Special Issue "Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Breeding and Genetics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 May 2022) | Viewed by 8461

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Krešimir Dvojković
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Poljoprivredni Institut Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
Interests: wheat breeding; improvement of yield, quality, stability and adaptability of newly created wheat germplasm; wheat response to biotic and abiotic stress; genetic diversity; wheat genetic resources management and preservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Hrvoje Šarčević
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biometrics, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: wheat; molecular markers; plant breeding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Aleksandra Torbica
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Food Technology in Novi Sad (FINS), University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Interests: cereals; pseudocereals; climatic changes; gluten free food; technological quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Daniela Horvat
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agricultural Institute Osijek, Head of Department - Agrochemical Laboratory, Južno predgradje 17, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: field crops and end-use quality; cereal proteins under biotic and abiotic stress; crops phytochemicals and their antioxidant activities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most widely grown food crops in the world, providing on average 20% of the total calories in human consumption. Population growth, climate change, and available arable land along with biotic and abiotic influences endanger wheat production worldwide. It seems inevitable that the next—in fact, already ongoing—long-term humanity challenge will be to strengthen activities aiming to ensure sufficient food supply. One of the most direct solutions to these challenges in wheat will be to increase productivity through the creation of new enhanced wheat cultivars with increased/optimized yield and quality potential along with improved response against diverse biotic and abiotic stressors. Implementation of an integrative and interdisciplinary approach will be necessary to address this task successfully.

In this Special Issue, we welcome original research, latest studies, reviews, and achievements regarding advances in wheat breeding, improvement of yield and quality, stability and adaptability of wheat cultivars/germplasm, wheat response to biotic and abiotic stress/production factors, advances in the area of wheat intended for special purposes, as well as evaluation and implementation of wheat genetic resources in wheat breeding. 

Dr. Krešimir Dvojković
Prof. Dr. Hrvoje Šarčević
Dr. Aleksandra Torbica
Dr. Daniela Horvat
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wheat
  • wheat breeding
  • grain yield and quality assessments
  • wheat response to biotic and abiotic influences
  • stability and adaptability of wheat cultivars/germplasm
  • wheat for special purposes
  • wheat genetic resources

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
The Course of Physiological Processes, Yielding, and Grain Quality of Hybrid and Population Wheat as Affected by Integrated and Conventional Cropping Systems
Agronomy 2022, 12(6), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061345 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 394
Abstract
At present, under the conditions of climate change, for mainly environmental but also economic reasons, especially in the case of new wheat genotypes, alternative cropping systems are recommended in addition to the common conventional system. The aim of this study was to determine [...] Read more.
At present, under the conditions of climate change, for mainly environmental but also economic reasons, especially in the case of new wheat genotypes, alternative cropping systems are recommended in addition to the common conventional system. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the integrated system (INTEG) and conventional system (CONV) on the physiological parameters, yield, and mineral composition of the grain, as well as the amount and quality of protein of winter wheat Hymalaya (hybrid cv.) and Formacja (population cv.) against the background of changing hydrothermal conditions in the years of the study. The field experiment was carried out in 2016–2019 in Przecław (50°11′00″ N, 21°29′00″ E), Poland. More favorable values of physiological parameters and grain yield were found in the CONV system than in the INTEG system. A more efficient course of the photosynthesis process in cv. Hymalaya effected a higher grain yield, which was similar in the INTEG system to that of cv. Formacja from the CONV system. The use of the CONV system effected an increase in the grain quality traits as well as the sum of gliadins and glutenins, including the subunits γ gliadins, LMW glutenins, and HMW glutenins. Grain of cv. Hymalaya from the INTEG system had higher contents of Fe, Mn, and Mg and more favorable composition of glutenin proteins and their HMW/LMW ratio than cv. Formacja. Higher values of quality traits and gluten protein fractions and subunits, along with a reduction in the grain yield of wheat cultivars, were favored by periods with rainfall deficit in the wheat ripening period, where low hydrothermal coefficients were recorded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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Article
Evaluation of Grain Yield Stability in Some Selected Wheat Genotypes Using AMMI and GGE Biplot Methods
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051130 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 557
Abstract
Wheat Triticum aestivum L. is one of the most important agricultural products, and meets the highest nutritional needs of humans in various countries. This study aims to evaluate the compatibility and stability of 25 wheat genotypes for two crop years in five regions [...] Read more.
