Special Issue "Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Chyi-Chia Richard Lee

Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Building 10, Room 2S235J, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 301 480 9488
Interests: melanoma; skin cancers; dermatopathology; skin pathology; melanocytic skin lesions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In regard to the diagnoses of melanoma, possible topics of interest include: histopathology and diagnostic reporting of cutaneous melanoma, diagnostic markers (immunohistochemistry and molecular methods, such as PCR, FISH, array CGH), dermatoscopy as a clinical diagnostic tool (including digital dermatoscopy), whole body skin examination with digital photography, imaging studies, etc. In regard to the treatment of melanoma, possible topics of interest may include: surgery, the therapeutic and prognostic value of lymph node dissection, chemotherapy (interferon), radiotherapy, tumor vaccines, cellular therapy (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes), gene therapy (i.e., educating T-cells that target tumor cells), etc.

Dr. Chyi-Chia Richard Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • melanoma
  • melanocytic tumors
  • melanocytic nevi
  • dermatopathology
  • cutaneous melanoma

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Conditional Melanoma Cancer Survival in the United States
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Beyond relative survival, which indicates the likelihood that patients will not die from causes associated with their cancer, conditional relative survival probabilities provide further useful prognostic information to cancer patients, tailored to the time already survived from diagnosis. This study presents conditional relative [...] Read more.
Beyond relative survival, which indicates the likelihood that patients will not die from causes associated with their cancer, conditional relative survival probabilities provide further useful prognostic information to cancer patients, tailored to the time already survived from diagnosis. This study presents conditional relative survival for melanoma patients in the United States, diagnosed during 2000–2008 and followed through 2012. Analyses are based on 62,803 male and 50,261 female cases in population-based cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute. Five-year relative survival estimates are presented for melanoma patients who have already survived one, two, three, four, or five years after the initial diagnosis. Five- and ten-year relative survival decreases with age, stage at diagnosis, and is lower among males, Blacks, and Hispanics. Five-year conditional relative survival improves with each year already survived. The potential for improvement in five-year conditional relative survival is greatest for older age, males, Blacks, Hispanics, and in later staged cases. For local disease, five-year conditional relative survival was significantly lower in ages greater than 65 years and in Blacks. It was significantly higher in females, non-Hispanics, and married individuals. Age had a greater inverse relationship with five-year survival in later staged disease. A similar result occurred for females and married individuals. In contrast, non-Hispanics had better five-year survival if diagnosed with local or regional disease, but not distant disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Open AccessArticle Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Cytogenetic Damage in White, Hispanic and Black Skin Melanocytes: A Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1586-1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030852
Received: 6 June 2015 / Revised: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) is a leading cause of cancer deaths, with reports indicating a rising trend in the incidence rate of melanoma among Hispanics in certain U.S. states. The level of melanin pigmentation in the skin is suggested to render photoprotection from the [...] Read more.
Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) is a leading cause of cancer deaths, with reports indicating a rising trend in the incidence rate of melanoma among Hispanics in certain U.S. states. The level of melanin pigmentation in the skin is suggested to render photoprotection from the DNA-damaging effects of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR). UVR-induced DNA damage leads to cytogenetic defects visualized as the formation of micronuclei, multinuclei and polymorphic nuclei in cells, and a hallmark of cancer risk. The causative relationship between Sun exposure and CM is controversial, especially in Hispanics and needs further evaluation. This study was initiated with melanocytes from White, Hispanic and Black neonatal foreskins which were exposed to UVR to assess their susceptibility to UVR-induced modulation of cellular growth, cytogenetic damage, intracellular and released melanin. Our results show that White and Hispanic skin melanocytes with similar levels of constitutive melanin are susceptible to UVR-induced cytogenetic damage, whereas Black skin melanocytes are not. Our data suggest that the risk of developing UVR-induced CM in a skin type is correlated with the level of cutaneous pigmentation and its ethnic background. This study provides a benchmark for further investigation on the damaging effects of UVR as risk for CM in Hispanics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Open AccessArticle Treatment of Regional Metastatic Melanoma of Unknown Primary Origin
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1543-1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030849
Received: 18 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 10 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the recurrence and survival rates of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin (MUP), in order to further refine current recommendations for the surgical treatment; (2) Methods: Medical data of all MUP patients [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the recurrence and survival rates of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin (MUP), in order to further refine current recommendations for the surgical treatment; (2) Methods: Medical data of all MUP patients registered between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients were categorized in either lymph node (axilla, groin, head-and neck) or subcutaneous MUP. Axillary node MUPs were generally treated with dissections of levels I-III, inguinal node MUPs with combined superficial and deep groin dissections, and head-and-neck node MUPs with neck dissections to various extents, based on lymph drainage patterns. Subcutaneous lesions were excised with 1–2 cm margins. The primary outcome was treatment outcomes in terms of (loco)regional recurrence and survival rates; (3) Results: Lymph node MUP recurred regionally in 11% of patients, with an overall recurrence rate of 45%. In contrast, subcutaneous MUP recurred locally in 65% of patients with an overall recurrence rate of 78%. This latter group had a significantly shorter disease-free interval than patients with lymph node MUP (p = 0.000). In the entire study population, 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 56% and 47% respectively, with no differences observed between the various subgroups; (4) Conclusion: The relatively low regional recurrence rate after regional lymph node dissection (11%) supports its current status as standard surgical treatment for lymph node MUP. Subcutaneous MUP, on the contrary, appears to recur both locally (65%) and overall (78%) at a significantly higher rate, suggesting a different biological behavior. However, wide local excision remains the best available option for this specific group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Open AccessArticle Claudin11 Promoter Hypermethylation Is Frequent in Malignant Melanoma of the Skin, but Uncommon in Nevus Cell Nevi
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1233-1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030834
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epigenetic inactivation of tumor-related genes is an important characteristic in the pathology of human cancers, including melanomagenesis. We analyzed the epigenetic inactivation of Claudin 11 (CLDN11) in malignant melanoma (MM) of the skin, including six melanoma cell lines, 39 primary melanoma, 41 metastases [...] Read more.
