Special Issue "Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfides, Endogenous Mammalian Transmitters——Honorary Special Issue Commemorating the Work of Prof. Hideo Kimura"

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2022) | Viewed by 11253

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Csaba Szabo
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Section of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
Interests: pharmacology; molecular medicine; hydrogen sulfide biology; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; nitric oxide; peroxynitrite; critical illness; mitochondria; bioenergetics; cancer; Down syndrome; inflammation; reperfusion injury; vascular biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This year marks the 25th anniversary of the publication of Professor Hideo Kimura’s paper (J Neurosci, 16:1066, 1996), where he proposed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis in the brain may serve as an endogenous neuromodulator. This paper stimulated the interest of many scientists to explore the biological roles of H2S, which, in previous centuries, was almost exclusively viewed strictly as an environmental toxin. In the past 25 years, intensive scientific work began to explore the biosynthesis and functional roles of H2S as an endogenous mammalian enzymatic product in health and disease. Professor Kimura remained on the forefront of these efforts, and pioneered, among others, some of the neurobiological and neuropathological roles of H2S, as well as the biological role of polysulfides, a group of related endogenous reactive regulatory species.

This Special Issue is focused on the role of H2S and polysulfides in the regulation of the various mammalian cells and tissues in health and disease. These roles include various transmitter and modulator roles in the nervous system, various regulatory roles in the cardiovascular system (modulation of vascular tone, angiogenesis, and cardiac function), in cellular metabolism, and in many other conditions in health and disease. The Special Issue begins with a short review of Professor Kimura’s contributions to the field, followed by original research articles and reviews on all aspects of the molecular mechanisms and functional action of H2S and polysulfides in health and disease.

Prof. Csaba Szabo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomolecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). The Special Issue Editor has the option to invite Feature Articles and reduce or waive this fee. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gaseous transmitters
  • hydrogen sulfide
  • polysulfides
  • nervous system
  • cardiovascular system

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Effect of Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfide Donors on Insulin Sensitivity of the Adipose Tissue
Biomolecules 2022, 12(5), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12050646 - 28 Apr 2022
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and inorganic polysulfides are important signaling molecules; however, little is known about their role in adipose tissue. We examined the effect of H2S and polysulfides on insulin sensitivity of the adipose tissue in rats. Plasma glucose, [...] Read more.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and inorganic polysulfides are important signaling molecules; however, little is known about their role in adipose tissue. We examined the effect of H2S and polysulfides on insulin sensitivity of the adipose tissue in rats. Plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, and glycerol were measured after administration of H2S and the polysulfide donors, Na2S and Na2S4, respectively. In addition, the effect of Na2S and Na2S4 on insulin-induced glucose uptake and inhibition of lipolysis was studied in adipose tissue explants ex vivo. Na2S and Na2S4 administered in vivo at a single dose of 100 μmol/kg had no effect on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. In addition, Na2S and Na2S4 did not modify the effect of insulin on plasma glucose, fatty acids, and glycerol concentrations. Na2S and Na2S4had no effect on the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipose tissue explants ex vivo. The effect of insulin on 2-deoxyglucose uptake by adipose tissue was impaired in obese rats which was accompanied by lower insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt. Na2S4, but not Na2S, improved insulin signaling and increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake by adipose tissue of obese rats. The results suggest that polysulfides may normalize insulin sensitivity, at least in the adipose tissue, in obesity/metabolic syndrome. Full article
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Article
Vasorelaxant Activity of AP39, a Mitochondria-Targeted H2S Donor, on Mouse Mesenteric Artery Rings In Vitro
Biomolecules 2022, 12(2), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12020280 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Mitochondria-targeted hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor compounds, such as compound AP39, supply H2S into the mitochondrial environment and have shown several beneficial in vitro and in vivo effects in cardiovascular conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. However, the study of [...] Read more.