Wheat Triticum aestivum L. is one of the most important agricultural products, and meets the highest nutritional needs of humans in various countries. This study aims to evaluate the compatibility and stability of 25 wheat genotypes for two crop years in five regions (Karaj, Qazvin, Isfahan, Varamin and Damavand) in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results of variance analysis in the additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI) method showed that the effect of genotype and the genotype × environment interaction in the first, second, and mean two crop years had a significant difference at the level of one percent probability. Based on the results obtained from the first and second principal components, G8, G4 and G22 genotypes were identified as superior genotypes. Isfahan was an ideal environment for this study. The results obtained from the comparison of the Duncan method showed that G14, G12, and G1 genotypes had suitable ranks. Graphical analysis was used to study the genotypes of wheat and the environment, and the genotype × environment interaction. Based on the ranking genotypes in the first and second principal components and an average of two years, G2 and G21 genotypes were identified as high yielding, and G21 genotypes as stable. G18 and G23 genotypes were selected as the best genotypes in all three experimental periods, based on the multidimensional diagram. The results of the ideal genotype diagram were G12 and G21 genotypes; and based on the results of the ideal environment diagram, Damavand and Varamin environments were identified as ideal environments. AMM1 covered 69.6% and AMMI2 75.6% of the data variance in the first year of the experiment. In the second crop year, 78.1% of the total variance of the data was explained based on the AMMI1, and 71.1% based on the AMM2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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Article
Genetic Mapping and Candidate Gene Prediction of a QTL Related to Early Heading on Wild Emmer Chromosome 7BS in the Genetic Background of Common Wheat
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051089 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Heading date (HD) is an essential agronomic objective in wheat conventional breeding. Field experiments from several years and locations indicated that the chromosome arm substitution line (CASL) of wild emmer chromosome 7BS in the genetic background of common wheat var. Chinese Spring (CS) [...] Read more.
Heading date (HD) is an essential agronomic objective in wheat conventional breeding. Field experiments from several years and locations indicated that the chromosome arm substitution line (CASL) of wild emmer chromosome 7BS in the genetic background of common wheat var. Chinese Spring (CS) always showed a substantially earlier HD than CS planted in different seasons; usually about 8 d earlier than CS grown under a normal autumn sowing season. CASL7BS consistently showed a much earlier HD than CS when treated for vernalization under a long or short photoperiod and then grown under a short or long photoperiod in the growth room. CASL7BS showed faster spike development than CS at the stages before the glume stage when grown under long days, and depicted relatively rapid growth at all stages when grown under short days. To map the early gene in CASL7BS, F2 plants from the cross of CASL7BS and CS were planted in the field and growth room, forming two mapping populations (P1 and P2, respectively). According to the HD distribution of P1, the HD was most likely regulated by a dominant gene. A QTL was detected consistently in the distal region of about 8.94 cM flanked by C268 and C309 with LOD scores of 5–8, explaining 9.14 and 12.35% of the phenotypic variation in the two mapping populations. The QTL was further narrowed down to an interval between ZAFU058724 and ZAFU061354 of 58–61 Mb based on the HD and genotype of F3 and F4 families. A total of 41 genes were located in this region, and eleven of them were thought to be the candidate genes based on the gene functions. According to the HD and mapping location, the QTL identified in this study was a new gene associated with flowering, which will be helpful in understanding the mechanism of wheat flowering and for breeding an early wheat variety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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Article
Response of Wheat Yield and Protein-Related Quality on Late-Season Urea Application
Agronomy 2022, 12(4), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12040886 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Field experiments were conducted, aiming to evaluate whether the late-season foliar urea application (35 kg N ha−1) is effective in improving grain yield and protein-related quality in ten common wheat cultivars during two consecutive growing seasons. On average, late urea application [...] Read more.
