Special Issue "Update on Deep Brain Stimulation: Technical Nuances and New Indications"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Konstantin V. Slavin
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of neurosurgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago IL 60612, USA
Tel. 3124936735
Interests: neuromodulation; facial pain; peripheral nerve stimulation; deep brain stimulation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of Deep Brain Stimulation has advanced rapidly over the last three decades—from an esoteric intervention in a few selected centers to a widespread clinical approach used to treat a multitude of neurological, psychiatric, and behavioral conditions. Development of new indications and refinement of technical nuances necessitate regular update on this modality for the worldwide readership. We encourage studies from all fields to contribute to this Special Issue in order to promote knowledge Deep Brain Stimulation.

Prof. Dr. Konstantin V.  Slavin
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Parkinson disease

  • Stereotactic surgery

  • Obesity

  • Alzheimer disease

  • Deep brain stimulation

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Pediatric Deep Brain Stimulation Using Awake Recording and Stimulation for Target Selection in an Inpatient Neuromodulation Monitoring Unit
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(7), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8070135 - 17 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for secondary (acquired, combined) dystonia does not reach the high degree of efficacy achieved in primary (genetic, isolated) dystonia. We hypothesize that this may be due to variability in the underlying injury, so that different children may require placement [...] Read more.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for secondary (acquired, combined) dystonia does not reach the high degree of efficacy achieved in primary (genetic, isolated) dystonia. We hypothesize that this may be due to variability in the underlying injury, so that different children may require placement of electrodes in different regions of basal ganglia and thalamus. We describe a new targeting procedure in which temporary depth electrodes are placed at multiple possible targets in basal ganglia and thalamus, and probing for efficacy is performed using test stimulation and recording while children remain for one week in an inpatient Neuromodulation Monitoring Unit (NMU). Nine Children with severe secondary dystonia underwent the NMU targeting procedure. In all cases, 4 electrodes were implanted. We compared the results to 6 children who had previously had 4 electrodes implanted using standard intraoperative microelectrode targeting techniques. Results showed a significant benefit, with 80% of children with NMU targeting achieving greater than 5-point improvement on the Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), compared with 50% of children using intraoperative targeting. NMU targeting improved BFMDRS by an average of 17.1 whereas intraoperative targeting improved by an average of 10.3. These preliminary results support the use of test stimulation and recording in a Neuromodulation Monitoring Unit (NMU) as a new technique with the potential to improve outcomes following DBS in children with secondary (acquired) dystonia. A larger sample size will be needed to confirm these results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pallidal Stimulation Modulates Pedunculopontine Nuclei in Parkinson’s Disease
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(7), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8070117 - 25 Jun 2018
Abstract
Background: In advanced Parkinson’s disease, the pedunculopontine nucleus region is thought to be abnormally inhibited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic inputs from the over-active globus pallidus internus. Recent attempts to boost pedunculopontine nucleus function through deep brain stimulation are promising, but suffer from [...] Read more.
Background: In advanced Parkinson’s disease, the pedunculopontine nucleus region is thought to be abnormally inhibited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic inputs from the over-active globus pallidus internus. Recent attempts to boost pedunculopontine nucleus function through deep brain stimulation are promising, but suffer from the incomplete understanding of the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus region. Methods: Local field potentials of the pedunculopontine nucleus region and the globus pallidus internus were recorded and quantitatively analyzed in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. In particular, we compared the local field potentials from the pedunculopontine nucleus region at rest and during deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus. Results: At rest, the spectrum of local field potentials in the globus pallidus internus was mainly characterized by delta-theta and beta frequency activity whereas the spectrum of the pedunculopontine nucleus region was dominated by activity only in the delta and theta band. High-frequency deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus led to increased theta activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus region and enabled information exchange between the left and right pedunculopontine nuclei. Therefore, Conclusions: When applying deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus internus, its modulatory effect on pedunculopontine nucleus physiology should be taken into account. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Frameless Stereotaxis for Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: An Innovative Method for the Direct Visualization of Electrode Implantation by Intraoperative X-ray Control
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(5), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8050090 - 15 May 2018
Abstract
The recent introduction of frameless devices has enabled stereotactic neurosurgery to reach a level of accuracy that is comparable to traditional frame-based methodologies. Among frameless devices, the Nexframe appears to be very useful in implanting electrodes into the subthalamic nucleus or other structures [...] Read more.
