Special Issue "Biomolecules in Development and Diseases of Urogenital system"

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Natalija Filipović
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: kidney diseases; congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract; development; carcinogenesis; cardiovascular diseases
Prof. Dr. Katarina Vukojevic
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: kidney diseases; congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract; development; carcinogenesis; cardiovascular diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Basic morphological analyses have a long tradition and continue to give us useful information about different biomolecules, opening the way to understanding the pathways that underlie the normal development of the urogenital system, as well as the associated pathological changes. For the last three decades, we have been in the era of molecular biology, but it should be emphasized that morphology is still dominant in terms of the distinction between normal versus abnormal development, and the different pathologies of the urogenital system. Moreover, expression of different biomolecules in some urogenital disorders provides prognostic utility that is captured by morphology. However, there is the need to identify new biomolecules in the development and diseases of the urogenital system beyond morphology. Accordingly, similar basic processes and genes may be involved in the development and diseases of the urogenital system, with the major difference being that all these processes are tremendously well arranged during normal development. This exciting concept suggests that the underlying key technology along with comparative studies in development and diseases may provide unique insights into the link between normal differentiation and pathology. This Special Issue on biomolecules in the development and diseases of the urogenital system should emphasize the importance of a translational approach, which can transform the discovery of biomolecules in the laboratory into innovative diagnostic tools and therapeutic treatments in the field of the development and diseases of the urogenital system.

We look forward to reading your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Katarina Vukojevic
Prof. Dr. Natalija Filipović
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • development
  • disease
  • urogenital system
  • morphology
  • biomolecules

