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Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2022) | Viewed by 18982
Related Special Issues: Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2018; 2019; 2020.

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
I. I. Vorovich Mathematics, Mechanics, and Computer Science Institute, Southern Federal University, 344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Interests: mechanical engineering; solid state physics; materials physics; materials science; superconductors; piezoceramics; piezoelectric ceramics; superconductivity; microstructure
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Microelectronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Interests: signal processing; electrical engineering; signal analysis; time–frequency analysis; transducers; ultrasonics; piezoelectricity; array signal processing; adaptive beamforming
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

To boost the development of modern technologies, the better performance of broad spectrum devices, research methods and computational approaches are prerequisite. To enhance the function and performance of the devices, the physics and mechanics investigation of related materials, composites, and applications is critical. The present Special Issue aims to explore new trends in these scientific and technical areas. A certain number of contributions for this Special Issue will come from selected papers of PHENMA 2021, the 10th Anniversary International Conference on "Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications" (PHENMA 2021).

https://phenma2021.sfedu.ru/

Besides, you will have an opportunity to enjoy special 10% discounts for your submission to the Special Issue.

Topics of interest (among others) include:

Materials: ferro-piezoelectrics, semiconductors, superconductors, environmental materials, composite, ceramics, thin films, nanomaterials, advanced materials for additive manufacturing, metal engineering materials, functionally graded materials, etc.

Synthesis and Processing: powder processing, processing technologies, piezoelectric technologies, MEMS-processing, etc.

Characterization and Research Methods: material design, microstructure properties, chemical properties, physical properties, mechanical properties, strength properties, finite-element modeling, mathematical modeling, physical modeling, physical experiment, etc.

Applications: MEMS, hetero-structures, piezotransducers, energy harvesting, superconductive devices, light-emitting diodes, multimedia communication, fiber-reinforced composites, construction health monitoring, lubricant and tribology, etc.

Underwater Technologies: underwater communication, marine engineering, power system, ocean energy, etc.

Biomedical Engineering: medical materials, nanotechnology in medicine, medical instrumentation, physical methods in medicine, waste, biological product processing, etc.

Industry and Management: CAD/CAM/CAE application, industrial instruments, EDM, materials machining, machines, design and building constructions, etc.

Prof. Dr. Ivan A. Parinov
Prof. Dr. Shun-Hsyung Chang
Dr. Hung-Yu Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021”
by Ivan A. Parinov, Shun-Hsyung Chang and Hung-Yu Wang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 10941; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122110941 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 840
Abstract
Material science, aimed at designing, fabricating, investigating, and using advanced materials and composites in different fields, is the one of the most rapidly developing directions in science, technologies, and techniques [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

