Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 55765

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: bioactive peptides; fatty acids; hyperuricemia; metabolic syndrome; immune response; ‘gut-X’ axis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Food Science and Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
Interests: probiotics; insulin resistance; obesity; gut microbiota; bile acids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is increasing interest in elucidating how the gut microbiome modulates our physiology, both in health and in disease. Recent technological advancements and expanded efforts have led to tremendous growth in our collective knowledge of the host microbiome. The purpose of this Special Issue is to collect what is known about the gut microbiome, how it is connected to the development of disease and to identify the bacterial and biochemical targets. In addition, this Special Issue is also concerned with the nutrition–gut microbiome–physiology axis. This Special Issue welcomes research papers and reviews that cover a wide range of topics, including food nutrition and the gut microbiome, as well as metabolite biomarkers and underlying mechanisms. We hope to expand upon what is currently known about the gut microbiota in this Special Issue, by collecting cutting-edge findings in order to shed light on how the gut microbiome can control health and disease.

Prof. Dr. Fengqin Feng
Dr. Hao Zhong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • gut microbiota
  • ‘gut-X’ axis
  • dysbiosis
  • food nutrition
  • metabolites
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • gut health
  • immunity

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1772 KiB  
Article
Exploring Longitudinal Gut Microbiome towards Metabolic Functional Changes Associated in Atopic Dermatitis in Early Childhood
by Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Amornthep Kingkaw, Massalin Nakphaichit, Pantipa Chatchatee, Narissara Suratannon, Gianni Panagiotou and Wanwipa Vongsangnak
Biology 2023, 12(9), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12091262 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with changes in gut microbial composition in early life. However, there are limited longitudinal studies examining the gut microbiome in AD. This study aimed to explore taxonomy and metabolic functions [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with changes in gut microbial composition in early life. However, there are limited longitudinal studies examining the gut microbiome in AD. This study aimed to explore taxonomy and metabolic functions across longitudinal gut microbiomes associated with AD in early childhood from 9 to 30 months of age using integrative data analysis within the Thai population. Our analysis revealed that gut microbiome diversity was not different between healthy and AD groups; however, significant taxonomic differences were observed. Key gut bacteria with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production potentials, such as Anaerostipes, Butyricicoccus, Ruminococcus, and Lactobacillus species, showed a higher abundance in the AD group. In addition, metabolic alterations between the healthy and AD groups associated with vitamin production and host immune response, such as biosynthesis of menaquinol, succinate, and (Kdo)2-lipid A, were observed. This study serves as the first framework for monitoring longitudinal microbial imbalances and metabolic functions associated with allergic diseases in Thai children during early childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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20 pages, 3826 KiB  
Article
Exploring Gut Microbial Dynamics and Symbiotic Interaction in Blattella germanica Using Rifampicin
by Monica Cazzaniga, Rebeca Domínguez-Santos, Jesús Marín-Miret, Rosario Gil, Amparo Latorre and Carlos García-Ferris
Biology 2023, 12(7), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12070955 - 3 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Blattella germanica harbours two cohabiting symbiotic systems: an obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium, located inside bacteriocytes and vertically transmitted, which is key in nitrogen metabolism, and abundant and complex gut microbiota acquired horizontally (mainly by coprophagy) that must play an important role in host [...] Read more.