Mitochondria-targeted hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor compounds, such as compound AP39, supply H2S into the mitochondrial environment and have shown several beneficial in vitro and in vivo effects in cardiovascular conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. However, the study of their direct vascular effects has not been addressed to date. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze the effects and describe the mechanisms of action of AP39 on the in vitro vascular reactivity of mouse mesenteric artery. Protein and gene expressions of the H2S-producing enzymes (CBS, CSE, and 3MPST) were respectively analyzed by Western blot and qualitative RT-PCR, as well the in vitro production of H2S by mesenteric artery homogenates. Gene expression of CSE and 3MPST in the vessels has been evidenced by RT-PCR experiments, whereas the protein expression of all the three enzymes was demonstrated by Western blotting experiments. Nonselective inhibition of H2S-producing enzymes by AOAA abolished H2S production, whereas it was partially inhibited by PAG (a CSE selective inhibitor). Vasorelaxation promoted by AP39 and its H2S-releasing moiety (ADT-OH) were significantly reduced after endothelium removal, specifically dependent on NO-cGMP signaling and SKCa channel opening. Endogenous H2S seems to participate in the mechanism of action of AP39, and glibenclamide-induced KATP blockade did not affect the vasorelaxant response. Considering the results of the present study and the previously demonstrated antioxidant and bioenergetic effects of AP39, we conclude that mitochondria-targeted H2S donors may offer a new promising perspective in cardiovascular disease therapeutics. Full article
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Article
Sulfurtransferases and Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Expression in Different Human Leukemia Cell Lines
Biomolecules 2022, 12(2), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12020148 - 18 Jan 2022
Viewed by 550
Abstract
The studies concerned the expression of sulfurtransferases and cystathionine beta-synthase in six human leukemia cell lines: B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-B-ALL (REH cells), T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-T-ALL (DND-41 and MOLT-4 cells), acute myeloid leukemia—AML (MV4-11 and MOLM-14 cells), and chronic myeloid leukemia—CML [...] Read more.
The studies concerned the expression of sulfurtransferases and cystathionine beta-synthase in six human leukemia cell lines: B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-B-ALL (REH cells), T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-T-ALL (DND-41 and MOLT-4 cells), acute myeloid leukemia—AML (MV4-11 and MOLM-14 cells), and chronic myeloid leukemia—CML (K562 cells). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the expression of thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, gamma-cystathionase, and cystathionine beta-synthase on the mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, we found significant differences in the mRNA and protein levels of sulfurtransferases and cystathionine beta-synthase in the studied leukemia cells. The obtained results may contribute to elucidating the significance of the differences between the studied cells in the field of sulfur compound metabolism and finding new promising ways to inhibit the proliferation of various types of leukemic cells by modulating the activity of sulfurtransferases, cystathionine beta-synthase, and, consequently, the change of intracellular level of sulfane sulfur as well as H2S and reactive oxygen species production. Full article
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Article
The Expression and Activity of Rhodanese, 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase, Cystathionine γ-Lyase in the Most Frequently Chosen Cellular Research Models
Biomolecules 2021, 11(12), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11121859 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
This paper provides information concerning the activity and expression levels of three sulfurtransferases (STRs): rhodanese (TST, EC: 2.8.1.1), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST, EC: 2.8.1.2) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH, EC: 4.4.1.1) in various cell lines. Since very limited data are available in the scientific literature [...] Read more.
This paper provides information concerning the activity and expression levels of three sulfurtransferases (STRs): rhodanese (TST, EC: 2.8.1.1), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST, EC: 2.8.1.2) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH, EC: 4.4.1.1) in various cell lines. Since very limited data are available in the scientific literature on this subject, the available data are included in this paper. These shortages often force the researchers to carry out their own screening tests that allow them to choose an appropriate model for their further studies. This work supplements the existing deficiencies in this area and presents the activity and expression of STRs in the eight most frequently chosen cell lines: the mouse mammary gland cell line (NMuNG, ATCC: CRL-1636), mouse mammary gland tumor (4T1, ATCC: CRL-2539), mouse fibroblast (MEF, ATCC: SCRC-1008), mouse melanoma (B16-F1, ATCC: CRL-6323), human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC: HTB-37), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293, ATCC: CRL-1573), human osteosarcoma (MG-63, ATCC: CRL-1427) and rat myocardium (H9c2, ATCC: CRL-1446). Changes in STRs activity are directly related to the bioavailability of cysteine and the sulfane sulfur level, and thus the present authors also measured these parameters, as well as the level of glutathione (its reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) form) and the [GSH]/[GSSG] ratio that determines the antioxidant capacity of the cells. STRs demonstrate diverse functionality and clinical relevance; therefore, we also performed an analysis of genetic variation of STRs genes that revealed a large number of polymorphisms. Although STRs still provide challenges in several fields, responding to them could not only improve the understanding of various diseases, but may also provide a way to treat them. Full article
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Article
Hydrogen Sulphide Treatment Prevents Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting the Expression of ICAM-1 and NF-kB Concentration in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats
Biomolecules 2021, 11(10), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11101549 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 827 | Correction
Abstract
Our main objective was to investigate the effect of chronic administration of hydrogen sulphide donor (sodium hydrosulphide) on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and concentration of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) in a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) model of WKY and L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester [...] Read more.
