Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Neurorehabilitation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 24418

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Brain Rehabilitation Research Center; University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Interests: gait; stroke; coordination; balance; neurorehabilitation; motor control; BCI; brain neurofeedback; upper limb rehabilitation; FES; robotics

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Co-Guest Editor
VA NorthEast Ohio HeathCare System and School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
Interests: stroke; neurology; neurorehabilitation; sensory and motor rehabilitation; brain plasticity; brain stimulation; neuroimaging; neurophysiological imaging

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Co-Guest Editor
Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center/Cleveland FES Center, VA NorthEast Ohio HeathCare System, Cleveland, OH, USA
Interests: neurological rehabilitation; stroke; TBI; motor learning; gait training; upper limb rehabilitation; brain stimulation; plasticity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As we are all aware, there have been numerous excellent studies focusing on gait neurorehabilitation after stroke. Persistent gait deficits, however, continue to result in debilitating disability and poor quality of life after stroke. Traditionally, gait training focused on peripherally administered treatments such as limb exercise, balance training, robotics, functional electrical stimulation (FES), treadmill training, and aerobics. Brain control of gait coordination is quite complex, and new discoveries of central nervous system (CNS) function are relevant to the development of more beneficial gait training methods.

In this Special Issue, we aim to gather emerging information elucidating potential mechanisms of recovery, both peripherally and in the CNS. We will include new approaches to gait training that may describe studies targeting treatment to the peripheral neuromuscular system, to the CNS, or to both simultaneously. For this scope, we will accept pre-clinical or clinical papers (that is, basic science or clinical science), randomized controlled trials testing efficacy of new methods, cohort studies testing the feasibility of new methods, and case reports with results supporting potential emerging mechanisms of gait recovery after stroke, including brain plasticity in response to gait rehabilitation, brain plasticity after stroke, and neuromodulation for gait rehabilitation.

Dr. Janis J. Daly
Guest Editor

Dr. Svetlana Pundik
Dr. Jessica McCabe
Co-Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • gait
  • stroke
  • coordination
  • balance
  • strength
  • brain motor control
  • brain plasticity in response to rehabilitation
  • brain plasticity after stroke
  • neuromodulation for gait rehabilitation

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke
by Janis J. Daly, Svetlana Pundik and Jessica P. McCabe
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(9), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12091251 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1323
Abstract
The title of this Special Issue is: “Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)

