Special Issue "Insomnia: Beyond Hyperarousal"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Cognitive Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Célyne H. Bastien
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Université Laval, Quebec, Canada
Interests: insomnia; phasic events in sleep; cognitions; sleep perception
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The special issue will deal with pathophysiological signs of insomnia as well as with phenomenological ones. For example, is EEG still informative or which information shall be taken from the EEG to advance insomnia research? Does cognitive ‘hyperarousal’ really exist? Is ‘hyperarousal’ outdated? What happens to ‘hyperarousal’ after treatment? Should reduction in ‘hyperarousal’ be an endpoint to treatment efficacy? There is a paucity of data also related to those individuals at risk to not benefit from CBT-I. What should we propose?

This new issue on insomnia, as for insomnia individuals, will deal with a diversity of subjects. We welcome those researchers with exciting data on comorbid conditions to submit their paper as well as others with new approaches to the insomnia phenomenon. You exercise research in a clinical setting which provides data (EEG, PSG, MRI, etc) which might shed some light on the pathophysiology of insomnia, and your paper is welcome. You deal with cultural and/or social issues which might provide some insights on treatment efficacy and impairs daytime functioning? Again you are welcome to share your findings with us.

Another part of insomnia which remains quite unexplored, is in children part of this issue can easily be dedicated to sleep in children.

We aim to set forward new thinking about insomnia research, unchartered territories needing to be explored. Review, meta-analysis, pre-post treatment data, etc. are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Célyne H. Bastien
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • insomnia
  • EEG
  • cognitive “hyperarousal”
  • pathophysiology
  • treatment
  • children

