Special Issue "Perspectives on Kaposi's Sarcoma"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Pathophysiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Jean-Philippe Spano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Service d'Oncologie Médicale, Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière, Sorbonne Université, AP-HP, Paris, France
Interests: HIV and AIDS/non-AIDS malignancies; antiretroviral therapy; cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) remains a tumor that in the majority of cases is associated with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8 or K-HSV) infection. KS can occur in immunocompetent subjects (the endemic part) and also in immunosuppressed patients (HIV—human immunodeficiency virus or post-transplant for instance).

In Patients Living With HIV (PLWHIV), the incidence has dramatically decreased since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and, consequently, thanks to the better control of HIV replication. Nevertheless, the relative risk in this population remains very high, with rates that are 60–80-fold higher compared with the general population, despite suppressed HIV viremia in patients with CD4 cells >500/mm3. Some case reports and recent series have mentioned that cutaneous and/or visceral KS could occur in PLWHIV on antiretroviral therapy, such as HAART, with suppressed HIV viremia and high CD4T cell counts without any efficiency of conventional therapies. The hope now and in the near future for both endemic KS and epidemic KS seems to be based upon new drugs, such as targeted therapies, or new immunotherapeutic agents that improve KS patients’ outcomes.

This Special Issue will focus on current data concerning the pathogenesis of KS, particularly driven by infection of endothelial cells with HHV8, and the potential impact of new therapeutic approaches beyond the conventional chemotherapy and interferon use.

Prof. Jean-Philippe Spano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Kaposi’s sarcoma
  • HHV8
  • HIV
  • new drugs
  • genomics
  • immunotherapy
  • targeted therapies

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Review
Current and Future Tools for Diagnosis of Kaposi’s Sarcoma
Cancers 2021, 13(23), 5927; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235927 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 156
Abstract
Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a rare, atypical malignancy associated with immunosuppression and can be qualified as an opportunistic tumor, which responds to immune modulation or restoration. Four different epidemiological forms have been individualized (AIDS-related, iatrogenic, endemic or classic KS). Although clinical examination is [...] Read more.
Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a rare, atypical malignancy associated with immunosuppression and can be qualified as an opportunistic tumor, which responds to immune modulation or restoration. Four different epidemiological forms have been individualized (AIDS-related, iatrogenic, endemic or classic KS). Although clinical examination is sufficient to diagnose cutaneous lesions of KS, additional explorations are necessary in order to detect lesions involving other organs. New histological markers have been developed in recent years concerning the detection of HHV-8 latent or lytic proteins in the lesions, helping to confirm the diagnosis when it is clinically doubtful. More recently, the evaluation of the local immune response has also been shown to provide some guidance in choosing the appropriate therapeutic option when necessary. We also review the indication and the results of conventional radiological imaging and of non-invasive imaging tools such as 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography, thermography and laser Doppler imaging for the diagnosis of KS and for the follow-up of therapeutic response in patients requiring systemic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Kaposi's Sarcoma)
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Review
Kaposi’s Sarcoma in Virally Suppressed People Living with HIV: An Emerging Condition
Cancers 2021, 13(22), 5702; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225702 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Since the advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral treatment (cART), and with the implementation of large HIV testing programs and universal access to cART, the burden of AIDS-related comorbidities has dramatically decreased over time. The incidence of Kaposi’s sarcoma (SK), strongly associated with [...] Read more.
Since the advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral treatment (cART), and with the implementation of large HIV testing programs and universal access to cART, the burden of AIDS-related comorbidities has dramatically decreased over time. The incidence of Kaposi’s sarcoma (SK), strongly associated with HIV replication and CD4 immunosuppression, was greatly reduced. However, KS remains the most common cancer in patients living with HIV (PLHIV). HIV physicians are increasingly faced with KS in virally suppressed HIV-patients, as reflected by increasing description of case series. Though SK seem less aggressive than those in PLHIV with uncontrolled HIV-disease, some may require systemic chemotherapy. Persistent lack of specific anti-HHV-8 cellular immunity could be involved in the physiopathology of these KS. These clinical forms are a real therapeutic challenge without possible short-term improvement of anti-HHV-8 immunity, and no active replication of HIV to control. The cumulative toxicity of chemotherapies repeatedly leads to a therapeutic dead end. The introduction or maintenance of protease inhibitors in cART does not seem to have an impact on the evolution of these KS. Research programs in this emerging condition are important to consider new strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Kaposi's Sarcoma)
Review
Epidemiology of Kaposi’s Sarcoma
Cancers 2021, 13(22), 5692; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225692 - 14 Nov 2021
Viewed by 277
Abstract
Kaposi’s sarcoma is an angioproliferative tumor caused by human herpesvirus 8 in the context of immunodeficiency, such as that induced by HIV infection or immunosuppressive therapy. Its incidence has dramatically fallen in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of potent antiretroviral [...] Read more.
Kaposi’s sarcoma is an angioproliferative tumor caused by human herpesvirus 8 in the context of immunodeficiency, such as that induced by HIV infection or immunosuppressive therapy. Its incidence has dramatically fallen in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of potent antiretroviral combinations 25 years ago due to the restoration of immunity and better control of HIV replication. However, KS is still one of the most frequently occurring cancers in PLHIV, in particular in men who have sex with men and in sub-Saharan Africa, where it is still endemic. Even in the context of restored immunity, the risk of KS is still more than 30 times higher in PLHIV than in the general population. Recent evidence indicates that early initiation of antiretroviral treatment, which is recommended by current guidelines, may reduce the risk of KS but it needs to be accompanied by early access to care. This review mainly focuses on the recent epidemiological features of KS in the context of HIV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Kaposi's Sarcoma)
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