Research

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16 pages, 1537 KiB  
Article
Thigh and Shank, Kinetic and Potential Energies during Gait Swing Phase in Healthy Adults and Stroke Survivors
by Krisanne Litinas, Kristen L. Roenigk and Janis J. Daly
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12081026 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Background/Problem. Given the treatment-resistant gait deficits after stroke and known elevated energy cost of gait after stroke, it is important to study the patterns of mechanical energies of the lower limb segments. There is a dearth of information regarding mechanical energies specifically for [...] Read more.
Background/Problem. Given the treatment-resistant gait deficits after stroke and known elevated energy cost of gait after stroke, it is important to study the patterns of mechanical energies of the lower limb segments. There is a dearth of information regarding mechanical energies specifically for the thigh and shank across the gait cycle. Therefore, the purpose of the current work was to characterize the following: (1) relative patterns of oscillation kinetic energy (KE) and potential energy (PE) within lower limb segments and across lower limb segments in healthy adults during the swing phase at chosen and slow gait speeds; (2) KE and PE swing phase patterns and values for stroke survivors versus healthy adults walking at slow speed; and (3) KE and PE patterns during the swing phase for two different compensatory gait strategies after stroke,. Methods. This was a gait characterization study, a two-group, parallel-cohort study of fourteen stroke survivors with gait deficits, walking at <0.4 m/s and eight adults with no gait deficits. For testing, the eight healthy adults walked at their chosen speed, and then at the imposed slow speed of <0.04 m/s. We used a standard motion capture system and calculation methods to acquire, calculate, and characterize oscillation patterns of KE and PE of the limb segments (thigh and shank) across the gait cycle. Results. In healthy adults, we identified key energy conservation mechanisms inherent in the interactions of KE and PE, both within the thigh and shank segments and across those limb segments, partially explaining the low cost of energy of the normal adult chosen speed gait pattern, and the underlying mechanism affording the known minimal set of activated muscles during walking, especially during the early swing phase. In contrast, KE was effectively absent for both healthy adults at imposed slow walking speed and stroke survivors at their very slow chosen speed, eliminating the normal conservation of energy between KE and PE within the thigh and across the thigh and shank. Moreover, and in comparison to healthy adult slow speed, stroke survivors exhibited greater abnormalities in mechanical energies patterns, reflected in either a compensatory stepping strategy (over-flexing the hip) or circumducting strategy (stiff-legged gait, with knee extended throughout the swing phase). Conclusions and contribution to the field. Taken together, these findings support targeted training to restore normal balance control and normal activation and de-activation coordination of hip, knee, and ankle muscles, respectively (agonist/antagonist at each joint), so as to eliminate the known post-stroke abnormal co-contractions; this motor training is critical in order to release the limb to swing normally in response to mechanical energies and afford the use of conservation of KE and PE energies within the thigh and across thigh and shank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
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18 pages, 3697 KiB  
Article
Stance Phase Gait Training Post Stroke Using Simultaneous Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motor Learning-Based Virtual Reality-Assisted Therapy: Protocol Development and Initial Testing
by Ahlam Salameh, Jessica McCabe, Margaret Skelly, Kelsey Rose Duncan, Zhengyi Chen, Curtis Tatsuoka, Marom Bikson, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Janis J. Daly and Svetlana Pundik
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060701 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3463
Abstract
Gait deficits are often persistent after stroke, and current rehabilitation methods do not restore normal gait for everyone. Targeted methods of focused gait therapy that meet the individual needs of each stroke survivor are needed. Our objective was to develop and test a [...] Read more.
Gait deficits are often persistent after stroke, and current rehabilitation methods do not restore normal gait for everyone. Targeted methods of focused gait therapy that meet the individual needs of each stroke survivor are needed. Our objective was to develop and test a combination protocol of simultaneous brain stimulation and focused stance phase training for people with chronic stroke (>6 months). We combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) with targeted stance phase therapy using Virtual Reality (VR)-assisted treadmill training and overground practice. The training was guided by motor learning principles. Five users (>6 months post-stroke with stance phase gait deficits) completed 10 treatment sessions. Each session began with 30 min of VR-assisted treadmill training designed to apply motor learning (ML)-based stance phase targeted practice. During the first 15 min of the treadmill training, bihemispheric tDCS was simultaneously delivered. Immediately after, users completed 30 min of overground (ML)-based gait training. The outcomes included the feasibility of protocol administration, gait speed, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), paretic limb stance phase control capability, and the Fugl–Meyer for lower extremity coordination (FMLE). The changes in the outcome measures (except the assessments of stance phase control capability) were calculated as the difference from baseline. Statistically and clinically significant improvements were observed after 10 treatment sessions in gait speed (0.25 ± 0.11 m/s) and FGA (4.55 ± 3.08 points). Statistically significant improvements were observed in TUG (2.36 ± 3.81 s) and FMLE (4.08 ± 1.82 points). A 10-session intervention combining tDCS and ML-based task-specific gait rehabilitation was feasible and produced clinically meaningful improvements in lower limb function in people with chronic gait deficits after stroke. Because only five users tested the new protocol, the results cannot be generalized to the whole population. As a contribution to the field, we developed and tested a protocol combining brain stimulation and ML-based stance phase training for individuals with chronic stance phase deficits after stroke. The protocol was feasible to administer; statistically and/or clinically significant improvements in gait function across an array of gait performance measures were observed with this relatively short treatment protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
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15 pages, 1985 KiB  
Article
Backward Locomotor Treadmill Training Differentially Improves Walking Performance across Stroke Walking Impairment Levels
by Oluwole O. Awosika, Dorothy Chan, Heidi J. Sucharew, Pierce Boyne, Amit Bhattacharya, Kari Dunning and Brett M. Kissela
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12020133 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3122