Our main objective was to investigate the effect of chronic administration of hydrogen sulphide donor (sodium hydrosulphide) on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and concentration of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) in a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) model of WKY and L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 35 days while cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) inhibitor dL-propargylglycine (PAG) was administered at a single dose of 50 mg/kg. Animals were anesthetised using sodium pentobarbitone (60 mg/kg) and then prepared to induce renal ischemia by clamping the left renal artery for 30 min followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Pre-treatment with NaHS improved the renal functional parameters in both WKY and L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats along with reduction of blood pressure in hypertensive groups. Oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were also improved by NaHS treatment following renal IRI. Levels of ICAM-1 and NF-kB concentration were reduced by chronic treatment with NaHS and increased by PAG administration after renal IRI in plasma and kidney. Treatment with NaHS improved tubular morphology and glomerulus hypertrophy. Pre-treatment with NaHS reduced the degree of renal IRI by potentiating its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanism, as evidenced by decreased NF-kB concentration and downregulation of ICAM-1 expression. Full article
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Article
Efficacy of Novel Aminooxyacetic Acid Prodrugs in Colon Cancer Models: Towards Clinical Translation of the Cystathionine β-Synthase Inhibition Concept
Biomolecules 2021, 11(8), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081073 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Upregulation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis, at least in part related to the upregulation of cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) in cancer cells, serves as a tumor-promoting factor and has emerged as a possible molecular target for antitumor drug development. To facilitate future [...] Read more.
Upregulation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis, at least in part related to the upregulation of cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) in cancer cells, serves as a tumor-promoting factor and has emerged as a possible molecular target for antitumor drug development. To facilitate future clinical translation, we have synthesized a variety of novel CBS-targeting, esterase-cleavable prodrugs based on the structure of the prototypical CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA). The pharmacological properties of these compounds were evaluated in cell-free assays with recombinant human CBS protein, the human colon cancer cell line HCT116, and in vivo using various tumor-bearing mice models. The prodrug YD0251 (the isopropyl ester derivative of AOAA) was selected for detailed characterization. YD0251 exhibits improved antiproliferative efficacy in cell culture models when compared to AOAA. It is up to 18 times more potent than AOAA at suppressing HCT116 tumor growth in vivo and is effective when administered to tumor-bearing mice either via subcutaneous injection or oral gavage. Patient-derived xenografts (PDTXs) with higher levels of CBS protein grew significantly larger than tumors with lower levels, and YD0251 treatment inhibited the growth of PDTXs with elevated CBS, whereas it had no significant effect on PDTXs with low CBS protein levels. The toxicity of YD0251 was assessed in mice subjected to subchronic administration of supratherapeutic doses the inhibitor; no significant alteration in circulating markers of organ injury or histopathological alterations were noted, up to 60 mg/kg/day × 5 days. In preparation to a future theranostic concept (to match CBS inhibitor therapy to high-CBS expressors), we identified a potential plasma marker of CBS-expressing tumors. Colon cancer cells produced significant levels of lanthionine, a rare metabolic intermediate of CBS-mediated H2S biosynthesis; forced expression of CBS into non-transformed epithelial cells increased lanthionine biogenesis in vitro and in vivo (measured in the urine of tumor-bearing mice). These current results may be useful to facilitate the translation of a CBS inhibition-based antitumor concept into the clinical space. Full article
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Article
Subnormothermic Perfusion with H2S Donor AP39 Improves DCD Porcine Renal Graft Outcomes in an Ex Vivo Model of Kidney Preservation and Reperfusion
Biomolecules 2021, 11(3), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030446 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
Cold preservation is the standard of care for renal grafts. However, research on alternatives like perfusion at higher temperatures and supplementing preservation solutions with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has gained momentum. In this study, we investigated whether adding H2S donor [...] Read more.
