Special Issue "Focus on Traffic Safety: From Artificial Intelligence Approaches to Other Advances"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Computing and Artificial Intelligence".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Paweł Droździel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Transport, Combustion Engine and Ecology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland
Interests: safety and social issues in the operation of road transport vehicles; sustainability transport; economic aspects of the operation and construction of means of transport; problems of operation of vehicles; tribology aspects in vehicles; problems of start-ups of the diesel engine
Prof. Ing. Radovan Madleňák
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Communications, University of Zilina, 01026 Zilina, Slovakia
Interests: transportation planning; logistics; marketing; e-business; human-computer interaction; communication; IT infrastructure; network architecture
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Saugirdas Pukalskas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Automotive Engineering, Faculty of Transport Engineering, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Interests: road safety; hybrid vehicle; internal combustion engines
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Drago Sever
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Transportation Engineering and Architecture, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia
Interests: theory of traffic flows; dimensioning of traffic infrastructure; traffic and transportation infrastructure; traffic calming; sustainable mobility; mobility patterns; public passenger transport; traffic safety
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marcin Ślęzak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Motor Transport Institute, General Director, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: combustion engines; vehicle diagnostics and environmental protection; road safety; autonomous vehicles and electromobility

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vehicle technologies are rapidly moving forward; therefore, vehicle safety today is incomparable to that of 20 or 30 years ago, let alone that of vehicles manufactured even earlier than that. It is generally now quite difficult to get into a fatal or severe accident driving a modern vehicle at the permitted speed. However, lots of road accidents still happen every day, with people killed or injured. Furthermore, there are always vulnerable road users on our roads, whose safety mainly depends on drivers’ attention and awareness level.

The safest way to move is by maintaining speed which is as low as possible—such as walking or at least running speed, in which no one can suffer serious physical harm in the event of an accident. Moreover, making sure that wearing a helmet is the prevalent behavior on our roads would lead to an easier implementation of Vision Zero. Unfortunately, humanity will probably never return to such speeds again. Therefore, what is the future of road users, and what kind of technologies and opportunities will ensure their safety? These questions are not only more relevant than ever before today, but they also remain open to sustainable ideas and modern technologies.

This is thus a call for everyone to help us to move forward, solve issues of traffic safety, and protect each other.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Paweł Droździel
Prof. Ing. Radovan Madleňák
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Saugirdas Pukalskas
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Drago Sever
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marcin Ślęzak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • traffic safety
  • road safety
  • speed limits
  • eye tracking
  • safety analysis of road networks
  • safety potential
  • autonomous vehicle
  • road safety audit
  • collisions
  • traffic accidents