Blattella germanica harbours two cohabiting symbiotic systems: an obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium, located inside bacteriocytes and vertically transmitted, which is key in nitrogen metabolism, and abundant and complex gut microbiota acquired horizontally (mainly by coprophagy) that must play an important role in host physiology. In this work, we use rifampicin treatment to deepen the knowledge on the relationship between the host and the two systems. First, we analysed changes in microbiota composition in response to the presence and removal of the antibiotic with and without faeces in one generation. We found that, independently of faeces supply, rifampicin-sensitive bacteria are strongly affected at four days of treatment, and most taxa recover after treatment, although some did not reach control levels. Second, we tried to generate an aposymbiotic population, but individuals that reached the second generation were severely affected and no third generation was possible. Finally, we established a mixed population with quasi-aposymbiotic and control nymphs sharing an environment in a blind experiment. The analysis of the two symbiotic systems in each individual after reaching the adult stage revealed that endosymbiont’s load does not affect the composition of the hindgut microbiota, suggesting that there is no interaction between the two symbiotic systems in Blattella germanica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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25 pages, 5806 KiB  
Article
Gut Microbiome in the Progression of NAFLD, NASH and Cirrhosis, and Its Connection with Biotics: A Bibliometric Study Using Dimensions Scientific Research Database
by Salvatore Pezzino, Maria Sofia, Chiara Mazzone, Sergio Castorina, Stefano Puleo, Martina Barchitta, Antonella Agodi, Luisa Gallo, Gaetano La Greca and Saverio Latteri
Biology 2023, 12(5), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12050662 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2692
Abstract
There is growing evidence that gut microbiota dysbiosis is linked to the etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), from the initial stage of disease until the progressive stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the final stage of cirrhosis. Conversely, probiotics, prebiotics, and [...] Read more.
There is growing evidence that gut microbiota dysbiosis is linked to the etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), from the initial stage of disease until the progressive stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the final stage of cirrhosis. Conversely, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have shown promise in restoring dysbiosis and lowering clinical indicators of disease in a number of both preclinical and clinical studies. Additionally, postbiotics and parabiotics have recently garnered some attention. The purpose of this bibliometric analysis is to assess recent publishing trends concerning the role of the gut microbiome in the progression of NAFLD, NASH and cirrhosis and its connection with biotics. The free access version of the Dimensions scientific research database was used to find publications in this field from 2002 to 2022. VOSviewer and Dimensions’ integrated tools were used to analyze current research trends. Research into the following topics is expected to emerge in this field: (1) evaluation of risk factors which are correlated with the progression of NAFLD, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome; (2) pathogenic mechanisms, such as liver inflammation through toll-like receptors activation, or alteration of short-chain fatty acids metabolisms, which contribute to NAFLD development and its progression in more severe forms, such as cirrhosis; (3) therapy for cirrhosis through dysbiosis reduction, and research on hepatic encephalopathy a common consequence of cirrhosis; (4) evaluation of diversity, and composition of gut microbiome under NAFLD, and as it varies under NASH and cirrhosis by rRNA gene sequencing, a tool which can also be used for the development of new probiotics and explore into the impact of biotics on the gut microbiome; (5) treatments to reduce dysbiosis with new probiotics, such as Akkermansia, or with fecal microbiome transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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13 pages, 4361 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Predominant Bacterial Species and Potential Short-Chain Fatty Acid-Associated Metabolic Routes in Human Gut Microbiome Using Integrative Metagenomics
by Amornthep Kingkaw, Nachon Raethong, Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Narissara Suratannon, Massalin Nakphaichit, Suttipun Keawsompong, Sittiruk Roytrakul and Wanwipa Vongsangnak
Biology 2023, 12(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12010021 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2882
Abstract
Gut microbiome plays an essential role in host health, and there is interest in utilizing diet to modulate the composition and function of microbial communities. Copra meal hydrolysate (CMH) is commonly used as a natural additive to enhance health. However, the gut microbiome [...] Read more.