Abstract
Background: Post-stroke walking impairment is a significant cause of chronic disability worldwide and often leads to loss of life roles for survivors and their caregivers. Walking impairment is traditionally classified into mild (>0.8 m/s), moderate (0.41–0.8 m/s), and severe (≤0.4 m/s), and those [...] Read more.
Background: Post-stroke walking impairment is a significant cause of chronic disability worldwide and often leads to loss of life roles for survivors and their caregivers. Walking impairment is traditionally classified into mild (>0.8 m/s), moderate (0.41–0.8 m/s), and severe (≤0.4 m/s), and those categorized as “severe” are more likely to be homebound and at greater risk of falls, fractures, and rehospitalization. In addition, there are minimal effective walking rehabilitation strategies currently available for this subgroup. Backward locomotor treadmill training (BLTT) is a novel and promising training approach that has been demonstrated to be safe and feasible across all levels of impairment; however, its benefits across baseline walking impairment levels (severe (≤0.4 m/s) vs. mild–moderate (>0.4 m/s)) have not been examined. Methods: Thirty-nine adults (>6 months post-stroke) underwent 6 days of BLTT (3×/week) over 2 weeks. Baseline and PRE to POST changes were measured during treadmill training and overground walking. Results: Individuals with baseline severe walking impairment were at a more significant functional disadvantage across all spatiotemporal walking measures at baseline and demonstrated fewer overall gains post-training. However, contrary to our working hypothesis, both groups experienced comparable increases in cadence, bilateral percent single support times, and step lengths. Conclusion: BLTT is well tolerated and beneficial across all walking impairment levels, and baseline walking speed (≤0.4 m/s) should serve as a covariate in the design of future walking rehabilitation trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
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14 pages, 2135 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Changes in Temporospatial Gait Characteristics during the First Year Post-Stroke
by John W. Chow and Dobrivoje S. Stokic
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(12), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11121648 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2462 | Correction
Abstract
Given the paucity of longitudinal data in gait recovery after stroke, we compared temporospatial gait characteristics of stroke patients during subacute (<2 months post-onset, T0) and at approximately 6 and 12 months post-onset (T1 and T2, respectively) and explored the relationship between gait [...] Read more.
Given the paucity of longitudinal data in gait recovery after stroke, we compared temporospatial gait characteristics of stroke patients during subacute (<2 months post-onset, T0) and at approximately 6 and 12 months post-onset (T1 and T2, respectively) and explored the relationship between gait characteristics at T0 and the changes in gait speed from T0 to T1. Forty-six participants were assessed at T0 and a subsample of twenty-four participants were assessed at T2. Outcome measures included Fugl-Meyer lower-extremity motor score, 14 temporospatial gait parameters, and symmetry indices of 5 step parameters. Except for step width, all temporospatial parameters improved from T0 to T1 (p ≤ 0.0001). Additionally, significant improvements in symmetry were found for the initial double-support time and single-support time (p ≤ 0.0001). As a group, no significant differences were found between T1 and T2 in any of the temporospatial measures. However, the individual analysis revealed that 42% (10/24) of the subsample showed a significant increase in gait speed (Welch's t-test, p ≤ 0.002). Yet, only 5/24 (21%) of the participants improved speed from T1 to T2 according to speed-based minimum detectable change criteria. The increase in gait speed from T0 to T1 was negatively correlated with gait speed and stride length and positively correlated with the symmetry indices of stance and single-support times at T0 (p ≤ 0.002). Temporospatial gait parameters and stance time symmetry improved over the first 6 months after stroke with an apparent plateau thereafter. A greater increase in gait speed during the first 6 months post-stroke is associated with initially slower walking, shorter stride length, and more pronounced asymmetry in stance and single-support times. The improvement in lower-extremity motor function and bilateral improvements in step parameters collectively suggest that gait changes over the first 6 months after stroke are likely due to a combination of neurological recovery, compensatory strategies, and physical therapy received during that time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
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12 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Effect of 6-Week Balance Exercise by Real-Time Postural Feedback System on Walking Ability for Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
by Makoto Komiya, Noriaki Maeda, Taku Narahara, Yuta Suzuki, Kazuki Fukui, Shogo Tsutsumi, Mistuhiro Yoshimi, Naoki Ishibashi, Taizan Shirakawa and Yukio Urabe
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(11), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11111493 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2508
Abstract
Stroke causes balance dysfunction, leading to decreased physical activity and increased falls. Thus, effective balance exercises are needed to improve balance dysfunction. This single-blind, single-center randomized controlled trial evaluated the long-term and continuous effects of balance exercise using a real-time postural feedback system [...] Read more.
Stroke causes balance dysfunction, leading to decreased physical activity and increased falls. Thus, effective balance exercises are needed to improve balance dysfunction. This single-blind, single-center randomized controlled trial evaluated the long-term and continuous effects of balance exercise using a real-time postural feedback system to improve balancing ability safely. Thirty participants were randomized into intervention (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups; 11 in each group completed the final evaluation. The effect of the intervention was evaluated by muscle strength of knee extension, physical performance (short physical performance battery, the center of pressure trajectory length per second, and Timed Up and Go test [TUG]), and self-reported questionnaires (modified Gait Efficacy Scale [mGES] and the Fall Efficacy Scale) at pre (0 week), post (6-week), and at follow-up (10-week) visits. The TUG and mGES showed a significant interactive (group * time) effect (p = 0.007 and p = 0.038, respectively). The intervention group showed significant decreasing time to perform TUG from pre- to post-intervention (p = 0.015) and pre-intervention to follow-up (p = 0.016); mGES showed a significant change from pre-intervention to follow-up (p = 0.036). Thus, balance exercise using a real-time postural feedback system can confer a positive effect on the walking ability in patients with chronic stroke and increase their self-confidence in gait performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
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Other