14 pages, 4964 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Numerical Analysis of a Porous Piezoelectric Ceramic for Axial Load Energy Harvesting
by Rakesh Kumar Haldkar, Alexander V. Cherpakov, Ivan A. Parinov and Vladislav E. Yakovlev
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10047; https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910047 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
In this paper, an axial-type piezoelectric energy generator with various porosities of piezoelectric ceramics is designed and analysed. A 3D finite element model is developed by using ANSYS software. The porosity of piezoelectric ceramic is varied from 0 to 80% through thickness or [...] Read more.
In this paper, an axial-type piezoelectric energy generator with various porosities of piezoelectric ceramics is designed and analysed. A 3D finite element model is developed by using ANSYS software. The porosity of piezoelectric ceramic is varied from 0 to 80% through thickness or along the length of the duralumin beam. The axial type energy harvester consists of bimorph (d31) and cylinder (d33) piezoelectric patches with base excitation. The effects of various porosities, proof mass locations, and different applied acceleration are used to determine the output voltage and power generation. The maximum output voltage and power are obtained equal to 2.25 V and 5.1 µW, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021)
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10 pages, 2587 KiB  
Article
A TSV-Structured Room Temperature p-Type TiO2 Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor
by Yu-Ming Yeh, Shoou-Jinn Chang, Pin-Hsiang Wang and Ting-Jen Hsueh
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9946; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199946 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Planar MOS/MEMS gas sensors have been widely studied and applied, but the detection of exhaled gas has been little developed. The flow rate of exhaled gas affects the suspension structure of the MEMS gas sensor and the operating temperature of the gas sensor. [...] Read more.
Planar MOS/MEMS gas sensors have been widely studied and applied, but the detection of exhaled gas has been little developed. The flow rate of exhaled gas affects the suspension structure of the MEMS gas sensor and the operating temperature of the gas sensor. Therefore, this study uses the Bosch process and the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to prepare a room-temperature (RT) TSV-structured TiO2 gas sensor. The results indicated that the TiO2 sensing film is uniformed and covers the through-silicon via (TSV) structure and the TiO2 sensing film is confirmed to be a p-type MOS. In terms of gas sensing at room temperature, the response of the sensor increases with the increasing NO concentration. The sensor response is 16.5% on average, with an inaccuracy of <± 0.5% for five cycles at 4 ppm NO concentration. For gas at 10 ppm, the response of the sensor to NO is 24.4%, but the sensor produces almost no response to other gases (CO, CO2, SO2, and H2S). The RT TiO2 gas sensor with a TSV structure exhibits good stability, reversibility, and selectivity to NO gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021)
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9 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Verification of Fuel Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions under Sulfur Restriction Policy during Oceanographic Navigation
by Hsueh-Chen Shen, Fu-Ming Tzu, Chitsan Lin, Chin-Ko Yeh, Wen-Yen Huang, Han-Pin Pu and Shun-Hsyung Chang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9857; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199857 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2997
Abstract
The paper presents a comparison of the fuel oil (FO) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of a container ship’s 8000 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) during oceanographic navigation. The evaluation has two types of FOs: a 3.4% heavy fuel oil with [...] Read more.
The paper presents a comparison of the fuel oil (FO) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of a container ship’s 8000 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) during oceanographic navigation. The evaluation has two types of FOs: a 3.4% heavy fuel oil with desulfurization (HFOWD) and a 0.5% very-low-sulfur fuel oil (VLSFO), based on the sulfur cap policy of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The results show the average FO consumption at 130 tons/day of HFOWD and 141 tons/day of VLSFO, which means shifting to VLSFO increases fuel consumption 8.4% more than the HFOWD. The average CO2 emissions are 429 tons/day of the HFOWD and 471 tons/day of the VLSFO, indicating an 9.5% increase in CO2 emissions when the IMO adopts the low-sulfur fuel policy. Moreover, the VLSFO blending of various chemicals further deteriorates and wears out the main engine of the ship. IMO’s low-sulfur fuel policy significantly reduced the emission of sulfur oxides (SOX) and particulate matter emissions. Still, we should not ignore the fact that adopting VLSFO may cause more CO2 emissions. Therefore, while switching to low-sulfur fuels, the maritime industry should improve the related energy efficiency to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021)
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11 pages, 2874 KiB  
Article
Hourly Power Consumption Forecasting Using RobustSTL and TCN
by Chih-Hsueh Lin, Ulin Nuha, Guang-Zhi Lin and Tsair-Fwu Lee
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4331; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094331 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
Power consumption forecasting is a crucial need for power management to achieve sustainable energy. The power demand is increasing over time, while the forecasting of power consumption possesses challenges with nonlinearity patterns and various noise in the datasets. To this end, this paper [...] Read more.
Power consumption forecasting is a crucial need for power management to achieve sustainable energy. The power demand is increasing over time, while the forecasting of power consumption possesses challenges with nonlinearity patterns and various noise in the datasets. To this end, this paper proposes the RobustSTL and temporal convolutional network (TCN) model to forecast hourly power consumption. Through the RobustSTL, instead of standard STL, this decomposition method can extract time series data despite containing dynamic patterns, various noise, and burstiness. The trend, seasonality, and remainder components obtained from the decomposition operation can enhance prediction accuracy by providing significant information from the dataset. These components are then used as input for the TCN model applying deep learning for forecasting. TCN employing dilated causal convolutions and residual blocks to extract long-term data patterns outperforms recurrent networks in time series forecasting studies. To assess the proposed model, this paper conducts a comparison experiment between the proposed model and counterpart models. The result shows that the proposed model can grasp the rules of historical time series data related to hourly power consumption. Our proposed model overcomes the counterpart schemes in MAPE, MAE, and RMSE metrics. Additionally, the proposed model obtains the best results in precision, recall, and F1-score values. The result also indicates that the predicted data can fit the pattern of the actual data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021)
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14 pages, 40611 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Analysis of Patient-Specific Temporomandibular Joint Implant and Comparison with Natural Intact Jaw Bone Using Finite Element Method
by Anubhav Tiwari, Vijay Kumar Gupta, Rakesh Kumar Haldkar and Ivan A. Parinov
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 3003; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12063003 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2454