The recent introduction of frameless devices has enabled stereotactic neurosurgery to reach a level of accuracy that is comparable to traditional frame-based methodologies. Among frameless devices, the Nexframe appears to be very useful in implanting electrodes into the subthalamic nucleus or other structures for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease. However, frameless devices, including the Nexframe, limit the possibility of intraoperative visual control of the placement of electrodes in the brain. Utilizing intraoperative O-arm Computed tomography (CT) scan or high-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) could overcome this limitation, but their high cost restricts their use. Thus, in this paper we propose an innovation in Nexframe surgical planning that allows the intraoperative use of a C-arm X-ray apparatus to establish: (1) the progression of the electrode guide tube and the electrode in the brain; (2) the accuracy of the electrode trajectory; and (3) the correct attainment of the target. The proposed frameless technique using the Nexframe has been developed and successfully applied in our practice. It was shown to be helpful in overcoming the major issues that are usually encountered when electrodes are placed in the brain with frameless neurosurgery and reduced the risk of having to re-operate on patients to reposition the electrodes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson Disease with Prior Pallidotomy or Thalamotomy
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8040066 - 16 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who previously underwent lesioning of the basal ganglia. Material and methods. The study included 22 patients who underwent STN DBS. Eleven patients [...] Read more.
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who previously underwent lesioning of the basal ganglia. Material and methods. The study included 22 patients who underwent STN DBS. Eleven patients had undergone prior unilateral pallidotomy (n = 6) or VL/VIM thalamotomy (n = 5) while the other 11 patients had not. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the motor subscore of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) 12 months after STN DBS. Secondary outcomes included change in motor response complications (UPDRS-IV) and change in levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD). Results. In the group with prior lesioning UPDRS-III improved by 45%, from 51.5 ± 9.0% (range, 35–65) to 26.5 ± 8.4 (range, 21–50) (p < 0.01) and UPDRS-IV by 75%, from 8.0 ± 2.01 (range, 5–11) to 2.1 ± 0.74 (range, 1–3) (p < 0.01). In the group without prior lesioning UPDRS-III improved by 61%, from 74.2% ± 7.32 (range, 63–82) to 29.3 ± 5.99 (range, 20–42) (p < 0.01) and UPDRS-IV by 77%, from 9.1 ± 2.46 (range, 5–12) to 2.0 ± 1.1 (range, 1–4) (p < 0.01). Comparing the two groups (with and without lesioning) no significant differences were found either in UPDRS-III (p > 0.05) or UPDRS-IV scores (p > 0.05) at 12 months post-DBS. The LEDD was reduced by 51.4%, from 1008.2 ± 346.4 to 490.0 ± 194.3 in those with prior surgery (p < 0.01) and by 55.0%, from 963.4 ± 96.2 to 433.3 ± 160.2 in those without (p < 0.01).UPDRS-III improved by 51.8%, from 53.7 ± 4.6 (range, 50–62) to 25.0 ± 3.8 (range, 21–31) in those with prior pallidotomy (p < 0.01), and by 37.5%, from 48.8 ± 12.6 (range, 35–65) to 29.8 ± 13.6 (range, 22–50) in those with prior thalamotomy (p < 0.01). This numerical difference in improvement was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Our comparative study indicates that bilateral STN DBS is effective and can be used in patients with Parkinson disease with prior unilateral stereotactic destructive operations on subcortical structures. The results in our patient cohort are generally consistent with previously published reports of smaller series from multiple centers worldwide. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Satisfaction and Patient-Centered Outcomes of Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8040060 - 01 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and proven treatment option for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Long-term outcomes (>5 years) have demonstrated sustained improvement in objective motor symptoms; however, few studies have evaluated patient-centered outcomes other than [...] Read more.
Bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and proven treatment option for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Long-term outcomes (>5 years) have demonstrated sustained improvement in objective motor symptoms; however, few studies have evaluated patient-centered outcomes other than quality of life (QOL). A locally developed DBS-patient-centered outcomes questionnaire was administered to PD patients >5 years post-DBS. All questions were scored on a ten-point scale, whereby 0 represented the most ‘positive’ answer and 10 the most ‘negative’ answer. Pre-operative scales were repeated at the time of survey. Fifty-two patients (mean 8.2 ± 2.6 years post-DBS) were included. Satisfaction was high with median score (range) of 1/10 (0–8) at the time of survey. Patients endorsed having made the correct decision by undergoing DBS, with a score of 0 (0–10), would choose to have DBS again, with a score of 0 (0–10), and would recommend DBS to others, with a score of 0 (0–10). Pre-operative expectation target was set at a high level with a score of 2 (0–10). Parkinson’s Disease QOL (PDQ-39) Questionnaire Summary Index (SI) scores were, mean (SD), 2.1 (18.2) above baseline (p = 0.44). Those with worsening in PDQ-39-SI scores had less satisfaction with DBS (rs = 0.57, p ≤ 0.0001). This is the first study to assess long-term patient satisfaction with STN DBS. We are currently collecting data prospectively to confirm the results of these preliminary findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electric Field Comparison between Microelectrode Recording and Deep Brain Stimulation Systems—A Simulation Study
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8020028 - 06 Feb 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) relies primarily on the localization of the implanted electrode. Its final position can be chosen based on the results of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) and stimulation tests. The optimal position often differs from the final one [...] Read more.
