Special Issue "Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2020"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ivan A. Parinov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mathematics, Mechanics, and Computer Science Institute, Southern Federal University, 344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Interests: microstructure; superconductivity; superconductors; piezoelectric ceramics; piezoelectric composites; piezoelectric devices; energy harvesting; optics
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Prof. Dr. Yun-Hae Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University (KMOU), 727 Taejong-ro, Busan, Korea
Interests: mechanical engineering; composite materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Shun-Hsyung Chang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Microelectronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Interests: signal processing; electrical engineering; signal analysis; time–frequency analysis; transducers; ultrasonics; piezoelectricity; array signal processing; adaptive beamforming
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Hung-Yu Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Interests: analog IC design; circuit theory; circuit analysis and synthesis; applied electronics; electronic design automation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

To boost the development of artificial intelligent correlative technologies, better performance of sensing devices, signal processing, and communication are prerequisite. To enhance the function and performance of sensing devices, the mechanics investigation of related materials, circuits, and applications is critical. The present Special Issue aims to explore new trends in physics and mechanics of new materials and their applications. A certain number of contributions for this Special Issue will come from selected papers of PHENMA 2020, the 9th “International conference on Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications”.

http://phenma2020.math.sfedu.ru/

Topics of interest (among others) include:

Materials: ferro-piezoelectrics; semiconductors; superconductors; environmental materials; medical materials; composite; ceramics; thin films; nanomaterials; new materials for additive manufacturing; metal engineering materials; etc.

Synthesis and Processing: powder processing; processing technologies; piezoelectric technologies; MEMS-processing; etc.

Characterization and Research Methods: microstructure properties; physical properties; mechanical properties; strength properties; finite-element modeling; mathematical modeling; physical modeling; physical experiments; etc.

Applications: MEMS, heterostructures; piezotransducers; superconductive devices; light-emitting diodes; multimedia communication; fiber-reinforced composites; construction health monitoring; lubricant and tribology; waste; etc.

Underwater Technologies: underwater communication; marine engineering; power systems; ocean energy; etc.

Industry and Management: CAD/CAM/CAE application; industrial instruments; EDM; materials machining; machines; etc.

