Special Issue "Antioxidants in Cancer"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alba Minelli

Biosciences Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, P.le Gambuli 06123, Perugia, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: prostate cancer; oxidative stress; inflammation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cellular redox homeostasis disorders are among the major players of neoplastic transformation and cancer progression. Thus, redox-active therapeutics can be used either for chemoprevention or for cancer therapy. Indeed, oxidative stress can damage the cells and induce DNA mutations responsible, among other causes, for neoplastic transformation. Hence, antioxidants can be used as chemopreventive drugs. On the other hand, compared to normal cells, cancer cells usually exhibit high basal levels of ROS, which are connected with a concomitant up regulation of antioxidant defense systems, which favor malignancy. Moreover, compared to normal cells, cancer cells have a lower tolerance to increased levels of ROS, thereby providing a plausible rationale for pro-oxidant interventions. This is a complicated topic, which can be investigated from a number of perspectives. Our final goal is the compilation of a Special Issue providing an integrated understanding of the rationale for the use of redox-active compounds as “cancer bullets” in the attempt to provide the professionals with effective concepts in the battle against cancer.

Thank you for your collaboration.

Prof. Dr. Alba Minelli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • prooxidant molecules
  • antioxidant compounds
  • antioxidant defense
  • neoplastic transformation
  • cancer progression
  • metastasis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents [...] Read more.
Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) Fruit Extract Exhibits Anti-Cancer Activity against Early Stage Human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and as such, consumption of these foods can be encouraged to combat cancer. We and others have previously characterized the anti-colon cancer properties of dietary anthocyanins from different sources. Eugenia jambolana (Java plum) is a tropical medicinal fruit rich in anthocyanins, however, its anti-colon cancer properties are not well characterized. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that colon cancer stem cells (colon CSCs) promote resistance to chemotherapy, relapse of tumors and contribute to poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the anthocyanin profile of Java plum using HPLC-MS; and 2) determine the anti-proliferative (cell counting and MTT) and pro-apoptotic (TUNEL and caspase 3/7 glo assay) properties of Java plum fruit extract (JPE) using HCT-116 colon cancer cell line and colon CSCs (positive for CD 44, CD 133 and ALDH1b1 markers). HPLC-MS analysis showed that JPE contains a variety of anthocyanins including glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. JPE anthocyanins suppressed (p < 0.05) proliferation in HCT-116 cells and elevated (p < 0.05) apoptosis in both HCT-116 cells and colon CSCs. JPE also suppressed the stemness in colon CSCs as evaluated using colony formation assay. These results warrant further assessment of the anti-cancer activity of JPE, and its molecular mechanisms using pre-clinical models of colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Cancer-Related Constituents of Strawberry Jam as Compared with Fresh Fruit
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 8 January 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The health awareness recently shown by consumers has led to a demand for health beneficial products. In particular, researchers are currently focusing their studies on the search for foods for cancer prevention activity. In the present work, we study comparatively the effect of [...] Read more.
The health awareness recently shown by consumers has led to a demand for health beneficial products. In particular, researchers are currently focusing their studies on the search for foods for cancer prevention activity. In the present work, we study comparatively the effect of two different processing methods on the contents of phenolic compounds (i.e., ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) with antioxidant and antitumor properties in strawberry jams. In turn, the results obtained were compared with those of unprocessed fruit. Additionally carcinogenic heat-induced compounds formed by the two jam making methods were evaluated. Decreases of total ellagic acid from 138.4 µg/g to 86.5 µg/g were measured in jam as compared with the intact fruit. Even higher losses of up to 90% of total flavonols were found in strawberry after the jam-making process. A comparison between the two processing methods proved shorter heating periods (around 60 min) even at temperatures as high as 100 °C enabled losses of antioxidant phenolics to be minimized. Carcinogenic heat-induced volatile compounds, mainly Maillard reaction products, were formed as a result of thermal treatment during jam processing. However, shorter heating periods also helped reduce the formation of these harmful compounds. These results are deeply discussed. From a practical standpoint, the processing conditions here proposed can be used by industry to obtain strawberry jam with higher content of antioxidant flavonoids and, at the same time, reduced amounts of carcinogenic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cancer)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Antioxidant Activity during Tumor Progression: A Necessity for the Survival of Cancer Cells?
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antioxidant defenses encompass a variety of distinct compounds and enzymes that are linked together through their capacity to neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the relationship between ROS and tumorigenesis is clearly complex and context dependent, a number of recent studies [...] Read more.
Antioxidant defenses encompass a variety of distinct compounds and enzymes that are linked together through their capacity to neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the relationship between ROS and tumorigenesis is clearly complex and context dependent, a number of recent studies have suggested that neutralizing ROS can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis in multiple cancer types through distinct mechanisms. These studies therefore infer that antioxidant activity may be necessary to support the viability and/or the invasive capacity of cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we discuss some of the accumulating evidence suggesting a role for antioxidant activity in facilitating tumor progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cancer)
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Open AccessReview Tomato as a Source of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Targeted to Cancer Prevention
Received: 16 May 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (2271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A diet rich in vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of many diseases related to aging and modern lifestyle. Over the past several decades, many researches have pointed out the direct relation between the intake of bioactive compounds present in tomato [...] Read more.
A diet rich in vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of many diseases related to aging and modern lifestyle. Over the past several decades, many researches have pointed out the direct relation between the intake of bioactive compounds present in tomato and a reduced risk of suffering different types of cancer. These bioactive constituents comprise phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The direct intake of these chemoprotective molecules seems to show higher efficiencies when they are ingested in its natural biological matrix than when they are ingested isolated or in dietary supplements. Consequently, there is a growing trend for improvement of the contents of these bioactive compounds in foods. The control of growing environment and processing conditions can ensure the maximum potential accumulation or moderate the loss of bioactive compounds, but the best results are obtained developing new varieties via plant breeding. The modification of single steps of metabolic pathways or their regulation via conventional breeding or genetic engineering has offered excellent results in crops such as tomato. In this review, we analyse the potential of tomato as source of the bioactive constituents with cancer-preventive properties and the result of modern breeding programs as a strategy to increase the levels of these compounds in the diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cancer)
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Open AccessReview Mitochondrial Redox Signaling and Tumor Progression
Received: 20 December 2015 / Revised: 21 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer cell can reprogram their energy production by switching mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. However, mitochondria play multiple roles in cancer cells, including redox regulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptotic signaling. Moreover, these mitochondrial roles are integrated via multiple interconnected metabolic [...] Read more.
Cancer cell can reprogram their energy production by switching mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. However, mitochondria play multiple roles in cancer cells, including redox regulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptotic signaling. Moreover, these mitochondrial roles are integrated via multiple interconnected metabolic and redox sensitive pathways. Interestingly, mitochondrial redox proteins biphasically regulate tumor progression depending on cellular ROS levels. Low level of ROS functions as signaling messengers promoting cancer cell proliferation and cancer invasion. However, anti-cancer drug-initiated stress signaling could induce excessive ROS, which is detrimental to cancer cells. Mitochondrial redox proteins could scavenger basal ROS and function as “tumor suppressors” or prevent excessive ROS to act as “tumor promoter”. Paradoxically, excessive ROS often also induce DNA mutations and/or promotes tumor metastasis at various stages of cancer progression. Targeting redox-sensitive pathways and transcriptional factors in the appropriate context offers great promise for cancer prevention and therapy. However, the therapeutics should be cancer-type and stage-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cancer)
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