Field experiments were conducted, aiming to evaluate whether the late-season foliar urea application (35 kg N ha−1) is effective in improving grain yield and protein-related quality in ten common wheat cultivars during two consecutive growing seasons. On average, late urea application significantly (p < 0.05) increased grain yields, thousand kernel, and hectolitre weight. The total grain protein significantly (p < 0.05) increased by 17.5% under urea application, while dough mixing behaviour was improved by increasing flour water absorption and reducing the degree of softening. Considering dough elastic properties, the changes in dough energy and maximum resistance under urea application were strongly cultivar dependent and their values compared to control varying from −12.7% to +42.4% and −25.1% to +7.7%, respectively. The distribution of grain storage proteins was significantly influenced by late urea application, but to a lesser extent than the total grain proteins. The proportion of total gliadins, α- and γ-gliadins increased by 5.3%, 5.8%, and 6.5%, respectively, while total glutenins and high-molecular weight glutenins decreased by 4.5% and 7.4%, respectively. In summary, the late-season application of urea has greatly improved the protein-related quality without considerable disruption of the storage proteins composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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Article
Yield Formation Parameters of Selected Winter Wheat Genotypes in Response to Water Shortage
Agronomy 2022, 12(4), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12040831 - 29 Mar 2022
Viewed by 543
Abstract
To ensure the selection of wheat genotypes that are resilient to future climatic conditions, with drought already being the most significant and acute problem in many areas, twenty winter wheat cultivars were tested for drought stress tolerance from the beginning of stem elongation [...] Read more.
To ensure the selection of wheat genotypes that are resilient to future climatic conditions, with drought already being the most significant and acute problem in many areas, twenty winter wheat cultivars were tested for drought stress tolerance from the beginning of stem elongation (DC 30; Zadoks decimal codes) for 49 days (until the stage of grain development, DC 73–75) within an automatic phenotyping platform. The control plants were regularly irrigated to 70% of soil water capacity (SWC), while the drought-stressed plants were subjected to controlled drying until the permanent wilting point (15% of SWC) was reached. Then, the drought-stressed plants were rewatered again to 70% of the maximum SWC. After they recovered, the plants were again exposed to ambient weather conditions. The final yield formation parameters were assessed at the fully ripe stage. Our results showed that the genotypes originating in Western Europe manifested the highest response to the experimentally set drought in the grain number per spike measurement, while the genotypes originating in the warmer regions of southeastern Europe manifested the highest response to the experimental drought mainly in thousand grain weight measurement. Similar response patterns were evident for late- and early-maturing genotypes. The results indicate the potential of selecting genotypes with increased drought resistance even within the existing set of cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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Article
Comparing Soil vs. Foliar Nitrogen Supply of the Whole Fertilizer Dose in Common Wheat
Agronomy 2021, 11(11), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112138 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
Late-season N application through foliar spraying is recognized as an efficient agronomic practice for improving grain quality in common wheat, although the major part of N is still supplied by soil fertilization. This study assessed the impact of various N doses entirely applied [...] Read more.
Late-season N application through foliar spraying is recognized as an efficient agronomic practice for improving grain quality in common wheat, although the major part of N is still supplied by soil fertilization. This study assessed the impact of various N doses entirely applied by repeated foliar sprayings on wheat growth, yield and quality, in comparison with conventional soil fertilization management with a recommended dose of 160 kg N ha−1 as ammonium nitrate (C-M). Doses of 96, 104 and 120 kg N ha−1 as both UAN (urea-ammonium-nitrate) and urea applied by foliar spraying were evaluated in a 2-year field trial in Northern Italy in a silty loam soil with 1.7% organic matter. Here, it was demonstrated that the canopy greenness was similar in all treatments, with slight grain yield increases by the lowest foliar N dose vs. C-M. The higher N foliar doses mainly improved the grain protein content and both high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, LMW-GS), particularly with urea. It is concluded that in our fertile soil, managing N fertilization exclusively through foliar spraying is feasible without compromising grain yield and ameliorating quality at the same time. Improved nutrient use efficiency and beneficial environmental effects are also expected by reducing the nitrogen load on the agricultural fields by 25–40%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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Article
Contribution of Wild Relatives to Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) Yield Stability across Contrasted Environments
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11101992 - 01 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is mostly grown in Mediterranean type environments, characterized by unpredictable rainfall amounts and distribution, heat stress, and prevalence of major diseases and pests, all to be exacerbated with climate change. Pre-breeding efforts transgressing adaptive genes [...] Read more.
Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is mostly grown in Mediterranean type environments, characterized by unpredictable rainfall amounts and distribution, heat stress, and prevalence of major diseases and pests, all to be exacerbated with climate change. Pre-breeding efforts transgressing adaptive genes from wild relatives need to be strengthened to overcome these abiotic and biotic challenges. In this study, we evaluated the yield stability of 67 lines issued from interspecific crosses of Cham5 and Haurani with Triticum dicoccoides, T. agilopoides, T. urartu, and Aegilops speltoides, grown under 15 contrasting rainfed and irrigated environments in Morocco, and heat-prone conditions in Sudan. Yield stability was assessed using parametric (univariate (e.g., Bi, S2di, Pi etc) and multivariate (ASV, SIPC)) and non-parametric (Si1, Si2, Si3 and Si6) approaches. The combined analysis of variance showed the highly significant effects of genotypes, environments, and genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI). The environments varied in yield (1370–6468 kg/ha), heritability (0.08–0.9), and in their contribution to the GEI. Several lines derived from the four wild parents combined productivity and stability, making them suitable for unpredictable climatic conditions. A significant advantage in yield and stability was observed in Haurani derivatives compared to their recurrent parent. Furthermore, no yield penalty was observed in many of Cham5 derivatives; they had improved yield under unfavorable environments while maintaining the high yield potential from the recurrent parent (e.g., 142,026 and 142,074). It was found that a limited number of backcrosses can produce high yielding/stable germplasm while increasing diversity in a breeding pipeline. Comparing different stability approaches showed that some of them can be used interchangeably; others can be complementary to combine broad adaption with higher yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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Article
Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Stomata and Yield Indices in Bread Wheat under Water Limited Conditions
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081646 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed for stomata- and yield-related attributes with high-density Illumina 90 K Infinium SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) array in bread wheat to determine genetic potential of germplasm for scarce water resources with sustainable yield potential. Major yield and stomata [...] Read more.
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed for stomata- and yield-related attributes with high-density Illumina 90 K Infinium SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) array in bread wheat to determine genetic potential of germplasm for scarce water resources with sustainable yield potential. Major yield and stomata attributes were phenotyped on a panel of Pakistani and foreign accessions grown in non-stressed and water shortage environments during two seasons. Highly significant variations were shown among accessions in both conditions for examined characteristics. Water shortage conditions reduced the overall wheat yield and strong positive correlation existed among stomatal frequency, leaf venation and grain yield per plant. Population structure analyses based on 90,000 SNP data classified the accessions into four sub-populations which indicated the presence of genetic variability. Marker-trait association (MTA) analyses revealed that 422 significant SNPs at p ≤ 10−3, after crossing the false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05 threshold, were linked with examined attributes. Pleiotropic loci (wsnp_Ex_c8913_14881924 and Tdurum_contig10598_304) were associated with flag leaf area (FLA), stomata size (SS), stomata frequency (SF), leaf venation (LV), number of grain per spike (NGS) and grain yield per plant (GYP), which were located on chromosome 4B and 6B at the positions 173.63cM and 229.64cM, respectively, under water shortage conditions. Pleotropic loci wsnp_Ex_c24167_33416760, wsnp_Ex_c5412_9564046 and Tdurum_contig81797_369 on chromosomes 7A, 2A and 4B at the positions 148.26cM, 261.05cM and 173.63cM, respectively, were significantly linked with stomata and yield indices such as FLA, SS, SF, LV, NGS and GYP under normal and water shortage conditions. The current experiment not only validated several MTAs for studied indices reported in other studies but also discovered novel MTAs significant under water shortage environments. Associated and significant SNPs will be useful in discovering novel genes underpinning water shortage tolerance in bread wheat for producing high-yielding and drought tolerant wheat varieties to fulfill the wheat demand for growing populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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Article
Tolerance of Wheat to Soil Sodicity Can Be Better Detected through an Incremental Crop Tolerance Approach and Ascertained through Multiple Sowing Times
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081571 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 682
Abstract
Soil sodicity is a significant crop production constraint around the world. Inherited tolerance is a precursor to pre-breeding and breeding tolerant cultivars. However, high yield per se and seasonal variability are potential limitations to identify real tolerance rather than escape correctly. To minimise [...] Read more.