Prof. Ivan A. Parinov
Prof. Dr. Yun-Hae Kim
Prof. Shun-Hsyung Chang
Prof. Hung-Yu Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Which Is the Motion State of a Droplet on an Inclined Hydrophilic Rough Surface in Gravity: Pinned or Sliding?
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3734; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093734 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
The motion state of a droplet on an inclined, hydrophilic rough surface in gravity, pinned or sliding, is governed by the balance between the driving and the pinned forces. It can be judged by the droplet’s shape on the inclined hydrophilic rough surface [...] Read more.
The motion state of a droplet on an inclined, hydrophilic rough surface in gravity, pinned or sliding, is governed by the balance between the driving and the pinned forces. It can be judged by the droplet’s shape on the inclined hydrophilic rough surface and the droplet’s contact angle hysteresis. In this paper, we used the minimum energy theory, the minimum energy dissipation theory, and the nonlinear numerical optimization algorithm to establish Models 1–3 to calculate out the advancing/receding contact angles (θa/θr), the initial front/rear contact angles (θ10/θ20) and the dynamic front/rear contact angles (θ1*/θ2*) for a droplet on a rough surface. Also, we predicted the motion state of the droplet on an inclined hydrophilic rough surface in gravity by comparing θ10(θ20) and θ1*(θ2*) with θa(θr). Experiments were done to verify the predictions. They showed that the predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. These models are promising as novel design approaches of hydrophilic functional rough surfaces, which are frequently applied to manipulate droplets in microfluidic chips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2020)
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Article
Investigation of Integral and Differential Characteristics of Variatropic Structure Heavy Concretes by Ultrasonic Methods
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3591; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083591 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
The article develops methods and methodology for experimental studies of centrifuged and vibro-centrifuged concrete products of annular cross-section. They assess the real variatropy of the structure and confirm the correctness of the accepted research. An original technique for experimental studies of the variatropy [...] Read more.
The article develops methods and methodology for experimental studies of centrifuged and vibro-centrifuged concrete products of annular cross-section. They assess the real variatropy of the structure and confirm the correctness of the accepted research. An original technique for experimental studies of the variatropy of the cross-sections of vibrated, centrifuged and vibro-centrifuged concretes is proposed to determine their integral (common) and differential (differing in layers) strength and strain characteristics and deformation diagrams. It has been proved that with vibro-centrifugation it becomes possible to obtain concretes with improved structure and higher characteristics compared with centrifugation and vibration techniques. Experimental studies of the differential characteristics of centrifuged and vibro-centrifuged concretes under compression and tension revealed that the outer layer of concrete had the best characteristics after centrifugation and vibro-centrifugation, and the inner layer had the worst ones. The three-layer model of the variatropic structure for centrifuged and vibro-centrifuged concrete has been experimentally confirmed. The concrete of the outer layers had the highest strength and modulus of elasticity and the least deformability; the concrete of the inner layers had the lowest strength and modulus of elasticity and the highest deformability; and the concrete of the middle layers had average characteristics. The deformation diagrams of centrifuged and vibro-centrifuged concretes were also differentiated by layers, confirming the variatropy of the structure of such concretes. The deformation diagrams for the outer concrete layer demonstrated the highest strength; the diagrams for the inner concrete layer showed the lowest strength; and the diagrams for the middle concrete layer corresponded to mean characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2020)
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Article
Chaos-Based Synchronized Dynamic Keys and Their Application to Image Encryption with an Improved AES Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031329 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
This study aimed to design chaos-based synchronized dynamic keys and develop an improved chaos-based advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm with the proposed synchronized random keys. First, based on sliding mode control (SMC) technology, a rippling control scheme was introduced to guarantee the synchronization [...] Read more.
This study aimed to design chaos-based synchronized dynamic keys and develop an improved chaos-based advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm with the proposed synchronized random keys. First, based on sliding mode control (SMC) technology, a rippling control scheme was introduced to guarantee the synchronization between master–slave discrete chaotic systems. Under the synchronization, the same dynamic random chaos signals could be simultaneously obtained at the transmitter and receiver in communication systems. Then, a novel modified AES cryptosystem with dynamic random keys based on chaos synchronization was presented. In a traditional AES cryptosystem, a static key is used, and it must be exchanged in advance and confirmed to be safely kept. However, in the proposed design, by introducing the synchronization technology of chaotic systems, the static key becomes dynamic and random, and it does not need to be kept or transmitted in open channels. Consequently, the disadvantage of key storage could be eliminated and the security of encryption could be improved. Finally, the developed chaos-based AES (CAES) algorithm has been applied to construct a novel image encryption algorithm. The statistical analysis, histogram, information entropy, and correlation indexes have been calculated and analyzed through simulation experiments in order to demonstrate the capability and improvement of this presented CAES cryptosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2020)
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Article
Reasons for the High Electrical Conductivity of Bismuth Ferrite and Ways to Minimize It
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031025 - 23 Jan 2021
Viewed by 636
Abstract
The reasons for the high electrical conductivity of bismuth ferrite due to its natural composite structure, structural non-stoichiometry, redox processes, and the boundary position in the perovskite family have been considered. It has been shown that it is possible to significantly (2–3 orders [...] Read more.
The reasons for the high electrical conductivity of bismuth ferrite due to its natural composite structure, structural non-stoichiometry, redox processes, and the boundary position in the perovskite family have been considered. It has been shown that it is possible to significantly (2–3 orders of magnitude) reduce the conductivity of BiFeO3 by introducing large-sized ions of rare-earth elements (REE: La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd with 0.94 ≤ R¯ ≤ 1.04 Å) in amounts of up to 10 mol %. An interpretation of the observed effects has been given. A consideration about the appropriateness of taking into account the presented results when developing devices using materials of the BiFeO3/REE type has been expressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2020)
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Article
Effects of the Geometric Parameters of Mixer on the Mixing Process of Foam Concrete Mixture and Its Energy Efficiency
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8055; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228055 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
The paper studies the influence of the geometric parameters of the mixer on the mixing process, the construction of the mixing body, its location in the mixer bulk, and the mixer shape and geometry. The technique of calculating the power spent on mixing [...] Read more.
The paper studies the influence of the geometric parameters of the mixer on the mixing process, the construction of the mixing body, its location in the mixer bulk, and the mixer shape and geometry. The technique of calculating the power spent on mixing the foam concrete mixture is described. The effects of the ratio of the mixture height to the mixer diameter, the number and width of reflective partitions, and the shape of the conical part of the mixer on the homogeneity of the foam concrete mixture and the power consumption are considered. The optimal ratios of the foam concrete mixture height to the mixer diameter have been determined. Moreover, the optimal range of the ratios of the partition width to the mixer diameter has been established, in order to obtain a homogeneous foam concrete mixture throughout the volume with lower energy consumption. The optimal values of the angle of the mixer conical part for the preparation of a foam concrete mixture have been determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2020)
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Article
A Study of High-Efficiency Laser Headlight Design Using Gradient-Index Lens and Liquid Lens
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7331; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207331 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
In the field of vehicle lighting, due to the diode laser, its small size and high energy conversion efficiency, it can be effectively used as the headlight source of high beam. In recent years, it was adopted by European advanced car manufacturers as [...] Read more.
In the field of vehicle lighting, due to the diode laser, its small size and high energy conversion efficiency, it can be effectively used as the headlight source of high beam. In recent years, it was adopted by European advanced car manufacturers as a new generation of automotive headlight lighting products. The current mature technology on the market is to extend the laser beam by means of reflection and to use a single high-power laser as the light source to meet the needs of surface lighting. In this research, we propose a new integrated optical design for an automotive headlight system with the rod lens, gradient-index lens (GRIN lens) and freeform lens to expand the laser beam. With regard to the diffusion of the beam by reflection and refraction, the liquid lens is used as a switch for the high beam and low beam lights to meet the needs of vehicle lighting functions and to use low-power diode lasers to synthesize the array light source. Compared with the 24-W LED headlight module available in the current market, the energy saved by this proposed optical design can increase efficiency by an average of 33%. The maximum illuminance is 56.6 lux in the high-beam mode, which is 18% higher than the standard value. Let the laser light meet the lighting requirements of regulatory standard values even beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications 2020)
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