Special Issue "Frontiers in Dyslexia of Children or Neurodevelopmental Disorders"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Cognitive Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 March 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Maria Pia Bucci
Website
Guest Editor
MoDyCo UR7114, CNRS-Univesité Paris Nanterre, 92001 Paris, France.
Interests: Neuroscience; Dyslexia; Behavioral issues; Learning disabilities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

About 5%-10% of the school-aged population suffers from dyslexia. Although several hypotheses have been suggested, the etiology of dyslexia is still not well known. During the last decade, research studies have tested different training types in dyslexic children in order to improve their reading abilities, but the scientific community is divided on their efficacy.

This Special Issue of Brain Sciences aims to provide a collection of studies that highlight the most recent advancements in the field of dyslexia research. We invite authors to submit cutting-edge studies that address a broad range of topics related to dyslexia, including epidemiology, screening, early diagnosis, training, language, imaging, eye-tracking, posture, EEG, fMRI, and adaptive behaviors.

Dr. Maria Pia Bucci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dyslexia
  • brain
  • training
  • neurodevelopmental disorders

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Vestibular Functioning in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders Using the Functional Head Impulse Test
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(11), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110887 - 20 Nov 2020
Abstract
Several studies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), reading impairment, or attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) pointed toward a potential dysfunction of the vestibular system, specifically in its complex relationship with the cerebellum. The aim of the present study [...] Read more.
Several studies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), reading impairment, or attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) pointed toward a potential dysfunction of the vestibular system, specifically in its complex relationship with the cerebellum. The aim of the present study was to test the functional vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) responses in children with NDDs to measure functional performance of the vestibular system. The VOR is specifically involved in this stabilization of the image on the retina during rapid movements of the head. To perform this study, four groups of children with ASD, ADHD, reading impairment, and with neurotypical development (TD) were enrolled (n = 80). We performed the functional head impulse test (fHIT), which measured the percentage of correct responses by asking the child to identify an optotype briefly presented during passive head impulse in each direction of each semicircular canal plane. We observed significantly lower correct answers in children with NDDs compared with those with TD (p < 0.0001). Surprisingly, there was no significant difference between the three groups of children with NDDs. Our study fostered preliminary evidence suggesting altered efficiency of vestibular system in children with NDDs. VOR abnormalities estimated using the fHIT could be used as a proxy of NDD impairments in children, and represent a potential biomarker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Dyslexia of Children or Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Attentional Training Improves Reading Capabilities in Children with Dyslexia: An Eye Tracker Study During a Reading Task
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(8), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10080558 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dyslexia is a specific disorder in reading abilities. The aim of this study was to explore whether a short visual attentional training could improve reading capabilities in children with reading disorders by changing their oculomotor characteristics. Two groups (G1 and G2) of 25 [...] Read more.
Dyslexia is a specific disorder in reading abilities. The aim of this study was to explore whether a short visual attentional training could improve reading capabilities in children with reading disorders by changing their oculomotor characteristics. Two groups (G1 and G2) of 25 children with reading disabilities and who are matched in IQ (intelligence quotient), sex, and age participated in the study. The allocation of a subject to a specific group (G1 = experimental group; G2 = control group) was generated in an unpredictable random sequence. The reading task was recorded twice for G1, i.e., before (T1) and after (T2) 10 min of visual attentional training. Training consisted of oculomotor tasks (saccades and pursuits movements) and searching tasks (three different exercises). For G2, the two reading tasks at T1 and T2 were done at an interval of 10 min instead. We found that at T1, oculomotor performances during reading were statistically similar for both groups of children with reading disabilities (G1 and G2). At T2, the group G1 only improved oculomotor capabilities significantly during reading; in particular, children read faster, and their fixation time was shortest. We conclude that short visual attentional training could improve the cortical mechanisms responsible for attention and reading capabilities. Further studies on a larger number of dyslexic children will be necessary in order to explore the effects of different training types on the visual attentional span given its important role on the orienting and focusing visuospatial attention and on the oculomotor performance in children with dyslexia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Dyslexia of Children or Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Graph Analysis of EEG Functional Connectivity Networks During a Letter-Speech Sound Binding Task in Adult Dyslexics
Authors: Fraga González, G. (1,2), Smit, D.J.A. (3), Van der Molen, M.J.W. (4), Tijms, J. (2), Stam, C.J. (5), de Geus, E.J.C. (3), Van der Molen, M.W. (1)
Affiliation: /1 Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands/ /2 Rudolf Berlin Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands/ /3 Department of biological Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands./ /4 Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, The Netherlands / /5 Department of Clinical Neuropsychology and MEG Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Abstract: In this study we performed an EEG graph analysis on data from 31 typical readers (22.27 ± 2.53 y/o) and 24 dyslexics (22.99 ±2.29 y/o), recorded while they were engaged in an audiovisual task and during resting-state. The task simulates reading acquisition as participants learned new letter-sound mappings via feedback. EEG data was filtered for the delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) bands. We computed the Phase Lag Index (PLI) to provide an estimate of the functional connectivity between all pairs of electrodes per band. Then, networks were constructed using a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), a unique sub-graph connecting all nodes (electrodes) without loops, aimed at minimizing bias in between groups and conditions comparisons. Most MST metrics pointed to a more integrated network during task compared to resting-state recordings in four EEG all bands. In addition, the results revealed lower theta connectivity, lower theta degree correlation, and trends for lower degree and tree hierarchy, in dyslexics compared to typical readers. This pattern suggests less network integration in dyslexics relative to typical readers and may reflect differences in task engagement between the groups although robust correlations between MST metrics and performance indices were lacking.

Title: Visual attentional training affects reading performance in children with reading disabilities: an eye tracking study
Authors: Simona Caldani; Christophe-Loïc Gerard; Hugo Peyre; Maria Pia Bucci
Affiliation: Hôpital Robert Debra
Abstract: Abstract Background and aim: Dyslexia is a common reading disorder affecting the ability to achieve literacy. The aim of this study was to explore whether a short visual attentional training could improve reading capabilities in children with reading disorders by changing their oculomotor characteristics. Methods: Two groups (G1 and G2) of 25 children with reading disabilities of IQ-, sex- and age- matched participated in the study. The designation of a subject to a specific group (G1 or G2) was done in an unpredictable random sequence. Reading task was recorded for G1 before (T1) and after (T2) about 10-minute of visual attentional training. Training consisted of oculomotor tasks (saccades and pursuits movements) and searching tasks (three different exercises). In contrast, for G2 the two reading tasks at T1 and T2 were done at an interval of 10 minutes, respectively. Results: At T1, oculomotor performances during reading were statistically similar for both groups of children with reading disabilities (G1 and G2). At T2, the group G1 only improved significantly oculomotor strategies during reading, particularly they read faster and their fixation time was shortest. Conclusions: A short visual attentional training could improve cortical mechanisms responsible of attention and reading capabilities. Further studies on a larger number of dyslexic children will be necessary in order to explore the effects of different training types on the visual attentional span and on the oculomotor pattern in children with dyslexia.

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