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to design a patient-specific TMJ implant and study its behaviour under different loading conditions compared with natural intact TMJ. There are several diseases, which affect the proper growth and function of TMJ, and in some cases, TMJ [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to design a patient-specific TMJ implant and study its behaviour under different loading conditions compared with natural intact TMJ. There are several diseases, which affect the proper growth and function of TMJ, and in some cases, TMJ injury results from accidents. To repair the TMJ, temporomandibular joint replacement or TJR surgery is performed. In this work, CT-scan data of the skull and mandible region with broken condylar head were used to study the biomechanical behaviour of the intact mandible and customized TMJ prostheses in order to design a patient-specific total TMJ implant. The customized TMJ implant was virtually studied under simulated loading conditions using finite element method (FEM) in ANSYS Workbench and then compared to the intact jaw-mandible for the combinations of two different biocompatible material models. It is observed that the natural TMJ has a higher deformation value as compared to the patient-specific TMJ implant due to the lower mechanical strength of bone relative to the Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr alloy. Hence, we can conclude that the designed custom TMJ implant is safe for the patient from the point of design perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021)
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21 pages, 7046 KiB  
Article
Parametric and Experimental Modeling of Axial-Type Piezoelectric Energy Generator with Active Base
by Alexander V. Cherpakov, Ivan A. Parinov and Rakesh Kumar Haldkar
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031700 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
A computational and experimental approach to modeling oscillations of a new axial-type piezoelectric generator (PEG) with an attached mass and an active base is considered. A pair of cylindrical piezoelements located along the generator axis is used as an active base. Plate-type piezoelectric [...] Read more.
A computational and experimental approach to modeling oscillations of a new axial-type piezoelectric generator (PEG) with an attached mass and an active base is considered. A pair of cylindrical piezoelements located along the generator axis is used as an active base. Plate-type piezoelectric elements, made in the form of two bimorphs on an elastic PEG base, use the potential energy of PEG bending vibrations. Energy generation in cylindrical piezoelectric elements occurs due to the transfer of compressive forces to the piezoelectric element at the base of the PEG during excitation of structural vibrations. The active load scheme is selected separately for each piezoelectric element. Numerical simulation was performed in the ANSYS FE analysis package. The results of modal and harmonic analysis of vibrations are presented. A technique for experimental analysis of vibrations is presented, and a laboratory test setup is described. Numerical and experimental results are presented for the output characteristics of a piezoelectric generator at a low-frequency load. For one of the versions of the generator and a certain displacement amplitude for a frequency of 39 Hz, in the results of a comparative experimental analysis at a load of 10 kΩ, the maximum output power for each cylindrical piezoelectric element was 2138.9 μW, and for plate-type piezoelectric elements, respectively, 446.9 μW and 423.2 μW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021)
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14 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
Determination of Prestress in Circular Inhomogeneous Solid and Annular Plates in the Framework of the Timoshenko Hypotheses
by Ivan V. Bogachev
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9819; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219819 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Determination of prestress fields in structures is of the utmost importance, since they have a significant impact on operational characteristics, and their level and distribution must be strictly controlled. In this paper, we present modeling of bending vibrations of solid and annular round [...] Read more.
Determination of prestress fields in structures is of the utmost importance, since they have a significant impact on operational characteristics, and their level and distribution must be strictly controlled. In this paper, we present modeling of bending vibrations of solid and annular round inhomogeneous prestressed plates within the framework of the Timoshenko hypotheses. New inverse problems of prestress identification in plates are studied on the basis of the acoustic response subjected to some probing load. To solve direct problems on calculating oscillations and amplitude-frequency characteristics, a computational Galerkin-method-based scheme has been developed. In order to treat the inverse problems, we use a special projection approach based on the constructed weak problems statements, which makes it possible to determine the desired characteristics in the given classes of functions. The developed techniques for solving direct problems are implemented in the form of software packages realized via Maple. For both solid and annular plates, we estimate the sensitivity of the amplitude-frequency characteristics the values of which are used as the additional data in the inverse problems to a change in the prestress level; we conclude that the most favorable frequency range should be selected in the resonance vicinity. We have conducted a series of computational tests on reconstructing the plate’s prestresses of various levels and distribution patterns (decreasing, increasing, sign-changing laws). The results of computational tests revealed that the technique developed allows for the determination of the prestresses with a low error for two cases: when the cause of prestress formation and its type are known and when arbitrary prestress changing laws are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021)
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13 pages, 3478 KiB  
Article
Design, Modeling, and Analysis of Piezoelectric-Actuated Device for Blood Sampling
by Rakesh Kumar Haldkar, Vijay Kumar Gupta, Tanuja Sheorey and Ivan A. Parinov
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8449; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188449 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
In recent years, micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based biomedical devices have been investigated by various researchers for biomedicine, disease diagnosis, and liquid drug delivery. The micropump based devices are of considerable significance for accurate drug delivery and disease diagnosis. In the present study, design [...] Read more.
In recent years, micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based biomedical devices have been investigated by various researchers for biomedicine, disease diagnosis, and liquid drug delivery. The micropump based devices are of considerable significance for accurate drug delivery and disease diagnosis. In the present study, design aspects of the piezoelectric actuated micropump used for extraction of blood sample are presented. A pentagonal microneedle, which is an integral part of the micropump, was used to extract the blood volume. The blood was then delivered to the biosensor, located in the pump chamber, for diagnosis. The purpose of such low-powered devices is to get sufficient blood volume for the diagnostic purpose at the biosensor located within the pump chamber, with a minimum time of actuation, which will eventually cause less pain. ANSYS® simulations were performed on four quarter piezoelectric bimorph actuator (FQPB) at 2.5 volts. The modal and harmonic analysis were carried out with various load conditions for FQPB. The extended microneedle lengths inside the pump chamber showed improved flow characteristics. Enhanced volume flow rate of 1.256 µL/s was obtained at 22,000 Hz applied frequency at the biosensor location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2021)
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