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Open AccessArticle

Supplementation with a Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Fruit Extract Attenuates the Cardiometabolic Alterations Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

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Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Pharmactive Biotech Products S.L. Parque Científico de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, CIAL (CEI, CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Departamento de Anatomía, Histología y Neurociencia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28006 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040339
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 21 April 2020
The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide which makes necessary the finding of new strategies to treat and/or prevent it. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible beneficial effects of a carob fruit extract (CSAT+®) on the cardiometabolic alterations associated with MetS in mice. 16-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were fed for 26 weeks either with a standard diet (chow) or with a diet rich in fats and sugars (HFHS), supplemented or not with 4.8% of CSAT+®. CSAT+® supplementation reduced blood glucose, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and circulating levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-c), insulin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, CSAT+® prevented MetS-induced insulin resistance, reduced macrophage infiltration and the expression of pro-inflammatory markers, and up-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant markers. Supplementation with CSAT+® prevented MetS-induced hypertension and decreased the vascular response of aortic rings to angiotensin II (AngII). Moreover, treatment with CSAT+® attenuated endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular sensitivity to insulin. In the heart, CSAT+® supplementation reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and prevented ischemia-reperfusion-induced decrease in cardiac contractility. The beneficial effects at the cardiovascular level were associated with a lower expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant markers in aortic and cardiac tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; carob; cardiovascular; insulin resistance; endothelial dysfunction; coronary ischemia; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory metabolic syndrome; carob; cardiovascular; insulin resistance; endothelial dysfunction; coronary ischemia; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory
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de la Fuente-Fernández, M.; González-Hedström, D.; Amor, S.; Tejera-Muñoz, A.; Fernández, N.; Monge, L.; Almodóvar, P.; Andrés-Delgado, L.; Santamaría, L.; Prodanov, M.; Inarejos-García, A.M.; García-Villalón, A.L.; Granado, M. Supplementation with a Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Fruit Extract Attenuates the Cardiometabolic Alterations Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Mice. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 339.

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