Gut microbiome plays an essential role in host health, and there is interest in utilizing diet to modulate the composition and function of microbial communities. Copra meal hydrolysate (CMH) is commonly used as a natural additive to enhance health. However, the gut microbiome is largely unknown at species level and is associated with metabolic routes involving short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In this study, we aimed to analyze, using integrative metagenomics, the predominant species and metabolic routes involved in SCFAs production in the human gut microbiome after treatment with CMH. The effect of CMH treatment on the Thai gut microbiome was demonstrated using 16S rRNA genes with whole-metagenome shotgun (WMGS) sequencing technology. Accordingly, these results revealed that CMH has potentially beneficial effects on the gut microbiome. Twelve predominant bacterial species, as well as their potential metabolic routes, were involved in cooperative microbiome networks under sugar utilization (e.g., glucose, mannose, or xylose) and energy supply (e.g., NADH and ATP) in relation to SCFAs biosynthesis. These findings suggest that CMH may be used as a potential prebiotic diet for modulating and maintaining the gut microbiome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the predominant bacterial species and metabolic routes in the Thai gut microbiome after treatment with potential prebiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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14 pages, 1991 KiB  
Article
Gut Microbiome Suffers from Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Childhood and Its Characteristics Are Positively Associated with Intra-Hospital Physical Exercise
by Simona Ugrayová, Peter Švec, Ivan Hric, Sára Šardzíková, Libuša Kubáňová, Adela Penesová, Jaroslava Adamčáková, Petra Pačesová, Júlia Horáková, Alexandra Kolenová, Katarína Šoltys, Martin Kolisek and Viktor Bielik
Biology 2022, 11(5), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050785 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2824
Abstract
Gut microbiome impairment is a serious side effect of cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) treatment on gut microbiota composition in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Fecal microbiotas were categorized [...] Read more.
Gut microbiome impairment is a serious side effect of cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) treatment on gut microbiota composition in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Fecal microbiotas were categorized using specific primers targeting the V1–V3 region of 16S rDNA in eligible pediatric ALL patients after HSCT (n = 16) and in healthy controls (Ctrl, n = 13). An intra-hospital exercise program was also organized for child patients during HSCT treatment. Significant differences in gut microbiota composition were observed between ALL HSCT and Ctrl with further negative effects. Plasma C-reactive protein correlated positively with the pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus spp. and negatively with beneficial bacteria Butyriccocus spp. or Akkermansia spp., respectively (rs = 0.511, p = 0.05; rs = −0.541, p = 0.04; rs = −0.738, p = 0.02). Bacterial alpha diversity correlated with the exercise training characteristics. Therefore, specific changes in the microbiota of children were associated with systemic inflammation or the ability to exercise physically during HSCT treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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17 pages, 2080 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation of a New Probiotic Compound Improves the Growth Performance and Health of Broilers by Altering the Composition of Cecal Microflora
by Kai Qiu, Xiaocui Wang, Haijun Zhang, Jing Wang, Guanghai Qi and Shugeng Wu
Biology 2022, 11(5), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050633 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a new probiotic compound developed as a potential alternative to synthetic antibiotics for broilers. A total of 360 newly hatched Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly divided into three treatment groups. Each treatment consisted [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a new probiotic compound developed as a potential alternative to synthetic antibiotics for broilers. A total of 360 newly hatched Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly divided into three treatment groups. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with 20 birds in each replicate. The negative control group was fed the basal diet. The positive control group was fed the basal diet supplemented with a commercial antimicrobial, virginiamycin, at 30 mg/kg of basal feed. The compound probiotics group was fed a basal diet containing 4.5 × 106 CFU of Lactobacillus LP184 and 2.4 × 106 CFU of Yeast SC167 per gram of basal feed. The feeding trial lasted for 42 days. The results showed that the compound probiotics were a competent alternative to synthetic antibiotics for improving the growth performance and carcass traits of broilers. The compound probiotics enhanced the immune and antioxidant capacities of the broilers, while antibiotics lacked such merits. The positive effects of compound probiotics could be attributed to an improvement in the intestinal morphology and cecal microbial diversity of broilers, effects which are distinct from those of antibiotics. These findings revealed the differences between probiotics and antibiotics in terms of improving broilers’ performance and enriched the basic knowledge surrounding the intestinal microbial structure of broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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16 pages, 4227 KiB  