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11 pages, 261 KiB  
Brief Report
Update on an Observational, Clinically Useful Gait Coordination Measure: The Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.)
by Janis J. Daly, Jessica P. McCabe, María Dolores Gor-García-Fogeda and Joan C. Nethery
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12081104 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
With discoveries of brain and spinal cord mechanisms that control gait, and disrupt gait coordination after disease or injury, and that respond to motor training for those with neurological disease or injury, there is greater ability to construct more efficacious gait coordination training [...] Read more.
With discoveries of brain and spinal cord mechanisms that control gait, and disrupt gait coordination after disease or injury, and that respond to motor training for those with neurological disease or injury, there is greater ability to construct more efficacious gait coordination training paradigms. Therefore, it is critical in these contemporary times, to use the most precise, sensitive, homogeneous (i.e., domain-specific), and comprehensive measures available to assess gait coordination, dyscoordination, and changes in response to treatment. Gait coordination is defined as the simultaneous performance of the spatial and temporal components of gait. While kinematic gait measures are considered the gold standard, the equipment and analysis cost and time preclude their use in most clinics. At the same time, observational gait coordination scales can be considered. Two independent groups identified the Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.) as the most suitable scale for both research and clinical practice, compared to other observational gait scales, since it has been proven to be valid, reliable, sensitive to change, homogeneous, and comprehensive. The G.A.I.T. has shown strong reliability, validity, and sensitive precision for those with stroke or multiple sclerosis (MS). The G.A.I.T. has been translated into four languages (English, Spanish, Taiwanese, and Portuguese (translation is complete, but not yet published)), and is in use in at least 10 countries. As a contribution to the field, and in view of the evidence for continued usefulness and international use for the G.A.I.T. measure, we have provided this update, as well as an open access copy of the measure for use in clinical practice and research, as well as directions for administering the G.A.I.T. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
13 pages, 312 KiB  
Opinion
Targeting CNS Neural Mechanisms of Gait in Stroke Neurorehabilitation
by Jessica P. McCabe, Svetlana Pundik and Janis J. Daly
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12081055 - 09 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2765
Abstract
The central nervous system (CNS) control of human gait is complex, including descending cortical control, affective ascending neural pathways, interhemispheric communication, whole brain networks of functional connectivity, and neural interactions between the brain and spinal cord. Many important studies were conducted in the [...] Read more.
The central nervous system (CNS) control of human gait is complex, including descending cortical control, affective ascending neural pathways, interhemispheric communication, whole brain networks of functional connectivity, and neural interactions between the brain and spinal cord. Many important studies were conducted in the past, which administered gait training using externally targeted methods such as treadmill, weight support, over-ground gait coordination training, functional electrical stimulation, bracing, and walking aids. Though the phenomenon of CNS activity-dependent plasticity has served as a basis for more recently developed gait training methods, neurorehabilitation gait training has yet to be precisely focused and quantified according to the CNS source of gait control. Therefore, we offer the following hypotheses to the field: Hypothesis 1. Gait neurorehabilitation after stroke will move forward in important ways if research studies include brain structural and functional characteristics as measures of response to treatment. Hypothesis 2. Individuals with persistent gait dyscoordination after stroke will achieve greater recovery in response to interventions that incorporate the current and emerging knowledge of CNS function by directly engaging CNS plasticity and pairing it with peripherally directed, plasticity-based motor learning interventions. These hypotheses are justified by the increase in the study of neural control of motor function, with emerging research beginning to elucidate neural factors that drive recovery. Some are developing new measures of brain function. A number of groups have developed and are sharing sophisticated, curated databases containing brain images and brain signal data, as well as other types of measures and signal processing methods for data analysis. It will be to the great advantage of stroke survivors if the results of the current state-of-the-art and emerging neural function research can be applied to the development of new gait training interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
2 pages, 176 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Daly, J.J. Comment on “Chow, J.W.; Stokic, D.S. Longitudinal Changes in Temporospatial Gait Characteristics during the First Year Post-Stroke. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 1648”