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Investigating Rural Single-Vehicle Crash Severity by Vehicle Types Using Full Bayesian Spatial Random Parameters Logit Model
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7819; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177819 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
The effect of risk factors on crash severity varies across vehicle types. The objective of this study was to explore the risk factors associated with the severity of rural single-vehicle (SV) crashes. Four vehicle types including passenger car, motorcycle, pickup, and truck were [...] Read more.
The effect of risk factors on crash severity varies across vehicle types. The objective of this study was to explore the risk factors associated with the severity of rural single-vehicle (SV) crashes. Four vehicle types including passenger car, motorcycle, pickup, and truck were considered. To synthetically accommodate unobserved heterogeneity and spatial correlation in crash data, a novel Bayesian spatial random parameters logit (SRP-logit) model is proposed. Rural SV crash data in Shandong Province were extracted to calibrate the model. Three traditional logit approaches—multinomial logit model, random parameter logit model, and random intercept logit model—were also established and compared with the proposed model. The results indicated that the SRP-logit model exhibits the best fit performance compared with other models, highlighting that simultaneously accommodating unobserved heterogeneity and spatial correlation is a promising modeling approach. Further, there is a significant positive correlation between weekend, dark (without street lighting) conditions, and collision with fixed object and severe crashes and a significant negative correlation between collision with pedestrians and severe crashes. The findings can provide valuable information for policy makers to improve traffic safety performance in rural areas. Full article
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Article
Estimation of Optimal Speed Limits for Urban Roads Using Traffic Information Big Data
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5710; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125710 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
The use of an inconsistent speed limit determination method can cause low speed limit compliance. Therefore, we developed an objective methodology based on engineering judgment considering the traffic accident rate in road sections, the degree of roadside development, and the geometric characteristics of [...] Read more.
The use of an inconsistent speed limit determination method can cause low speed limit compliance. Therefore, we developed an objective methodology based on engineering judgment considering the traffic accident rate in road sections, the degree of roadside development, and the geometric characteristics of road sections in urban roads. The scope of this study is one-way roads with two or more lanes in cities, and appropriate sections were selected among all roads in Seoul. These roads have speed limits of the statutory maximum speed of 80 km/h or lower and are characterized by various speeds according to the function of the road, the roadside development, and traffic conditions. The optimal speed limits of urban roads were estimated by applying the characteristics of variables as adjustment factors based on the statutory maximum speed limit. As a result of investigating and testing various influence variables, the function of roads, the existence of median, the level of curbside parking, the number of roadside access points, and the number of traffic breaks were selected as optional variables that influence the operating speed. The speed limit of one-way roads with two or more lanes in Seoul was approximately 10 km/h lower than the current speed limit. The existing speed limits of the roads were applied uniformly considering only the functional road class. However, considering the road environment, the speed limit should be applied differently for each road. In the future, if the collection scope and real-time collection of road environment information can be determined, the GIS visualization of traffic safety information will be possible for all road sections and the safety of road users can be ensured. Full article
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Article
Research on Safety Prediction of Sector Traffic Operation Based on a Long Short Term Memory Model
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5141; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115141 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Traffic safety has been thought of as a basic feature of transportation, recent developments in civil aviation have emphasized the need for risk identification and safety prediction. This study aims to increase en-route flight safety through the development of prediction models for flight [...] Read more.
Traffic safety has been thought of as a basic feature of transportation, recent developments in civil aviation have emphasized the need for risk identification and safety prediction. This study aims to increase en-route flight safety through the development of prediction models for flight conflicts. Firstly, flight conflicts time series and traffic parameters are extracted from historical ADS-B data. In the second step, a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model is trained to make a one-step-ahead prediction on the flight conflict time series. The results show that the LSTM model has the greatest prediction effect (MAE 0.3901) with comparison to other models. Based on that, we add traffic parameters (volume, density, velocity) into the LSTM model as new input variables and issue a comprehensive analysis of the relative predictive power of traffic parameters. The accuracy of prediction model is validated with a mean error of less than 3%. Based on the improvements of model performance brought by traffic parameters, LSTM models with a single traffic parameter are proposed for further discussion. The results illustrate that volume is the most important factor in promoting prediction accuracy and density has an advantage of improvement in the aspect of model stability. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Quality Management System on the Operation of Periodical Technical Inspection Stations
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4854; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114854 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 649
Abstract
This article deals with the minimum requirements for quality management at Periodical Technical Inspection Stations (PTIS) for road vehicles in the Slovak Republic, as well as in selected countries of the European Union. Specifically, it contains research performed at all of the PTIS [...] Read more.
This article deals with the minimum requirements for quality management at Periodical Technical Inspection Stations (PTIS) for road vehicles in the Slovak Republic, as well as in selected countries of the European Union. Specifically, it contains research performed at all of the PTIS in the Slovak Republic with a focus on the established quality management system and the number of employees of companies operating these PTIS, as well as similar research in selected countries of the European Union. Based on the research results, the article contains an assessment of the influence of the implemented quality management system on the operation of PTIS. The analysis of the results showed that 86.7% of PTIs have an established system to meet the minimum requirements for quality management through a documented procedure (internal regulation), and 13.3% of the PTI have the certified quality management system according to the STN EN ISO/IEC 9001 standard. Unfortunately, no PTI in the Slovak Republic has the fulfilment of quality management requirements according to the standard STN EN ISO/IEC 17020. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Solutions Improving Safety of Cyclists in the Road Traffic
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3771; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093771 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Cycling safety management is particularly important due to the increasing use of this mode of transport and increasing car traffic flows. Cyclists—travelling on roadways or sharing the space with pedestrians—are exposed to considerable risks for their safety, as well as for the safety [...] Read more.
Cycling safety management is particularly important due to the increasing use of this mode of transport and increasing car traffic flows. Cyclists—travelling on roadways or sharing the space with pedestrians—are exposed to considerable risks for their safety, as well as for the safety of other road users. Comprehensive and effective management of bicycle traffic safety is therefore essential for the protection of this group of road users. The article presents procedures, the implementation of which is aimed at increasing the safety of cyclists and effective implementation of measures to achieve that. The analyses aimed at the selection of appropriate measures and solutions to improve safety of cyclists in the road traffic have been presented. The procedures include: Selection of devices and measures, risk assessment and estimation of the potential to reduce the risk of collisions/accidents involving cyclists, selection of investment measures and devices reducing the risk of cyclists and other road users, implementation methods and monitoring of selected measures reducing the risk of collisions/accidents involving cyclists. The proposals contained in the article fill in the gap existing in this area of knowledge. The analyses conducted and the presented results show that the construction of infrastructure for cyclists is not the only way to improve the safety of this group of road users. Due to the high costs and deficit of the road surface in the road-street cross-section—other forms of measures in this area should also be analyzed. Full article
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Article
Model Validation and Scenario Selection for Virtual-Based Homologation of Automated Vehicles
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010035 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
Due to the rapid progress in the development of automated vehicles over the last decade, their market entry is getting closer. One of the remaining challenges is the safety assessment and type approval of automated vehicles, as conventional testing in the real world [...] Read more.
Due to the rapid progress in the development of automated vehicles over the last decade, their market entry is getting closer. One of the remaining challenges is the safety assessment and type approval of automated vehicles, as conventional testing in the real world would involve an unmanageable mileage. Scenario-based testing using simulation is a promising candidate for overcoming this approval trap. Although the research community has recognized the importance of safeguarding in recent years, the quality of simulation models is rarely taken into account. Without investigating the errors and uncertainties of models, virtual statements about vehicle safety are meaningless. This paper describes a whole process combining model validation and safety assessment. It is demonstrated by means of an actual type-approval regulation that deals with the safety assessment of lane-keeping systems. Based on a thorough analysis of the current state-of-the-art, this paper introduces two approaches for selecting test scenarios. While the model validation scenarios are planned from scratch and focus on scenario coverage, the type-approval scenarios are extracted from measurement data based on a data-driven pipeline. The deviations between lane-keeping behavior in the real and virtual world are quantified using a statistical validation metric. They are then modeled using a regression technique and inferred from the validation experiments to the unseen virtual type-approval scenarios. Finally, this paper examines safety-critical lane crossings, taking into account the modeling errors. It demonstrates the potential of the virtual-based safeguarding process using exemplary simulations and real driving tests. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Paweł Droździel, Radovan Madleňák, Saugirdas Pukalskas, Drago Sever, Marcin Ślęzak

Title: Comparison of the Impact of Outdoor Advertising on the Driver During Night and Day Driving

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