Article
Anti-Osteoporotic Effect of Lactobacillus brevis AR281 in an Ovariectomized Mouse Model Mediated by Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation
by Jing Yu, Yiling Hang, Wenni Sun, Guangqiang Wang, Zhiqiang Xiong, Lianzhong Ai and Yongjun Xia
Biology 2022, 11(3), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030359 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Osteoporosis is a global disease characterized by weakened bone microarchitecture, leading to osteoporotic fractures. Estrogen replacement therapy is the traditional treatment for osteoporosis but carries with it an increased risk of cardiac events. In search of a safe and effective treatment, we used [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is a global disease characterized by weakened bone microarchitecture, leading to osteoporotic fractures. Estrogen replacement therapy is the traditional treatment for osteoporosis but carries with it an increased risk of cardiac events. In search of a safe and effective treatment, we used Lactobacillus brevis AR281, which has anti-inflammatory properties, to conduct a 7-week experiment, investigating its inhibitory effects on osteoporosis in an ovariectomized (ovx) mouse model. The results demonstrated that AR281 significantly improved bone microarchitecture and biomechanical strength in ovx mice by attenuating bone resorption. AR281 significantly decreased the critical osteoclast activator, the ratio of the receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin, and pro-inflammatory osteoclastogenic mediators, such as IL-1, IL-6, and IL-17, which can increase the RANKL expression. Moreover, AR281 modulated intestinal microbiota in ovx mice increased the abundance of Akkermansia, which is responsible for the improvement of gut epithelial barrier integrity. In an in vitro trial, AR281 suppressed the number of osteoclasts differentiated from the osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells caused by RANKL through the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)/NF-κB/nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) pathway. Therefore, AR281 may be a natural alternative for combating osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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16 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Two Blautia Species Associated with Visceral Fat Accumulation: A One-Year Longitudinal Study
by Naoki Ozato, Tohru Yamaguchi, Kenta Mori, Mitsuhiro Katashima, Mika Kumagai, Koichi Murashita, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Yoshinori Tamada, Masanori Kakuta, Seiya Imoto, Kazushige Ihara and Shigeyuki Nakaji
Biology 2022, 11(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11020318 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4146
Abstract
Intestinal microflora has been associated with obesity. While visceral fat is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disorder, a complication linked to obesity, than the body mass index (BMI), the association between intestinal microflora and obesity (as defined in terms of BMI) has been [...] Read more.
Intestinal microflora has been associated with obesity. While visceral fat is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disorder, a complication linked to obesity, than the body mass index (BMI), the association between intestinal microflora and obesity (as defined in terms of BMI) has been studied widely. However, the link between visceral fat area (VFA) and intestinal microflora has been little studied. In this study, we investigate the association between intestinal microflora and VFA and BMI using a longitudinal study on Japanese subjects with different VFA statuses (N = 767). Principal component analysis of the changes in intestinal microflora composition over the one-year study period revealed the different associations between intestinal microflora and VFA and BMI. As determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, changes in the abundance ratio of two microbial genera—Blautia and Flavonifractor—were significantly associated with VFA changes and changes in the abundance ratio of four different microbial genera were significantly associated with BMI changes, suggesting that the associated intestinal microbes are different. Furthermore, as determined by metagenomic shotgun sequences, changes in the abundance ratios of two Blautia species—Blautia hansenii and Blautia producta—were significantly and negatively associated with VFA changes. Our findings might be used to develop a new treatment for visceral fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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Review

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20 pages, 679 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Protective Effects of Probiotics against Alzheimer’s Disease
by Vibhuti Mishra, Dhananjay Yadav, Kavita Singh Solanki, Bhupendra Koul and Minseok Song
Biology 2024, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13010008 - 22 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
This review summarizes the protective effects of probiotics against Alzheimer’s disease (AD), one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders affecting older adults. This disease is characterized by the deposition of tau and amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in different parts of the brain. Symptoms [...] Read more.