Epigenetic inactivation of tumor-related genes is an important characteristic in the pathology of human cancers, including melanomagenesis. We analyzed the epigenetic inactivation of Claudin 11 (CLDN11) in malignant melanoma (MM) of the skin, including six melanoma cell lines, 39 primary melanoma, 41 metastases of MM and 52 nevus cell nevi (NCN). CLDN11 promoter hypermethylation was found in 19 out of 39 (49%) of the primary MM and in 21 out of 41 (51%) of the MM metastases, but only in eight out of 52 (15%) of NCN (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Moreover, a significant increase in the methylation level of CLDN11 from primary melanomas to MM metastases was revealed (p = 0.003). Methylation of CLDN11 was significantly more frequent in skin metastases (79%) compared to brain metastases (31%; p = 0.007). CLDN11 methylation was also found in five out of six MM cell lines (83%) and its promoter hypermethylation correlated with a reduced expression. Treatment of MM cell lines with a DNA methylation inhibitor reactivated CLDN11 transcription by its promoter demethylation. In summary, CLDN11 proved to be an epigenetically inactivated tumor related gene in melanomagenesis, and analysis of CLDN11 methylation level represents a potential tool for assisting in the discrimination between malignant melanoma and nevus cell nevi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Open AccessArticle Oncogenic BRAF(V600E) Induces Clastogenesis and UVB Hypersensitivity
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 1072-1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020825
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The oncogenic BRAF(V600E) mutation is common in melanomas as well as moles. The roles that this mutation plays in the early events in the development of melanoma are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that expression of BRAF(V600E) is not only clastogenic, but synergizes [...] Read more.
The oncogenic BRAF(V600E) mutation is common in melanomas as well as moles. The roles that this mutation plays in the early events in the development of melanoma are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that expression of BRAF(V600E) is not only clastogenic, but synergizes for clastogenesis caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the 300 to 320 nM (UVB) range. Expression of BRAF(V600E) was associated with induction of Chk1 pS280 and a reduction in chromatin remodeling factors BRG1 and BAF180. These alterations in the Chk1 signaling pathway and SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling pathway may contribute to the clastogenesis and UVB sensitivity. These results emphasize the importance of preventing sunburns in children with developing moles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Open AccessArticle A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 670-678; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020670
Received: 5 February 2015 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be [...] Read more.
Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively). Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively). There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002); however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]). Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Melanoma and the Unfolded Protein Response
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 27 February 2016
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The UPR (unfolded protein response) has been identified as a key factor in the progression and metastasis of cancers, notably melanoma. Several mediators of the UPR are upregulated in cancers, e.g., high levels of GRP78 (glucose-regulator protein 78 kDa) correlate with progression and [...] Read more.
The UPR (unfolded protein response) has been identified as a key factor in the progression and metastasis of cancers, notably melanoma. Several mediators of the UPR are upregulated in cancers, e.g., high levels of GRP78 (glucose-regulator protein 78 kDa) correlate with progression and poor outcome in melanoma patients. The proliferative burden of cancer induces stress and activates several cellular stress responses. The UPR is a tightly orchestrated stress response that is activated upon the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The UPR is designed to mediate two conflicting outcomtes, recovery and apoptosis. As a result, the UPR initiates a widespread signaling cascade to return the cell to homeostasis and failing to achieve cellular recovery, initiates UPR-induced apoptosis. There is evidence that ER stress and subsequently the UPR promote tumourigenesis and metastasis. The complete role of the UPR has yet to be defined. Understanding how the UPR allows for adaption to stress and thereby assists in cancer progression is important in defining an archetype of melanoma pathology. In addition, elucidation of the mechanisms of the UPR may lead to development of effective treatments of metastatic melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Open AccessReview Updates in Therapy for Advanced Melanoma
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, and is correlated with a large proportion of skin cancer-related deaths. Therapy for cutaneous melanoma has advanced greatly through careful identification of therapeutic targets and the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. [...] Read more.
Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, and is correlated with a large proportion of skin cancer-related deaths. Therapy for cutaneous melanoma has advanced greatly through careful identification of therapeutic targets and the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. The identification of BRAF as well as other driver mutations, have allowed for a specialized approach to treatment. In addition, immune checkpoint inhibition has dramatically changed the treatment landscape over the past 5–10 years. The successful targeting of CTLA-4, as well as PD-1/PD-L1, has been translated into meaningful clinical benefit for patients, with multiple other potential agents in development. Systemic therapy for cutaneous melanoma is becoming more nuanced and often takes a multifaceted strategy. This review aims to discuss the benefits and limitations of current therapies in systemic melanoma treatment as well as areas of future development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Open AccessReview Histone Modifications, Modifiers and Readers in Melanoma Resistance to Targeted and Immune Therapy
Cancers 2015, 7(4), 1959-1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7040870
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The treatment of melanoma has been revolutionized by new therapies targeting MAPK signaling or the immune system. Unfortunately these therapies are hindered by either primary resistance or the development of acquired resistance. Resistance mechanisms involving somatic mutations in genes associated with resistance have [...] Read more.
The treatment of melanoma has been revolutionized by new therapies targeting MAPK signaling or the immune system. Unfortunately these therapies are hindered by either primary resistance or the development of acquired resistance. Resistance mechanisms involving somatic mutations in genes associated with resistance have been identified in some cases of melanoma, however, the cause of resistance remains largely unexplained in other cases. The importance of epigenetic factors targeting histones and histone modifiers in driving the behavior of melanoma is only starting to be unraveled and provides significant opportunity to combat the problems of therapy resistance. There is also an increasing ability to target these epigenetic changes with new drugs that inhibit these modifications to either prevent or overcome resistance to both MAPK inhibitors and immunotherapy. This review focuses on changes in histones, histone reader proteins and histone positioning, which can mediate resistance to new therapeutics and that can be targeted for future therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Open AccessReview Therapy for BRAFi-Resistant Melanomas: Is WNT5A the Answer?
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1900-1924; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030868
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, scientists have advocated the use of targeted therapies in the form of drugs that modulate genes and proteins that are directly associated with cancer progression and metastasis. Malignant melanoma is a dreadful cancer type that has been associated with the [...] Read more.
In recent years, scientists have advocated the use of targeted therapies in the form of drugs that modulate genes and proteins that are directly associated with cancer progression and metastasis. Malignant melanoma is a dreadful cancer type that has been associated with the rapid dissemination of primary tumors to multiple sites, including bone, brain, liver and lungs. The discovery that approximately 40%–50% of malignant melanomas contain a mutation in BRAF at codon 600 gave scientists a new approach to tackle this disease. However, clinical studies on patients have shown that although BRAFi (BRAF inhibitors) trigger early anti-tumor responses, the majority of patients later develop resistance to the therapy. Recent studies have shown that WNT5A plays a key role in enhancing the resistance of melanoma cells to BRAFi. The focus of the current review will be on melanoma development, signaling pathways important to acquired resistance to BRAFi, and why WNT5A inhibitors are attractive candidates to be included in combinatorial therapies for melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Open AccessReview Vitamins and Melanoma
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1371-1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030841
Received: 7 June 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus [...] Read more.
A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamins in chemoprevention and therapy of melanoma could be encouraged if supported by pre-clinical and clinical evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview The Role of Regional Therapies for in-Transit Melanoma in the Era of Improved Systemic Options
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1154-1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030830
Received: 16 May 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 June 2015 / Published: 1 July 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The incidence of melanoma has been increasing at a rapid rate, with 4%–11% of all melanoma recurrences presenting as in-transit disease. Treatments for in-transit melanoma of the extremity are varied and include surgical excision, lesional injection, regional techniques and systemic therapies. Excision to [...] Read more.
The incidence of melanoma has been increasing at a rapid rate, with 4%–11% of all melanoma recurrences presenting as in-transit disease. Treatments for in-transit melanoma of the extremity are varied and include surgical excision, lesional injection, regional techniques and systemic therapies. Excision to clear margins is preferred; however, in cases of widespread disease, this may not be practical. Historically, intralesional therapies were generally not curative and were often used for palliation or as adjuncts to other therapies, but recent advances in oncolytic viruses may change this paradigm. Radiation as a regional therapy can be quite locally toxic and is typically relegated to disease control and symptom relief in patients with limited treatment options. Regional therapies such as isolated limb perfusion and isolated limb infusion are older therapies, but offer the ability to treat bulky disease for curative intent with a high response rate. These techniques have their associated toxicities and can be technically challenging. Historically, systemic therapy with chemotherapies and biochemotherapies were relatively ineffective and highly toxic. With the advent of novel immunotherapeutic and targeted small molecule agents for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, the armamentarium against in-transit disease has expanded. Given the multitude of options, many different combinations and sequences of therapies can be offered to patients with in-transit extremity melanoma in the contemporary era. Reported response and survival rates of the varied treatments may offer valuable information regarding treatment decisions for patients with in-transit melanoma and provide rationale for these decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 1005-1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020821
Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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