Soil sodicity is a significant crop production constraint around the world. Inherited tolerance is a precursor to pre-breeding and breeding tolerant cultivars. However, high yield per se and seasonal variability are potential limitations to identify real tolerance rather than escape correctly. To minimise this risk, we generated yield, yield components and supporting data at two times of sowing (TOS) of 15 lines representing four quadrants of a biplot from a sodic- vs. non-sodic yield dataset of 112 wheat lines trialled in the previous year. Data from sodic and non-sodic sites were investigated using three analytical approaches namely, simple ratio of yield (REI), ratio of genotypic effects (TI) after excluding site effects, and the incremental crop tolerance (ICT) reflected as deviation from regression. REI and TI produced similar results showing ninelines to be tolerant, but only four lines namely, Scepter, Condo, WA345, and WA134 passed the ICT test. The tolerance comparison at the two TOSs differentiated lines tolerant at either or both TOSs. Association of Yield-ICT with leaf tissue mineral analysis and ICT for morphological traits was genotype specific, thus not usable invariably for detection of tolerant germplasm. Hence, we conclude that (i) focussing on yield rather than yield components or tissue tests, (ii) following the ICT approach, and (iii) evaluation at multiple sowing times will provide an accurate and rigorous test for identifying inherited tolerance that breeders and physiologists can reliably use. We anticipate our suggested approach to be applicable globally across crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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Article
Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Nitrogen Deficiency Tolerance Using Stress Screening Indices
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081544 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 796
Abstract
An increased awareness of environmental protection and sustainable production raise the necessity of incorporating the selection of low nitrogen-tolerant winter wheat cultivars for high yield and quality in the breeding process. This selection can be assisted by using stress screening indices. Our study [...] Read more.
An increased awareness of environmental protection and sustainable production raise the necessity of incorporating the selection of low nitrogen-tolerant winter wheat cultivars for high yield and quality in the breeding process. This selection can be assisted by using stress screening indices. Our study aimed to evaluate and compare a number of stress screening indices and to determine and select the most nitrogen deficiency-tolerant winter wheat cultivars for further breeding. The experiment included forty-eight winter wheat cultivars from eight different countries that were grown for two consecutive years at three different locations under low-nitrogen (LN) and high-nitrogen (HN) conditions. The results emphasized the importance of applying the appropriate stress screening indices in evaluating and selecting nitrogen deficiency-tolerant wheat cultivars. The promising stress screening indices were the mean productivity index (MP), geometric mean productivity index (GMP), harmonic mean index (HM), stress tolerance index (STI) and yield index (YI). They identified cultivars Sofru, BC Opsesija and MV-Nemere as the most tolerant cultivars to LN conditions for grain yield. The same indices classified U-1, OS-Olimpija, Forcali, Viktoria and BC Tena cultivars as the most tolerant to LN conditions for the grain protein content. Using the tolerance index (TOL), yield stability index (YSI) and relative stress index (RSI), the Katarina and Ficko cultivars were denoted as LN-tolerant cultivars in terms of the grain yield and Isengrain, Tosunbey, Vulkan and BC Darija in terms of the grain protein content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Agronomic and Quality Responses to Environmental Impacts)
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