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Hyperarousal Is Associated with Socioemotional Processing in Individuals with Insomnia Symptoms and Good Sleepers
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020112 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Despite complaints of difficulties in waking socioemotional functioning by individuals with insomnia, only a few studies have investigated emotion processing performance in this group. Additionally, the role of sleep in socioemotional processing has not been investigated extensively nor using quantitative measures of sleep. [...] Read more.
Despite complaints of difficulties in waking socioemotional functioning by individuals with insomnia, only a few studies have investigated emotion processing performance in this group. Additionally, the role of sleep in socioemotional processing has not been investigated extensively nor using quantitative measures of sleep. Individuals with insomnia symptoms (n = 14) and healthy good sleepers (n = 15) completed two nights of at-home polysomnography, followed by an afternoon of in-lab performance testing on tasks measuring the processing of emotional facial expressions. The insomnia group self-reported less total sleep time, but no other group differences in sleep or task performance were observed. Greater beta EEG power throughout the night was associated with higher intensity ratings of happy, fearful and sad faces for individuals with insomnia, yet blunted sensitivity and lower accuracy for good sleepers. Thus, the presence of hyperarousal differentially impacted socioemotional processing of faces in individuals with insomnia symptoms and good sleepers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insomnia: Beyond Hyperarousal)
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Open AccessArticle
Driving After Drinking Alcohol Associated with Insufficient Sleep and Insomnia among Student Athletes and Non-Athletes
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020046 - 20 Feb 2019
Abstract
Introduction: The proportion of university/college students (UCS) consuming alcohol is similar to the number of those reporting poor sleep, at approximately 30%, the proportion being greater in student athletes (SA). What remains to be understood is if poor sleep potentiates risky behaviors. Objective: [...] Read more.
Introduction: The proportion of university/college students (UCS) consuming alcohol is similar to the number of those reporting poor sleep, at approximately 30%, the proportion being greater in student athletes (SA). What remains to be understood is if poor sleep potentiates risky behaviors. Objective: Our aim was to examine the association among sleep difficulties, insomnia symptoms, and insufficient sleep on the risk of driving under the influence of alcohol in a sample of UCS and whether these associations were more pertinent in SA. Methods: Data from the National University/College Health Assessment was used from the years 2011–2014. Questions on number of drinks consumed and behaviors such as driving after drinking alcohol were related to answers to questions pertaining to sleep difficulties, insufficient sleep, and insomnia symptoms. Results: Mean alcohol intake was of about 3 drinks; SA consumed significantly more than student non-athletes (SNA). Binge-drinking episodes were significantly higher among SA than SNA. Difficulty sleeping was associated with an increased likelihood of driving after any drinks and after 5 or more drinks in both groups, effects being stronger among SA. Insomnia was associated with an increased likelihood of driving after any drinks and after 5 or more drinks in SA and after 5 or more drinks in SNA. These effects were stronger among athletes. Conclusion: The present study found that self-reported difficulties sleeping, insomnia symptoms, and insufficient sleep are associated with driving after drinking alcohol. This relationship applied to driving after drinking any alcohol or binge drinking and was again stronger among SA than SNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insomnia: Beyond Hyperarousal)
Open AccessArticle
Sleep Disorders Following Mild and Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9010010 - 11 Jan 2019
Abstract
(1) Background: Sleeping disorders are frequently reported following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Different forms of sleeping disorders have been reported, such as sleepiness, insomnia, changes in sleeping latency, and others. (2) Methods: A case-control study with 62 patients who were victims of mild [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Sleeping disorders are frequently reported following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Different forms of sleeping disorders have been reported, such as sleepiness, insomnia, changes in sleeping latency, and others. (2) Methods: A case-control study with 62 patients who were victims of mild or moderate TBI with previous admissions to Iraqi tertiary neurosurgical centers were enrolled as the first group, and 158 patients with no history of trauma were considered as the control. All were 18 years of age or older, and the severity of the trauma and sleep disorders was assessed. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index was used to assess sleep disorders with average need for sleep per day and average sleep latency were assessed in both groups. Chi-square and t-test calculations were used to compare different variables. (3) Results: 39 patients (24.7%) of the controlled group experienced sleeping disorders compared to TBI group with 45 patients (72.6%), P-value < 0.00001. A total of 42 patients were diagnosed on admission as having a mild degree of TBI (mean GCS 13.22 ± 1.76) and 20 patients were diagnosed with moderate TBI (mean GCS11.05 ± 1.14. 27). A total of 27 (46.28%) patients with mild severity TBI and 18 patients (90%) of moderate severity were considered to experience sleeping disorders, P-value 0.0339. Each of the mild and moderate TBI subgroups show a P-value < 0.00001 compared to the control group. Average sleep hours needed per day for TBI and the control were 8.02 ± 1.04 h and 7.26 ± 0.58 h, respectively, P-value < 0.00001. Average sleep latency for the TBI and the control groups were 13.32 ± 3.16 min and 13.93 ± 3.07 min respectively, P-value 0.065. (4) Conclusion: Sleep disturbances are more common following mild and moderate TBI three months after the injury with more hours needed for sleep per day and no significant difference in sleep latency. Sleep disturbances increase in frequency with the increase in the severity of TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insomnia: Beyond Hyperarousal)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Co-Morbid Insomnia and Sleep Apnea (COMISA): Prevalence, Consequences, Methodological Considerations, and Recent Randomized Controlled Trials
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(12), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120371 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Co-morbid insomnia and sleep apnea (COMISA) is a highly prevalent and debilitating disorder, which results in additive impairments to patients’ sleep, daytime functioning, and quality of life, and complex diagnostic and treatment decisions for clinicians. Although the presence of COMISA was first recognized [...] Read more.
Co-morbid insomnia and sleep apnea (COMISA) is a highly prevalent and debilitating disorder, which results in additive impairments to patients’ sleep, daytime functioning, and quality of life, and complex diagnostic and treatment decisions for clinicians. Although the presence of COMISA was first recognized by Christian Guilleminault and colleagues in 1973, it received very little research attention for almost three decades, until the publication of two articles in 1999 and 2001 which collectively reported a 30%–50% co-morbid prevalence rate, and re-ignited research interest in the field. Since 1999, there has been an exponential increase in research documenting the high prevalence, common characteristics, treatment complexities, and bi-directional relationships of COMISA. Recent trials indicate that co-morbid insomnia symptoms may be treated with cognitive and behavioral therapy for insomnia, to increase acceptance and use of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Hence, the treatment of COMISA appears to require nuanced diagnostic considerations, and multi-faceted treatment approaches provided by multi-disciplinary teams of psychologists and physicians. In this narrative review, we present a brief overview of the history of COMISA research, describe the importance of measuring and managing insomnia symptoms in the presence of sleep apnea, discuss important methodological and diagnostic considerations for COMISA, and review several recent randomized controlled trials investigating the combination of CBTi and CPAP therapy. We aim to provide clinicians with pragmatic suggestions and tools to identify, and manage this prevalent COMISA disorder in clinical settings, and discuss future avenues of research to progress the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insomnia: Beyond Hyperarousal)
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Open AccessReview
Update on Insomnia after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(12), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8120223 - 13 Dec 2018
Abstract
Sleep disturbance after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has received growing interest in recent years, garnering many publications. Insomnia is highly prevalent within the mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) population and is a subtle, frequently persistent complaint that often goes undiagnosed. For individuals with [...] Read more.
Sleep disturbance after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has received growing interest in recent years, garnering many publications. Insomnia is highly prevalent within the mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) population and is a subtle, frequently persistent complaint that often goes undiagnosed. For individuals with mTBI, problems with sleep can compromise the recovery process and impede social reintegration. This article updates the evidence on etiology, epidemiology, prognosis, consequences, differential diagnosis, and treatment of insomnia in the context of mild TBI. This article aims to increase awareness about insomnia following mTBI in the hopes that it may improve diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of sleeping disturbance in this population while revealing areas for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insomnia: Beyond Hyperarousal)
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Other

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Open AccessPerspective
Acute and Chronic Insomnia: What Has Time and/or Hyperarousal Got to Do with It?
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020071 - 29 Jan 2020
Abstract
Nearly one-third of the population reports new onset or acute insomnia in a given year. Similarly, it is estimated that approximately 10% of the population endorses sleep initiation and maintenance problems consistent with diagnostic criteria for chronic insomnia. For decades, acute and chronic [...] Read more.
Nearly one-third of the population reports new onset or acute insomnia in a given year. Similarly, it is estimated that approximately 10% of the population endorses sleep initiation and maintenance problems consistent with diagnostic criteria for chronic insomnia. For decades, acute and chronic insomnia have been considered variations of the same condition or disorder, only really differentiated in terms of chronicity of symptoms (days/weeks versus months). Whether or not acute and chronic insomnia are part of the same phenomena is an important question, one that has yet to be empirically evaluated. The goal of the present theoretical review was to summarize the definitions of acute and chronic insomnia and discuss the role that hyperarousal may have in explaining how the pathophysiology of acute and chronic insomnia is likely different (i.e., what biopsychological factors precipitate and/or perpetuate acute insomnia, chronic insomnia, or both?). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insomnia: Beyond Hyperarousal)
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