Special Issue "Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Clemencia Chaves Lòpez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Facoltà di Bioscenze e Tecnologie Agroalimentari ed ambientali, Università degli Studi di Teramo, Campus universitario di Coste Sant'Agostino, Via R. Balzarini 1 64100 Teramo, Italy
Interests: fermented foods; antimicrobial compounds; microbial ecology; moulds
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Gustavo Cordero-Bueso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratorio de Microbiología, Departamento de Biomedicina, Biotecnología y Salud Pública, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Av. de la República Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain
Interests: nutrition; Food Microbiology; amp; food biotechnology; yeast biology, food biotechnology, fermentation; Food & Yeast ermentation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fermented beverages are produced worldwide using different microorganisms as well manufacturing techniques and raw materials. However, there is only one main fermentation process, i.e., alcoholic fermentation, and three related bioprocesses commonly known as lactic acid, acetic acid, and alkaline fermentation. A proper interaction between microorganisms and fermented beverages results in desirable flavor and physical characteristics in the final products. Fermented beverages may adversely become contaminated with pathogens or microbial toxins and thereby transform into vehicles that can transmit diseases to the consumers. Moreover, many microorganisms can deteriorate the physical and chemical properties as well as the flavor of the final products.

The Special Issue “Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages” will collect high-quality original research papers, reviews, and commentaries on:

i) fermentation ecology of yeast, bacteria, fungi, and viruses and their interactions and dynamics

ii) advances in research and technology to prevent fermented beverages’ microbial spoilage during fermentation, ageing, and storage

iii) methods to enhance the flavor, taste, nutritive value, and microbiological safety of the final products

iv) methods to prevent the formation of toxins (such as mycotoxins, biogenic amines, ecc)

v) new detection methods to identify toxins in fermented beverages.

Prof. Dr. Clemencia Chaves Lòpez
Prof. Gustavo Cordero-Bueso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • yeast
  • bacteria
  • virus
  • spoilage
  • safety
  • fermented beverages