This review summarizes the protective effects of probiotics against Alzheimer’s disease (AD), one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders affecting older adults. This disease is characterized by the deposition of tau and amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in different parts of the brain. Symptoms observed in patients with AD include struggles with writing, speech, memory, and knowledge. The gut microbiota reportedly plays an important role in brain functioning due to its bidirectional communication with the gut via the gut–brain axis. The emotional and cognitive centers in the brain are linked to the functions of the peripheral intestinal system via this gut–brain axis. Dysbiosis has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders, indicating the significance of gut homeostasis for proper brain function. Probiotics play an important role in protecting against the symptoms of AD as they restore gut–brain homeostasis to a great extent. This review summarizes the characteristics, status of gut–brain axis, and significance of gut microbiota in AD. Review and research articles related to the role of probiotics in the treatment of AD were searched in the PubMed database. Recent studies conducted using animal models were given preference. Recent clinical trials were searched for separately. Several studies conducted on animal and human models clearly explain the benefits of probiotics in improving cognition and memory in experimental subjects. Based on these studies, novel therapeutic approaches can be designed for the treatment of patients with AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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24 pages, 1381 KiB  
Review
Optimizing the Gut Microbiota for Individualized Performance Development in Elite Athletes
by Svenja Nolte, Karsten Krüger, Claudia Lenz and Karen Zentgraf
Biology 2023, 12(12), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12121491 - 5 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4603
Abstract
The human gut microbiota can be compared to a fingerprint due to its uniqueness, hosting trillions of living organisms. Taking a sport-centric perspective, the gut microbiota might represent a physiological system that relates to health aspects as well as individualized performance in athletes. [...] Read more.
The human gut microbiota can be compared to a fingerprint due to its uniqueness, hosting trillions of living organisms. Taking a sport-centric perspective, the gut microbiota might represent a physiological system that relates to health aspects as well as individualized performance in athletes. The athletes’ physiology has adapted to their exceptional lifestyle over the years, including the diversity and taxonomy of the microbiota. The gut microbiota is influenced by several physiological parameters and requires a highly individual and complex approach to unravel the linkage between performance and the microbial community. This approach has been taken in this review, highlighting the functions that the microbial community performs in sports, naming gut-centered targets, and aiming for both a healthy and sustainable athlete and performance development. With this article, we try to consider whether initiating a microbiota analysis is practicable and could add value in elite sport, and what possibilities it holds when influenced through a variety of interventions. The aim is to support enabling a well-rounded and sustainable athlete and establish a new methodology in elite sport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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18 pages, 1875 KiB  
Review
Targeting the Adipose Tissue–Liver–Gut Microbiota Crosstalk to Cure MASLD
by Daniela Gabbia and Sara De Martin
Biology 2023, 12(12), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12121471 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
The gut microbiota is a complex system, playing a peculiar role in regulating innate and systemic immunity. Increasing evidence links dysfunctional gut microbiota to metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) due to the activation of multiple pathways in the gut and in the [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is a complex system, playing a peculiar role in regulating innate and systemic immunity. Increasing evidence links dysfunctional gut microbiota to metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) due to the activation of multiple pathways in the gut and in the liver, including those mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), that sustain hepatic inflammation. Thus, many efforts have been made to unravel the role of microbiota-associated dysfunction in MASLD, with the final aim of finding novel strategies to improve liver steatosis and function. Moreover, recent evidence underlines the role of adipose tissue in sustaining hepatic inflammation during MASLD development. In this review, we focus on the recently discovered strategies proposed to improve the alteration of gut microbiota observed in MASLD patients, with a particular insight into those known to modulate gut microbiota-associated dysfunction and to affect the complex crosstalk between the gut, the adipose tissue, and the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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23 pages, 2259 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Components in Fruit Interact with Gut Microbes
by Yuanyuan Jin, Ling Chen, Yufen Yu, Muhammad Hussain and Hao Zhong
Biology 2023, 12(10), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12101333 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Fruits contain many bioactive compounds, including polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, polyphenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. All of these bioactives in fruit have potentially beneficial effects on gut microbiota and host health. On the one hand, fruit rich in active ingredients can act as substrates to interact [...] Read more.