Cold preservation is the standard of care for renal grafts. However, research on alternatives like perfusion at higher temperatures and supplementing preservation solutions with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has gained momentum. In this study, we investigated whether adding H2S donor AP39 to porcine blood during subnormothermic perfusion at 21 °C improves renal graft outcomes. Porcine kidneys were nephrectomized after 30 min of clamping the renal pedicles and treated to 4 h of static cold storage (SCS) on ice or ex vivo subnormothermic perfusion at 21 °C with autologous blood alone (SNT) or with AP39 (SNTAP). All kidneys were reperfused ex vivo with autologous blood at 37 °C for 4 h. Urine output, histopathology and RNAseq were used to evaluate the renal graft function, injury and gene expression profiles, respectively. The SNTAP group exhibited significantly higher urine output than other groups during preservation and reperfusion, along with significantly lower apoptotic injury compared to the SCS group. The SNTAP group also exhibited differential pro-survival gene expression patterns compared to the SCS (downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes) and SNT (downregulation of hypoxia response genes) groups. Subnormothermic perfusion at 21 °C with H2S-supplemented blood improves renal graft outcomes. Further research is needed to facilitate the clinical translation of this approach. Full article
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Review

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Review
Potential Effects of Natural H2S-Donors in Hypertension Management
Biomolecules 2022, 12(4), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12040581 - 14 Apr 2022
Viewed by 481
Abstract
After the discovery of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the central nervous system by Abe and Kimura in 1996, the physiopathological role of H2S has been widely investigated in several systems such as the cardiovascular. In particular, H2S [...] Read more.
After the discovery of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the central nervous system by Abe and Kimura in 1996, the physiopathological role of H2S has been widely investigated in several systems such as the cardiovascular. In particular, H2S plays a pivotal role in the control of vascular tone, exhibiting mechanisms of action able to induce vasodilation: for instance, activation of potassium channels (KATP and Kv7) and inhibition of 5-phosphodiesterase (5-PDE). These findings paved the way for the research of natural and synthetic exogenous H2S-donors (i.e., molecules able to release H2S) in order to have new tools for the management of hypertension. In this scenario, some natural molecules derived from Alliaceae (i.e., garlic) and Brassicaceae (i.e., rocket or broccoli) botanical families show the profile of slow H2S-donors able to mimic the endogenous production of this gasotransmitter and therefore can be viewed as interesting potential tools for management of hypertension or pre-hypertension. In this article, the preclinical and clinical impacts of these natural H2S-donors on hypertension and vascular integrity have been reviewed in order to give a complete panorama of their potential use for the management of hypertension and related vascular diseases. Full article
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Review
H2S in Critical Illness—A New Horizon for Sodium Thiosulfate?
Biomolecules 2022, 12(4), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12040543 - 04 Apr 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Ever since the discovery of endogenous H2S and the identification of its cytoprotective properties, efforts have been made to develop strategies to use H2S as a therapeutic agent. The ability of H2S to regulate vascular tone, inflammation, [...] Read more.
Ever since the discovery of endogenous H2S and the identification of its cytoprotective properties, efforts have been made to develop strategies to use H2S as a therapeutic agent. The ability of H2S to regulate vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis might be particularly useful in the therapeutic management of critical illness. However, neither the inhalation of gaseous H2S, nor the administration of inorganic H2S-releasing salts or slow-releasing H2S-donors are feasible for clinical use. Na2S2O3 is a clinically approved compound with a good safety profile and is able to release H2S, in particular under hypoxic conditions. Pre-clinical studies show promise for Na2S2O3 in the acute management of critical illness. A current clinical trial is investigating the therapeutic potential for Na2S2O3 in myocardial infarct. Pre-eclampsia and COVID-19 pneumonia might be relevant targets for future clinical trials. Full article
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Review
The Pathophysiology of H2S in Renal Glomerular Diseases
Biomolecules 2022, 12(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12020207 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Renal glomerular diseases such as glomerulosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy often result in the loss of glomerular function and consequently end-stage renal disease. The glomerulus consists of endothelial cells, mesangial cells and glomerular epithelial cells also referred to as podocytes. A fine-tuned crosstalk between [...] Read more.
Renal glomerular diseases such as glomerulosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy often result in the loss of glomerular function and consequently end-stage renal disease. The glomerulus consists of endothelial cells, mesangial cells and glomerular epithelial cells also referred to as podocytes. A fine-tuned crosstalk between glomerular cells warrants control of growth factor synthesis and of matrix production and degradation, preserving glomerular structure and function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) belongs together with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) to the group of gasotransmitters. During the last three decades, these higher concentration toxic gases have been found to be produced in mammalian cells in a well-coordinated manner. Recently, it became evident that H2S and the other gasotransmitters share common targets as signalling devices that trigger mainly protective pathways. In several animal models, H2S has been demonstrated as a protective factor in the context of kidney disorders, in particular of diabetic nephropathy. Here, we focus on the synthesis and action of H2S in glomerular cells, its beneficial effects in the glomerulus and its action in the context of the other gaseous signalling molecules NO and CO. Full article
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Review
Recent Advances in Detection, Isolation, and Imaging Techniques for Sulfane Sulfur-Containing Biomolecules
Biomolecules 2021, 11(11), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11111553 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide and its oxidation products are involved in many biological processes, and sulfane sulfur compounds, which contain sulfur atoms bonded to other sulfur atom(s), as found in hydropersulfides (R-S-SH), polysulfides (R-S-Sn-S-R), hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn), etc., have [...] Read more.
