluate the changes in METRNL levels in T2D and obesity and assess the [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing pandemic associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation. Meteorin-like hormone (METRNL) is an adipomyokine that is linked to T2D. Our objective was to evaluate the changes in METRNL levels in T2D and obesity and assess the association of METRNL levels with irisin. Overall, 228 Arab individuals were enrolled. Plasma levels of METRNL and irisin were assessed using immunoassay. Plasma levels of METRNL and irisin were significantly higher in T2D patients than in non-diabetic patients (p < 0.05). When the population was stratified based on obesity, METRNL and irisin levels were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese individuals (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between METRNL and irisin (r = 0.233 and p = 0.001). Additionally, METRNL and irisin showed significant correlation with various metabolic biomarkers associated with T2D and Obesity. Our data shows elevated METRNL plasma levels in individuals with T2D, further exacerbated with obesity. Additionally, a strong positive association was observed between METRNL and irisin. Further studies are necessary to examine the role of these proteins in T2D and obesity, against their ethnic background and to understand the mechanistic significance of their possible interplay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Roles of Adiponectin Isoforms in Human Obesity with Delayed Wound Healing
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101134 - 24 Sep 2019
Abstract
Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-insulin resistance and anti-inflammatory functions. It exists in serum predominantly in three multimeric complexes: the trimer, hexamer, and high-molecular-weight forms. Although recent studies indicate that adiponectin promotes wound healing in rodents, its role in the wound healing process [...] Read more.
Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-insulin resistance and anti-inflammatory functions. It exists in serum predominantly in three multimeric complexes: the trimer, hexamer, and high-molecular-weight forms. Although recent studies indicate that adiponectin promotes wound healing in rodents, its role in the wound healing process in humans is unknown. This study investigated the expression levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue and serum of women who experienced either normal or delayed wound healing after abdominal plastic surgery. We found that obese women with delayed healing had slightly lower total adiponectin levels in their adipose tissue compared with women with normal healing rates. Among the different isoforms of adiponectin, levels of the trimer forms were significantly reduced in adipose tissue, but not the serum, of obese women with delayed healing compared to women who healed normally. This study provides clinical evidence for a potential role of low-molecular-weight oligomers of adiponectin in the wound healing process as well as implications for an autocrine and/or paracrine mechanism of adiponectin action in adipose tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Adipose Stromal Cell Expansion and Exhaustion: Mechanisms and Consequences
Cells 2020, 9(4), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040863 - 02 Apr 2020
Abstract
Adipose tissue (AT) is comprised of a diverse number of cell types, including adipocytes, stromal cells, endothelial cells, and infiltrating leukocytes. Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) are a mixed population containing adipose progenitor cells (APCs) as well as fibro-inflammatory precursors and cells supporting the [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue (AT) is comprised of a diverse number of cell types, including adipocytes, stromal cells, endothelial cells, and infiltrating leukocytes. Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) are a mixed population containing adipose progenitor cells (APCs) as well as fibro-inflammatory precursors and cells supporting the vasculature. There is growing evidence that the ability of ASCs to renew and undergo adipogenesis into new, healthy adipocytes is a hallmark of healthy fat, preventing disease-inducing adipocyte hypertrophy and the spillover of lipids into other organs, such as the liver and muscles. However, there is building evidence indicating that the ability for ASCs to self-renew is not infinite. With rates of ASC proliferation and adipogenesis tightly controlled by diet and the circadian clock, the capacity to maintain healthy AT via the generation of new, healthy adipocytes appears to be tightly regulated. Here, we review the contributions of ASCs to the maintenance of distinct adipocyte pools as well as pathogenic fibroblasts in cancer and fibrosis. We also discuss aging and diet-induced obesity as factors that might lead to ASC senescence, and the consequences for metabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessReview
Towards a Better Understanding of Beige Adipocyte Plasticity
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121552 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
Beige adipocytes are defined as Ucp1+, multilocular adipocytes within white adipose tissue (WAT) that are capable of thermogenesis, the process of heat generation. In both mouse models and humans, the increase of beige adipocyte population, also called WAT browning, is associated [...] Read more.
Beige adipocytes are defined as Ucp1+, multilocular adipocytes within white adipose tissue (WAT) that are capable of thermogenesis, the process of heat generation. In both mouse models and humans, the increase of beige adipocyte population, also called WAT browning, is associated with certain metabolic benefits, such as reduced obesity and increased insulin sensitivity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding WAT browning, with a special focus on the beige adipocyte plasticity, collectively referring to a bidirectional transition between thermogenic active and latent states in response to environmental changes. We further exploit the utility of a unique beige adipocyte ablation system to interrogate anti-obesity effect of beige adipocytes in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
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