Special Issue "Wine traceability"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Maria Carla Cravero

CREA Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Research Centre for Viticulture and Enology,Via Micca 35 – 14100 Asti (Italy)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wine traceability is a subject extensively studied and with different facets. In the current global market, where consumers are increasingly demanding the quality and origin of food and drink, it is a central topic. Moreover, chemical wine composition can be easily falsified and all the wine production chain and its composition are strictly controlled by law (OIV, EU and national governments) and it needs specific documentation.

This Special Issue invite authors to contribute with their original studies on innovative chemical analysis or advanced methodology to certify or to assure the wine traceability along all the production steps and for the consumers.

Dr. Maria Carla Cravero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Geographical Classification of Tannat Wines Based on Support Vector Machines and Feature Selection
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Geographical product recognition has become an issue for researchers and food industries. One way to obtain useful information about the fingerprint of wines is by examining that fingerprint’s chemical components. In this paper, we present a data mining and predictive analysis to classify [...] Read more.
Geographical product recognition has become an issue for researchers and food industries. One way to obtain useful information about the fingerprint of wines is by examining that fingerprint’s chemical components. In this paper, we present a data mining and predictive analysis to classify Brazilian and Uruguayan Tannat wines from the South region using the support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm with the radial basis kernel function and the F-score feature selection method. A total of 37 Tannat wines differing in geographical origin (9 Brazilian samples and 28 Uruguayan samples) were analyzed. We concluded that given the use of at least one anthocyanin (peon-3-glu) and the radical scavenging activity (DPPH), the Tannat wines can be classified with 94.64% accuracy and 0.90 Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC). Furthermore, the combination of SVM and feature selection proved useful for determining the main chemical parameters that discriminate with regard to the origin of Tannat wines and classifying them with a high degree of accuracy. Additionally, to our knowledge, this is the first study to classify the Tannat wine variety in the context of two countries in South America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessArticle
Mineral Composition through Soil-Wine System of Portuguese Vineyards and Its Potential for Wine Traceability
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
PDF Full-text (2712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The control of geographic origin is one of a highest priority issue regarding traceability and wine authenticity. The current study aimed to examine whether elemental composition can be used for the discrimination of wines according to geographical origin, taking into account the effects [...] Read more.
The control of geographic origin is one of a highest priority issue regarding traceability and wine authenticity. The current study aimed to examine whether elemental composition can be used for the discrimination of wines according to geographical origin, taking into account the effects of soil, winemaking process, and year of production. The elemental composition of soils, grapes, musts, and wines from three DO (Designations of Origin) and for two vintage years was determined by using the ICP-MS semi-quantitative method, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. The elemental composition of soils varied according to geological formations, and for some elements, the variation due to soil provenance was also observed in musts and wines. Li, Mn, Sr and rare-earth elements (REE) allowed wine discrimination according to vineyard. Results evidenced the influence of winemaking processes and of vintage year on the wine’s elemental composition. The mineral composition pattern is transferred through the soil-wine system, and differences observed for soils are reflected in grape musts and wines, but not for all elements. Results suggest that winemaking processes and vintage year should be taken into account for the use of elemental composition as a tool for wine traceability. Therefore, understanding the evolution of mineral pattern composition from soil to wine, and how it is influenced by the climatic year, is indispensable for traceability purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Four Red Grape Varieties Potentially Useful as Traceability Markers of Wines
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract
Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF) is a powerful tool to perform chemotaxonomic studies through identification of grape secondary metabolites. In the present work, the metabolomes of four autochthonous Italian red grape varieties including the chemical classes of anthocyanins, flavonols/flavanols/flavanones, and [...] Read more.
Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF) is a powerful tool to perform chemotaxonomic studies through identification of grape secondary metabolites. In the present work, the metabolomes of four autochthonous Italian red grape varieties including the chemical classes of anthocyanins, flavonols/flavanols/flavanones, and terpenol glycosides, were studied. By using this information, the metabolites that can potentially be used as chemical markers for the traceability of the corresponding wines were proposed. In Raboso wines, relatively high abundance of both anthocyanic and non-anthocyanic acyl derivatives, is expected. Potentially, Primitivo wines are characterized by high tri-substituted flavonoids, while Corvina wines are characterized by higher di-substituted compounds and lower acyl derivatives. Negro Amaro wine’s volatile fraction is characterized by free monoterpenes, such as α-terpineol, linalool, geraniol, and Ho-diendiol I. A similar approach can be applied for the traceability of other high-quality wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Chemical and Physical Variables on 87Sr/86Sr Isotope Ratios Determination for Geographical Traceability Studies in the Oenological Food Chain
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
This study summarizes the results obtained from a systematic and long-term project aimed at the development of tools to assess the provenance of food in the oenological sector. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios were measured on a representative set of soils, branches, [...] Read more.