Fruits contain many bioactive compounds, including polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, polyphenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. All of these bioactives in fruit have potentially beneficial effects on gut microbiota and host health. On the one hand, fruit rich in active ingredients can act as substrates to interact with microorganisms and produce metabolites to regulate the gut microbiota. On the other hand, gut microbes could promote health effects in the host by balancing dysbiosis of gut microbiota. We have extensively analyzed significant information on bioactive components in fruits based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Although the deep mechanism of action of bioactive components in fruits on gut microbiota needs further study, these results also provide supportive information on fruits as a source of dietary active ingredients to provide support for the adjunctive role of fruits in disease prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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16 pages, 768 KiB  
Review
The Gut Microbiota in Kidney Transplantation: A Target for Personalized Therapy?
by Yuselys García-Martínez, Margherita Borriello, Giovanna Capolongo, Diego Ingrosso and Alessandra F. Perna
Biology 2023, 12(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12020163 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
Kidney transplantation improves quality of life, morbidity, and mortality of patients with kidney failure. However, integrated immunosuppressive therapy required to preserve graft function is associated with the development of post-transplant complications, including infections, altered immunosuppressive metabolism, gastrointestinal toxicity, and diarrhea. The gut microbiota [...] Read more.
Kidney transplantation improves quality of life, morbidity, and mortality of patients with kidney failure. However, integrated immunosuppressive therapy required to preserve graft function is associated with the development of post-transplant complications, including infections, altered immunosuppressive metabolism, gastrointestinal toxicity, and diarrhea. The gut microbiota has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for personalizing immunosuppressive therapy and managing post-transplant complications. This review reports current evidence on gut microbial dysbiosis in kidney transplant recipients, alterations in their gut microbiota associated with kidney transplantation outcomes, and the application of gut microbiota intervention therapies in treating post-transplant complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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29 pages, 1878 KiB  
Review
The Interaction between Mushroom Polysaccharides and Gut Microbiota and Their Effect on Human Health: A Review
by Jiahui Zhao, Yixin Hu, Chao Qian, Muhammad Hussain, Shizhu Liu, Anqiang Zhang, Rongjun He and Peilong Sun
Biology 2023, 12(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12010122 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7119
Abstract
Mushroom polysaccharides are a kind of biological macromolecule extracted from the fruiting body, mycelium or fermentation liquid of edible fungi. In recent years, the research on mushroom polysaccharides for alleviating metabolic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, cancers and other symptoms by changing the intestinal [...] Read more.
Mushroom polysaccharides are a kind of biological macromolecule extracted from the fruiting body, mycelium or fermentation liquid of edible fungi. In recent years, the research on mushroom polysaccharides for alleviating metabolic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, cancers and other symptoms by changing the intestinal microenvironment has been increasing. Mushroom polysaccharides could promote human health by regulating gut microbiota, increasing the production of short-chain fatty acids, improving intestinal mucosal barrier, regulating lipid metabolism and activating specific signaling pathways. Notably, these biological activities are closely related to the molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and type of the glycosidic bond of mushroom polysaccharide. This review aims to summarize the latest studies: (1) Regulatory effects of mushroom polysaccharides on gut microbiota; (2) The effect of mushroom polysaccharide structure on gut microbiota; (3) Metabolism of mushroom polysaccharides by gut microbiota; and (4) Effects of mushroom polysaccharides on gut microbe-mediated diseases. It provides a theoretical basis for further exploring the mechanism of mushroom polysaccharides for regulating gut microbiota and gives a reference for developing and utilizing mushroom polysaccharides as promising prebiotics in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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17 pages, 1498 KiB  
Review
Commensal Intestinal Protozoa—Underestimated Members of the Gut Microbial Community
by Magdalena Dubik, Bartosz Pilecki and Jesper Bonnet Moeller
Biology 2022, 11(12), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11121742 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5707
Abstract
The human gastrointestinal microbiota contains a diverse consortium of microbes, including bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and fungi. Through millennia of co-evolution, the host–microbiota interactions have shaped the immune system to both tolerate and maintain the symbiotic relationship with commensal microbiota, while exerting protective responses [...] Read more.