by John W. Chow and Dobrivoje S. Stokic
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12080997 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
This commentary [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
6 pages, 239 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Chow, J.W.; Stokic, D.S. Longitudinal Changes in Temporospatial Gait Characteristics during the First Year Post-Stroke. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 1648
by Janis J. Daly
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12080996 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
The field of neurorehabilitation has moved considerably beyond a narrow use of gait speed [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
17 pages, 1348 KiB  
Case Report
Necessity and Content of Swing Phase Gait Coordination Training Post Stroke; A Case Report
by Jessica P. McCabe, Kristen Roenigk and Janis J. Daly
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(11), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11111498 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2499
Abstract
Background/Problem: Standard neurorehabilitation and gait training has not proved effective in restoring normal gait coordination for many stroke survivors. Rather, persistent gait dyscoordination occurs, with associated poor function, and progressively deteriorating quality of life. One difficulty is the array of symptoms exhibited by [...] Read more.
Background/Problem: Standard neurorehabilitation and gait training has not proved effective in restoring normal gait coordination for many stroke survivors. Rather, persistent gait dyscoordination occurs, with associated poor function, and progressively deteriorating quality of life. One difficulty is the array of symptoms exhibited by stroke survivors with gait deficits. Some researchers have addressed lower limb weakness following stroke with exercises designed to strengthen muscles, with the expectation of improving gait. However, gait dyscoordination in many stroke survivors appears to result from more than straightforward muscle weakness. Purpose: Thus, the purpose of this case study is to report results of long-duration gait coordination training in an individual with initial good strength, but poor gait swing phase hip/knee and ankle coordination. Methods: Mr. X was enrolled at >6 months after a left hemisphere ischemic stroke. Gait deficits included a ‘stiff-legged gait’ characterized by the absence of hip and knee flexion during right mid-swing, despite the fact that he showed good initial strength in right lower limb quadriceps, hamstrings, and ankle dorsiflexors. Treatment was provided 4 times/week for 1.5 h, for 12 weeks. The combined treatment included the following: motor learning exercises designed for coordination training of the lower limb; functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted practice; weight-supported coordination practice; and over-ground and treadmill walking. The FES was used as an adjunct to enhance muscle response during motor learning and prior to volitional recovery of motor control. Weight-supported treadmill training was administered to titrate weight and pressure applied at the joints and to the plantar foot surface during stance phase and pre-swing phase of the involved limb. Later in the protocol, treadmill training was administered to improve speed of movement during the gait cycle. Response to treatment was assessed through an array of impairment, functional mobility, and life role participation measures. Results: At post-treatment, Mr. X exhibited some recovery of hip, knee, and ankle coordination during swing phase according to kinematic measures, and the stiff-legged gait was resolved. Muscle strength measures remained essentially constant throughout the study. The modified Ashworth scale showed improved knee extensor tone from baseline of 1 to normal (0) at post-treatment. Gait coordination overall improved by 12 points according to the Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool, Six Minute Walk Test improved by 532′, and the Stroke Impact Scale improved by 12 points, including changes in daily activities; mobility; and meaningful activities. Discussion: Through the combined use of motor learning exercises, FES, weight-support, and treadmill training, coordination of the right lower limb improved sufficiently to exhibit a more normal swing phase, reducing the probability of falls, and subsequent downwardly spiraling dysfunction. The recovery of lower limb coordination during swing phase illustrates what is possible when strength is sufficient and when coordination training is targeted in a carefully titrated, highly incrementalized manner. Conclusions/Contribution to the Field: This case study contributes to the literature in several ways: (1) illustrates combined interventions for gait training and response to treatment; (2) provides supporting case evidence of relationships among knee flexion coordination, swing phase coordination, functional mobility, and quality of life; (3) illustrates that strength is necessary, but not sufficient to restore coordinated gait swing phase after stroke in some stroke survivors; and (4) provides details regarding coordination training and progression of gait training treatment for stroke survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underlying Mechanisms and Neurorehabilitation of Gait after Stroke)
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