This study summarizes the results obtained from a systematic and long-term project aimed at the development of tools to assess the provenance of food in the oenological sector. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios were measured on a representative set of soils, branches, and wines sampled from the Chianti Classico wine production area. In particular, owing to the high spatial resolution of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the topsoil, the effect of two mill techniques for soil pretreatment was investigated to verify the influence of the particle dimension on the measured isotopic ratios. Samples with particle sizes ranging from 250 to less than 50 µm were investigated, and the extraction was performed by means of the DIN 19730 procedure. For each sample, the Sr isotope ratio was determined as well. The obtained results showed that the 87Sr/86Sr ratio is not influenced by soil particle size and may represent an effective tool as a geographic provenance indicator for the investigated product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessArticle
Wine Traceability Using Chemical Analysis, Isotopic Parameters, and Sensory Profiles
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
NMR/IRMS techniques are now widely used to assess the geographical origin of wines. The sensory profile of a wine is also an interesting method of characterizing its origin. This study aimed at elaborating chemical, isotopic, and sensory parameters by means of statistical analysis. [...] Read more.
NMR/IRMS techniques are now widely used to assess the geographical origin of wines. The sensory profile of a wine is also an interesting method of characterizing its origin. This study aimed at elaborating chemical, isotopic, and sensory parameters by means of statistical analysis. The data were determined in some Italian white wines—Verdicchio and Fiano—and red wines—Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso and Nero d’Avola—produced from grapes grown in two different regions with different soil and climatic conditions during the years 2009–2010. The grapes were cultivated in Veneto (northwest Italy) and Marches (central Italy). The results show that the multivariate statistical analysis PCA (Principal Component Analysis) of all the data can be a useful tool to characterize the vintage and identify the origin of wines produced from different varieties. Moreover, it could discriminate wines of the same variety produced in regions with different soil and climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Wine Traceability with Rare Earth Elements
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that [...] Read more.
The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that can act as soil markers are being sought. In this work, the role of rare earth elements (REEs) as geochemical markers in the traceability of red wine is discussed. The REE distribution in samples from each step of the wine making process of Primitivo wine (produced in Southern Italy) was determined using the highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. Samples analyzed include grapes, must, and wine samples after every step in the vinification process. The resulting data were compared to the REE distribution in the soil, revealing that the soil fingerprint is maintained in the intermediate products up to and including grape must. Fractionation occurs thereafter as a consequence of further external interventions, which tends to modify the REE profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Polyphenol Fingerprinting Approaches in Wine Traceability and Authenticity: Assessment and Implications of Red Wines
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
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Abstract
Like any other food/feed matrix, regardless of the employed analytical method, wine requires authentication strategies; a suitable qualitative and quantitative analysis represents the fingerprint which defines its identity. Until recently, fingerprinting approaches using liquid chromatography applications have been regarded as an effective tool [...] Read more.
Like any other food/feed matrix, regardless of the employed analytical method, wine requires authentication strategies; a suitable qualitative and quantitative analysis represents the fingerprint which defines its identity. Until recently, fingerprinting approaches using liquid chromatography applications have been regarded as an effective tool for the assessment of wines employing polyphenol profiles. These profiles are of considerable importance for grapes and wines as they influence greatly the color, sensory, and nutritional quality of the final product. The authenticity and typicity characters are fundamental characteristics, which may be evaluated by the use of polyphenol fingerprinting techniques. Under these conditions, the evolution of polyphenols during the red wine elaboration and maturation processes shows a high importance at the level of the obtained fingerprints. Moreover, the environment factors (vintage, the area of origin, and variety) and the technological conditions significantly influence wine authenticity through the use of polyphenol profiles. Taking into account the complexity of the matter at hand, this review outlines the latest trends in the polyphenol fingerprinting of red wines in association with the transformations that occur during winemaking and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessReview
From the Field to the Bottle—An Integrated Strategy for Wine Authenticity
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
The wine sector is one of the most economically important agro-food businesses. The wine market value is largely associated to terroir, in some cases resulting in highly expensive wines that attract fraudulent practices. The existent wine traceability system has some limitations that can [...] Read more.
The wine sector is one of the most economically important agro-food businesses. The wine market value is largely associated to terroir, in some cases resulting in highly expensive wines that attract fraudulent practices. The existent wine traceability system has some limitations that can be overcome with the development of new technological approaches that can tackle this problem with several means. This review aims to call attention to the problem and to present several strategies that can assure a more reliable and authentic wine system, identifying existent technologies developed for the sector, which can be incorporated into the current traceability system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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