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Dynamic of Lachancea thermotolerans Population in Monoculture and Mixed Fermentations: Impact on Wine Characteristics
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020036 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
Lachancea thermotolerans is a non-Saccharomyces yeast appreciated for its potential of acidification due to the production of lactic acid; however, this species also synthetizes other metabolites that modulate organoleptic wine properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the strain L. [...] Read more.
Lachancea thermotolerans is a non-Saccharomyces yeast appreciated for its potential of acidification due to the production of lactic acid; however, this species also synthetizes other metabolites that modulate organoleptic wine properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the strain L. thermotolerans Lt93 to ferment ‘Treixadura’ and ‘Mencía’ musts and its impact on yeast population dynamics and wine characteristics. Fermentations using monocultures of L. thermotolerans Lt93 and S. cerevisiae strains, sequential inoculation and spontaneous process were performed. The dynamic of yeast population and wine composition were analyzed following standard methodology. L. thermotolerans Lt93 was unable to overgrow wild yeast population in ‘Treixadura’ white must; however, with ‘Mencía’ red must, Lt93 was the predominant yeast at the beginning of fermentation and remained at high frequency until the end. Lt93 Treixadura wines had slightly higher acidity and higher content of esters and acids than ScXG3 wines. Lt93 Mencía wines presented higher acidity (10.1 g/L) and 0.8% (v/v) lower ethanol content than Sc71B wines. The content of esters and fatty acids was 3.3 and 4.0 times lower, respectively, in Lt93 than in Sc71B Mencía wines. It was possible to increase wine acidity and modulate the chemical wine profile by using Lt93. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Article
Wine Industry’s Attitude towards Oenological Yeasts: Italy as a Case Study
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020033 - 17 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Yeast inoculation is a widespread practice in winemaking in order to control the must fermentation. However, the use of indigenous wine yeasts can enrich wine quality and differentiate wine styles. Yeast cream preparation (CRY), recently accepted by the International Organization of Vine and [...] Read more.
Yeast inoculation is a widespread practice in winemaking in order to control the must fermentation. However, the use of indigenous wine yeasts can enrich wine quality and differentiate wine styles. Yeast cream preparation (CRY), recently accepted by the International Organization of Vine and Wine, could allow an easier usage of autochthonous yeasts. This work aimed at investigating the actual Italian wine industry’s attitude towards the available formulations of commercial wine yeasts with attention to CRY. Moreover, this study evaluated the perception of wineries toward indigenous yeasts in both winemaking and marketing viewpoints. Data show different levels of knowledge and use about the available yeast formulations. In general, there is not a predominantly positive or negative participants’ opinion regarding the use of indigenous yeasts. Wineries using CRY (4% of the sample) mainly adopt them as a part of the production in order to compare the wines with the ones traditionally obtained with commercial yeasts. CRY is perceived by some interviewees as a potential tool to increase communication and product differentiation. This survey could have anticipated future trends in the use of yeast formulations, determined by the market demands for diversified, unique, and environmentally sustainable products, that can allow an accessible application of precision enology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Communication
A Preliminary Evaluation to Establish Bath Pasteurization Guidelines for Hard Cider
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020024 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Though in-package water bath heat pasteurization for hard cider production is commonly employed to improve product safety and stability, there is a considerable lack of research-based guidelines to inform industry practices. In this study, fermented cider was bottled and inoculated with high populations [...] Read more.
Though in-package water bath heat pasteurization for hard cider production is commonly employed to improve product safety and stability, there is a considerable lack of research-based guidelines to inform industry practices. In this study, fermented cider was bottled and inoculated with high populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii yeast. The bottles were then subjected to water bath pasteurization 60 °C at varying lengths of time. For both yeast species, populations were reduced to undetectable levels after just 1 min of processing time. Though validation of each individual process is recommended, cider producers may be able to sufficiently reduce the risks of spoilage organisms with minimal water bath pasteurization, especially when combined with other methods to reduce the presence of spoilage organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Article
Colonization of Wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains in a New Winery
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010009 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the fungal colonization of a new winery over time, specifically for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we analyzed the flora present before the arrival of the first harvest on the floor, the walls and the equipment [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the fungal colonization of a new winery over time, specifically for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we analyzed the flora present before the arrival of the first harvest on the floor, the walls and the equipment of this new winery by Illumina MiSeq. The genus Saccharomyces (≤0.3%) was detected on floor and equipment but the presence of S. cerevisiae species was not reported. Wild S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from a ‘Pied de Cuve’ used during the first vintage to ensure the alcoholic fermentation (AF). Among 25 isolates belonging to this species, 17 different strains were identified highlighting a great intraspecific diversity. S. cerevisiae strains were also isolated from different vats throughout the spontaneous fermentations during the first vintage. The following year, some of these strains were isolated again during AF. Some of them (four) were found in the winery equipment before the arrival of the third harvest suggesting a potential colonization by these strains. To better understand what promotes the yeast colonization of the winery’s environment, the ability to form a biofilm on solid surfaces for eight colonizing or non-colonizing strains was studied. This capacity, different according to the strains, could partly explain the colonization observed for certain strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Article
Determination of Anthocyanin and Volatile Profile of Wines from Varieties Yiannoudi and Maratheftiko from the Island of Cyprus
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010004 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Anthocyanins and volatile aromas may contribute to the identity of a wine varietal. Various parameters such as terroir (including vineyard altitude), viticultural management, vinification techniques and ageing conditions can influence the physiochemical pathways of the compounds. This work evaluated the anthocyanins and volatile [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins and volatile aromas may contribute to the identity of a wine varietal. Various parameters such as terroir (including vineyard altitude), viticultural management, vinification techniques and ageing conditions can influence the physiochemical pathways of the compounds. This work evaluated the anthocyanins and volatile compounds of two monovarietal wines from indigenous varieties, Yiannoudi and Maratheftiko, grown in the island of Cyprus from the vintages 2014, 2015 and 2016. The experimental analysis comprised the determination of anthocyanin’s profile (high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) and fermentation derived volatiles (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-FID) and a blind wine testing sensory evaluation. Both the analytical results and the blind wine tasting showed that wines, at their early stage, were easily differentiated by variety, especially in terms of anthocyanins composition, while, in aged wines, the differences among samples were influenced in time by the winemaking procedures and it was not possible to differentiate varieties in such conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Review

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Review
Traditional and Artisanal Beverages in Nigeria: Microbial Diversity and Safety Issues
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030053 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
A review of up to 90 articles on the microorganisms associated with important artisanal or traditional beverages in Nigeria was carried out. This resulted in an overview of the prevalent microorganisms associated with soymilk, nono (fermented cow milk), tiger nut milk, yoghurt, kunu, [...] Read more.
A review of up to 90 articles on the microorganisms associated with important artisanal or traditional beverages in Nigeria was carried out. This resulted in an overview of the prevalent microorganisms associated with soymilk, nono (fermented cow milk), tiger nut milk, yoghurt, kunu, zobo, palm wine and the local beers pito and brukutu. The bacteria genera, namely Bacillus, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus, were detected in all nine beverages. On the contrary, this survey resulted in finding that the genera Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Candida, and Penicillium were the eukaryotic microorganisms isolated in all beverages. The occurrence of fungal isolates, which can be responsible for producing mycotoxins, is a concern and shows the need for post-production tests. Overall, there is a low prevalence of bacteria associated with hygiene, especially the Escherichia genus in alcoholic beverages such as palm wine, pito and burukutu, which may be due both to a low acidity and high ethanol content. However, the prevalence of hygiene indicator genera was higher in nonalcoholic drinks, probably because of incorrect practices during processing. The magnitude of the production and sales of unregulated local beverages in Nigeria has reached the stage where significant regulation and food safety standards are required to safeguard public health. An opportunity exists to monitor and characterize the microbial flora of the artisanal beverages using molecular methods at all stages of production and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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