The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) relies primarily on the localization of the implanted electrode. Its final position can be chosen based on the results of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) and stimulation tests. The optimal position often differs from the final one selected for chronic stimulation with the DBS electrode. The aim of the study was to investigate, using finite element method (FEM) modeling and simulations, whether lead design, electrical setup, and operating modes induce differences in electric field (EF) distribution and in consequence, the clinical outcome. Finite element models of a MER system and a chronic DBS lead were developed. Simulations of the EF were performed for homogenous and patient-specific brain models to evaluate the influence of grounding (guide tube vs. stimulator case), parallel MER leads, and non-active DBS contacts. Results showed that the EF is deformed depending on the distance between the guide tube and stimulating contact. Several parallel MER leads and the presence of the non-active DBS contacts influence the EF distribution. The DBS EF volume can cover the intraoperatively produced EF, but can also extend to other anatomical areas. In conclusion, EF deformations between stimulation tests and DBS should be taken into consideration as they can alter the clinical outcome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nucleus Accumbens Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Substance Use Disorders and Delay Discounting
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8020021 - 27 Jan 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shows first promising results in patients with severe substance use disorder (SUD), a patient group known to have deficits in self-control. One facet of self-control is the ability to forego smaller sooner rewards in [...] Read more.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shows first promising results in patients with severe substance use disorder (SUD), a patient group known to have deficits in self-control. One facet of self-control is the ability to forego smaller sooner rewards in favor of larger later rewards (delay discounting, DD). The NAc has been suggested to integrate motivational information to guide behavior while the consequences of NAc-DBS on DD are unknown. To this end, nine patients with SUD performed a DD task with DBS on and after a 24 h DBS off period. Furthermore, 18 healthy controls were measured to assess possible alterations in DD in patients with SUD. Our findings implicate that DD was not significantly modulated by NAc-DBS and also that patients with SUD did not differ from healthy controls. While null results must be interpreted with caution, the commonly observed association of impaired DD in SUD might suggest a long-term effect of NAc-DBS that was not sufficiently modulated by a 24 h DBS off period. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Neuromodulatory Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorder: A Review
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(6), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8060095 - 28 May 2018
Abstract
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a prevalent condition characterized by chronic alcohol-seeking behaviors and has become a significant economic burden with global ramifications on public health. While numerous treatment options are available for AUD, many are unable to sustain long-term sobriety. The nucleus [...] Read more.
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a prevalent condition characterized by chronic alcohol-seeking behaviors and has become a significant economic burden with global ramifications on public health. While numerous treatment options are available for AUD, many are unable to sustain long-term sobriety. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) upholds an integral role in mediating reward behavior and has been implicated as a potential target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the context of AUD. DBS is empirically thought to disrupt pathological neuronal synchrony, a hallmark of binge behavior. Pre-clinical animal models and pilot human clinical studies utilizing DBS for the treatment of AUD have shown promise for reducing alcohol-related cravings and prolonging abstinence. In this review, we outline the various interventions available for AUD, and the translational potential DBS has to modulate functionality of the NAcc as a treatment for AUD. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Informed Consent Decision-Making in Deep Brain Stimulation
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(5), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8050084 - 11 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proved useful for several movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia), in which first and/or second line pharmacological treatments were inefficacious. Initial evidence of DBS efficacy exists for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, and impulse control [...] Read more.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proved useful for several movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia), in which first and/or second line pharmacological treatments were inefficacious. Initial evidence of DBS efficacy exists for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, and impulse control disorders. Ethical concerns have been raised about the use of an invasive surgical approach involving the central nervous system in patients with possible impairment in cognitive functioning and decision-making capacity. Most of the disorders in which DBS has been used might present with alterations in memory, attention, and executive functioning, which may have an impact on the mental capacity to give informed consent to neurosurgery. Depression, anxiety, and compulsivity are also common in DBS candidate disorders, and could also be associated with an impaired capacity to consent to treatment or clinical research. Despite these issues, there is limited empirical knowledge on the decision-making levels of these patients. The possible informed consent issues of DBS will be discussed by focusing on the specific treatable diseases. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Emerging Role of Tractography in Deep Brain Stimulation: Basic Principles and Current Applications
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8020023 - 29 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI-based technique that delineates white matter tracts in the brain by tracking the diffusion of water in neural tissue. This methodology, known as “tractography”, has been extensively applied in clinical neuroscience to explore nervous system architecture and [...] Read more.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI-based technique that delineates white matter tracts in the brain by tracking the diffusion of water in neural tissue. This methodology, known as “tractography”, has been extensively applied in clinical neuroscience to explore nervous system architecture and diseases. More recently, tractography has been used to assist with neurosurgical targeting in functional neurosurgery. This review provides an overview of DTI principles, and discusses current applications of tractography for improving and helping develop novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Deep Brain Stimulation—Possible Treatment Strategy for Pathologically Altered Body Weight?