Hydrogen sulfide and its oxidation products are involved in many biological processes, and sulfane sulfur compounds, which contain sulfur atoms bonded to other sulfur atom(s), as found in hydropersulfides (R-S-SH), polysulfides (R-S-Sn-S-R), hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn), etc., have attracted increasing interest. To characterize their physiological and pathophysiological roles, selective detection techniques are required. Classically, sulfane sulfur compounds can be detected by cyanolysis, involving nucleophilic attack by cyanide ion to cleave the sulfur–sulfur bonds. The generated thiocyanate reacts with ferric ion, and the resulting ferric thiocyanate complex can be easily detected by absorption spectroscopy. Recent exploration of the properties of sulfane sulfur compounds as both nucleophiles and electrophiles has led to the development of various chemical techniques for detection, isolation, and bioimaging of sulfane sulfur compounds in biological samples. These include tag-switch techniques, LC-MS/MS, Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescent probes. Herein, we present an overview of the techniques available for specific detection of sulfane sulfur species in biological contexts. Full article
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Review
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) and Polysulfide (H2Sn) Signaling: The First 25 Years
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060896 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Since the first description of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a toxic gas in 1713 by Bernardino Ramazzini, most studies on H2S have concentrated on its toxicity. In 1989, Warenycia et al. demonstrated the existence of endogenous H2S [...] Read more.
Since the first description of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a toxic gas in 1713 by Bernardino Ramazzini, most studies on H2S have concentrated on its toxicity. In 1989, Warenycia et al. demonstrated the existence of endogenous H2S in the brain, suggesting that H2S may have physiological roles. In 1996, we demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potential signaling molecule, which can be produced by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) to modify neurotransmission in the brain. Subsequently, we showed that H2S relaxes vascular smooth muscle in synergy with nitric oxide (NO) and that cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) is another producing enzyme. This study also opened up a new research area of a crosstalk between H2S and NO. The cytoprotective effect, anti-inflammatory activity, energy formation, and oxygen sensing by H2S have been subsequently demonstrated. Two additional pathways for the production of H2S with 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) from l- and d-cysteine have been identified. We also discovered that hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn, n ≥ 2) are potential signaling molecules produced by 3MST. H2Sn regulate the activity of ion channels and enzymes, as well as even the growth of tumors. S-Sulfuration (S-sulfhydration) proposed by Snyder is the main mechanism for H2S/H2Sn underlying regulation of the activity of target proteins. This mini review focuses on the key findings on H2S/H2Sn signaling during the first 25 years. Full article
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Correction
Correction: Hashmi et al. Hydrogen Sulphide Treatment Prevents Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting the Expression of ICAM-1 and NF-kB Concentration in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1549
Biomolecules 2022, 12(4), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12040593 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 323
Abstract
In the published publication [...] Full article
Opinion
Sulfide Oxidation Evidences the Immediate Cellular Response to a Decrease in the Mitochondrial ATP/O2 Ratio
Biomolecules 2022, 12(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12030361 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 380
Abstract
The present article will not attempt to deal with sulfide per se as a signaling molecule but will aim to examine the consequences of sulfide oxidation by mitochondrial sulfide quinone reductase in mammalian cells. This oxidation appears first as a priority to avoid [...] Read more.
The present article will not attempt to deal with sulfide per se as a signaling molecule but will aim to examine the consequences of sulfide oxidation by mitochondrial sulfide quinone reductase in mammalian cells. This oxidation appears first as a priority to avoid self-poisoning by endogenous sulfide and second to occur with the lowest ATP/O2 ratio when compared to other mitochondrial substrates. This is explained by the injection of electrons in the respiratory chain after complex I (as for succinate) and by a sulfur oxidation step implying a dioxygenase that consumes oxygen but does not contribute to mitochondrial bioenergetics. Both contribute to increase cellular oxygen consumption if sulfide is provided below its toxic level (low µM). Accordingly, if oxygen supply or respiratory chain activity becomes a limiting factor, small variations in sulfide release impact the cellular ATP/ADP ratio, a major metabolic sensor. Full article
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