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Natriuretic Peptides Regulate Prostate Cells Inflammatory Behavior: Potential Novel Anticancer Agents for Prostate Cancer
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060794 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Inflammation, by inducing a tumor-promoting microenvironment, is a hallmark for prostate cancer (PCa) progression. NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome activation, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion, and cancer cell-released extracellular vesicles (EVs) contribute to the establishment of tumor microenvironment. We have shown that PC3-derived EVs (PC3-EVs) [...] Read more.
Inflammation, by inducing a tumor-promoting microenvironment, is a hallmark for prostate cancer (PCa) progression. NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome activation, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion, and cancer cell-released extracellular vesicles (EVs) contribute to the establishment of tumor microenvironment. We have shown that PC3-derived EVs (PC3-EVs) activate inflammasome cascade in non-cancerous PNT2 cells. It is known that the endogenous biomolecules and Natriuretic Peptides (NPs), such as ANP and BNP, inhibit inflammasome activation in immune cells. Here we investigated whether ANP and BNP modify PCa inflammatory phenotype in vitro. By using PNT2, LNCaP, and PC3 cell lines, which model different PCa progression stages, we analyzed inflammasome activation and the related pathways by Western blot and IL-1β secretion by ELISA. We found that tumor progression is characterized by constitutive inflammasome activation, increased IL-1β secretion, and reduced endogenous NPs expression. The administration of exogenous ANP and BNP, via p38-MAPK or ERK1/2-MAPK, by inducing NLRP3 phosphorylation, counteract inflammasome activation and IL-1β maturation in PC3 and PC3-EVs-treated PNT2 cells, respectively. Our results demonstrate that NPs, by interfering with cell-specific signaling pathways, exert pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects converging toward inflammasome phosphorylation and suggest that NPs can be included in a drug repurposing process for PCa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules in Development and Diseases of Urogenital system)
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Article
Age-Specific Excretion of Calcium, Oxalate, Citrate, and Glycosaminoglycans and Their Ratios in Healthy Children and Children with Urolithiasis
Biomolecules 2021, 11(5), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050758 - 19 May 2021
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Abstract
We analyzed children with urolithiasis with age- and gender-matched healthy children. Calcium (mmol/mmol creatinine) and the calcium/citrate ratio (mol/mmol) are the only variables that differentiate children before puberty from healthy children (ROC analysis confirmed only calcium/citrate as a significant variable with cut-off value [...] Read more.
We analyzed children with urolithiasis with age- and gender-matched healthy children. Calcium (mmol/mmol creatinine) and the calcium/citrate ratio (mol/mmol) are the only variables that differentiate children before puberty from healthy children (ROC analysis confirmed only calcium/citrate as a significant variable with cut-off value > 0.84). Peri-pubertal children are distinguished from age- and gender-matched healthy children by the following variables: citrate (mmol/mol creatinine), calcium/citrate (mol/mmol), oxalate/glycosaminoglycans (mmol/g), oxalate/citrate ratios (mmol/mmol) and oxalate/(citrate × glycosaminoglycans) (mol oxalate × mol creatinine)/(mol citrate × g glycosaminoglycans). All variables were confirmed by ROC analysis with cut-off values ≤ 327.87, >1.02, >11.24, >0.12 and >0.03, respectively. These results indicate a different risk of urinary stones development before puberty vs. pubertal/postpubertal children and increasing importance (deficiency) of citrate and glycosaminoglycans in such children. J48 classifier confirmed the importance of the oxalate/(citrate × glycosaminoglycans) and the calcium/citrate ratios (Ox/Cit × GAG 0.22 and Cit/GAG 0.612) with the practically applicable classification tree for distinguishing between pubertal/postpubertal children with urolithiasis with age- and gender-matched healthy children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules in Development and Diseases of Urogenital system)
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Article
A Homozygous Dab1−/− Is a Potential Novel Cause of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Anomalies of the Mice Kidney and Urinary Tract
Biomolecules 2021, 11(4), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040609 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 454
Abstract
This study aimed to explore morphology changes in the kidneys of Dab1−/− (yotari) mice, as well as expression patterns of reelin, NOTCH2, LC3B, and cleaved caspase3 (CASP3) proteins, as potential determinants of normal kidney formation and function. We assumed that Dab1 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore morphology changes in the kidneys of Dab1−/− (yotari) mice, as well as expression patterns of reelin, NOTCH2, LC3B, and cleaved caspase3 (CASP3) proteins, as potential determinants of normal kidney formation and function. We assumed that Dab1 functional inactivation may cause disorder in a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Animals were sacrificed at postnatal days P4, P11, and P14. Paraffin-embedded kidney tissues were sectioned and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Kidney specimens were examined by bright-field, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and t-tests. We noticed that yotari kidneys were smaller in size with a reduced diameter of nephron segments and thinner cortex. TEM microphotographs revealed foot process effacement in the glomeruli (G) of yotari mice, whereas aberrations in the structure of proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and distal convoluted tubules (DCT) were not observed. A significant increase in reelin expression, NOTCH2, LC3B and cleaved CASP3 proteins was observed in the glomeruli of yotari mice. Renal hypoplasia in conjunction with foot process effacement and elevation in the expression of examined proteins in the glomeruli revealed CAKUT phenotype and loss of functional kidney tissue of yotari. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules in Development and Diseases of Urogenital system)
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Article
Albumin Urinary Excretion Is Associated with Increased Levels of Urinary Chemokines, Cytokines, and Growth Factors Levels in Humans
Biomolecules 2021, 11(3), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030396 - 08 Mar 2021
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to study the associations between urine albumin excretion, and a large number of urinary chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors in a normal population. We selected 90 urine samples from individuals without CVD, diabetes, stroke or kidney [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to study the associations between urine albumin excretion, and a large number of urinary chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors in a normal population. We selected 90 urine samples from individuals without CVD, diabetes, stroke or kidney disease belonging to the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors Study (41 males and 49 females, all aged 75 years). Urinary cytokine levels were analyzed with two multiplex assays (proximity extension assays) and the cytokine levels were correlated with urine albumin. After adjustment for sex, body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), smoking and multiplicity testing, 11 biomarkers remained significantly associated with urine albumin: thrombospondin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, hepatocyte growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), C-X-C motif chemokine 9, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B, osteoprotegerin, growth-regulated alpha protein, C-X-C motif chemokine 6, oncostatin-M (OSM) and fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal, despite large differences in molecular weights. In this study, we found associations between urinary albumin and both small and large urine proteins. Additional studies are warranted to identify cytokine patterns and potential progression markers in various renal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules in Development and Diseases of Urogenital system)
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