The human gastrointestinal microbiota contains a diverse consortium of microbes, including bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and fungi. Through millennia of co-evolution, the host–microbiota interactions have shaped the immune system to both tolerate and maintain the symbiotic relationship with commensal microbiota, while exerting protective responses against invading pathogens. Microbiome research is dominated by studies describing the impact of prokaryotic bacteria on gut immunity with a limited understanding of their relationship with other integral microbiota constituents. However, converging evidence shows that eukaryotic organisms, such as commensal protozoa, can play an important role in modulating intestinal immune responses as well as influencing the overall health of the host. The presence of several protozoa species has recently been shown to be a common occurrence in healthy populations worldwide, suggesting that many of these are commensals rather than invading pathogens. This review aims to discuss the most recent, conflicting findings regarding the role of intestinal protozoa in gut homeostasis, interactions between intestinal protozoa and the bacterial microbiota, as well as potential immunological consequences of protozoa colonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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20 pages, 1658 KiB  
Review
Gut–Liver Axis and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Vicious Circle of Dysfunctions Orchestrated by the Gut Microbiome
by Salvatore Pezzino, Maria Sofia, Gloria Faletra, Chiara Mazzone, Giorgia Litrico, Gaetano La Greca and Saverio Latteri
Biology 2022, 11(11), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11111622 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3768
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent, multifactorial, and poorly understood liver disease with an increasing incidence worldwide. NAFLD is typically asymptomatic and coupled with other symptoms of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD is rising in tandem with the prevalence of [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent, multifactorial, and poorly understood liver disease with an increasing incidence worldwide. NAFLD is typically asymptomatic and coupled with other symptoms of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD is rising in tandem with the prevalence of obesity. In the Western hemisphere, NAFLD is one of the most prevalent causes of liver disease and liver transplantation. Recent research suggests that gut microbiome dysbiosis may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD by dysregulating the gut–liver axis. The so-called “gut–liver axis” refers to the communication and feedback loop between the digestive system and the liver. Several pathological mechanisms characterized the alteration of the gut–liver axis, such as the impairment of the gut barrier and the increase of the intestinal permeability which result in endotoxemia and inflammation, and changes in bile acid profiles and metabolite levels produced by the gut microbiome. This review will explore the role of gut–liver axis disruption, mediated by gut microbiome dysbiosis, on NAFLD development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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24 pages, 1252 KiB  
Review
Roles of Gut Microbiome in Bone Homeostasis and Its Relationship with Bone-Related Diseases
by Nina Zemanova, Radoslav Omelka, Vladimira Mondockova, Veronika Kovacova and Monika Martiniakova
Biology 2022, 11(10), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11101402 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3093
Abstract
The extended microbial genome—the gut microbiome (GM)—plays a significant role in host health and disease. It is able to influence a number of physiological functions. During dysbiosis, GM is associated with the development of various chronic diseases with impaired bone quality. In general, [...] Read more.
The extended microbial genome—the gut microbiome (GM)—plays a significant role in host health and disease. It is able to influence a number of physiological functions. During dysbiosis, GM is associated with the development of various chronic diseases with impaired bone quality. In general, GM is important for bone homeostasis and can affect it via several mechanisms. This review describes the roles of GM in bone homeostasis through influencing the immune and endocrine functions, short-chain fatty acids production, calcium absorption and the gut–brain axis. The relationship between GM composition and several bone-related diseases, specifically osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, obesity and bone cancer, is also highlighted and summarized. GM manipulation may become a future adjuvant therapy in the prevention of many chronic diseases. Therefore, the beneficial effects of probiotic therapy to improve the health status of individuals with aforementioned diseases are provided, but further studies are needed to clearly confirm its effectiveness. Recent evidence suggests that GM is responsible for direct and indirect effects on drug efficacy. Accordingly, various GM alterations and interactions related to the treatment of bone-related diseases are mentioned as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease)
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