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8010019 - 22 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The treatment of obesity and eating disorders such as binge-eating disorder or anorexia nervosa is challenging. Besides lifestyle changes and pharmacological options, bariatric surgery represents a well-established and effective-albeit invasive-treatment of obesity, whereas for binge-eating disorder and anorexia nervosa mostly psychotherapy options exist. [...] Read more.
The treatment of obesity and eating disorders such as binge-eating disorder or anorexia nervosa is challenging. Besides lifestyle changes and pharmacological options, bariatric surgery represents a well-established and effective-albeit invasive-treatment of obesity, whereas for binge-eating disorder and anorexia nervosa mostly psychotherapy options exist. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a method that influences the neuronal network, is by now known for its safe and effective applicability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, the use does not seem to be restricted to these patients. Recent preclinical and first clinical evidence points towards the use of DBS in patients with obesity and eating disorders as well. Depending on the targeted area in the brain, DBS can either inhibit food intake and body weight or stimulate energy intake and subsequently body weight. The current review focuses on preclinical and clinical evidence of DBS to modulate food intake and body weight and highlight the different brain areas targeted, stimulation protocols applied and downstream signaling modulated. Lastly, this review will also critically discuss potential safety issues and gaps in knowledge to promote further studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
DBS in Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8010018 - 20 Jan 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition for which pharmacological therapy is not always solvable. Various treatments have been suggested and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently under investigation for patients affected by PTSD. We review the neurocircuitry and up-to-date clinical [...] Read more.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition for which pharmacological therapy is not always solvable. Various treatments have been suggested and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently under investigation for patients affected by PTSD. We review the neurocircuitry and up-to-date clinical concepts which are behind the use of DBS in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The role of DBS in treatment-refractory PTSD patients has been investigated relying on both preclinical and clinical studies. DBS for PTSD is in its preliminary phases and likely to provide hope for patients with medical refractory PTSD following the results of randomized controlled studies. Full article
Open AccessReview
Awake versus Asleep Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery: Technical Considerations and Critical Review of the Literature
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8010017 - 19 Jan 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Advancements in neuroimaging have led to a trend toward direct, image-based targeting under general anesthesia without the use of microelectrode recording (MER) or intraoperative test stimulation, also referred to as “asleep” deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Asleep DBS, utilizing imaging in the form [...] Read more.
Advancements in neuroimaging have led to a trend toward direct, image-based targeting under general anesthesia without the use of microelectrode recording (MER) or intraoperative test stimulation, also referred to as “asleep” deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Asleep DBS, utilizing imaging in the form of intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) or magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI), has demonstrated reliable targeting accuracy of DBS leads implanted within the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus while also improving clinical outcomes in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In lieu, of randomized control trials, retrospective comparisons between asleep and awake DBS with MER have shown similar short-term efficacy with the potential for decreased complications in asleep cohorts. In lieu of long-term outcome data, awake DBS using MER must demonstrate more durable outcomes with fewer stimulation-induced side effects and lead revisions in order for its use to remain justifiable; although patient-specific factors may also be used to guide the decision regarding which technique may be most appropriate and tolerable to the patient. Full article
Open AccessReview
Stereotactically Standard Areas: Applied Mathematics in the Service of Brain Targeting in Deep Brain Stimulation
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7120163 - 11 Dec 2017
Abstract
The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs) within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge [...] Read more.
The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs) within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding SSAs. A mathematical formula of SSAs was recently invented, allowing for their robust, reproducible, and accurate application to laboratory studies and clinical practice. Thus, SSAs open new doors for the application of stereotactic microanatomy to highly accurate brain targeting, which is mainly useful for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation. Full article
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