Special Issue "Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Weed Science and Weed Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 January 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Antonia María Rojano-Delgado

Guest Editor
Department Agricultural chemistry & Soil sciences, University Cordoba, 14014 Cordoba, Spain
Interests: herbicide cross resistance; herbicide multiple resistance; herbicides; weeds; CytP450; GST; resistant mechanisms

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

As we all know, climate change is becoming more and more evident with each day that passes. The effect of climate change on agriculture is observed in variations of temperatures and rainfall that affect the proliferation and spread of invasive weeds (among other species), but also in the effectiveness of herbicides in those conditions.

These two aspects, together with the fact of emergence of herbicide resistance in weeds and the strict international policies related with herbicide use, mean that agriculture is increasingly facing more problems and difficulties in obtaining a good harvest.

We cannot forget that Agriculture is a primary economic sector. In recent years, agricultural practices have become more respectful and appropriate to avoid resistant weeds. However, the emergence of cross- and multiple-resistance in weed species mean that the known molecules are insufficient to kill them, therefore leading to additional problems.

This Special Issue will focus on “Cross- and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides". We welcome new research, reviews, and opinion articles covering all related topics, including new herbicide formulation studies, new active ingredients as herbicides, new cross-multiple resistant weed populations, resistant mechanisms, effectiveness enhancers, genetics and crop improvement, management solutions, nonchemical and chemical control alternatives, field case studies, and political positions regarding the use of herbicides.

Dr. Antonia María Rojano-Delgado
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • herbicide cross resistance
  • herbicide multiple resistance
  • herbicides
  • weeds
  • CytP450
  • GST
  • resistant mechanisms

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Amaranthus palmeri a New Invasive Weed in Spain with Herbicide Resistant Biotypes
Agronomy 2020, 10(7), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10070993 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Amaranthus palmeri is the most prominent invasive weed in agricultural land from North America, partly due to its propensity to evolve resistance to multiple herbicide sites of action. In the last two decades, reports of this species have increased throughout the American continent [...] Read more.
Amaranthus palmeri is the most prominent invasive weed in agricultural land from North America, partly due to its propensity to evolve resistance to multiple herbicide sites of action. In the last two decades, reports of this species have increased throughout the American continent and occasionally in other continents. In 2007, A. palmeri populations were found in three localities in northeastern Spain, and they are still present today. To determine whether these three populations resulted from a common or independent introduction events—and when and from where they could have occurred—research was carried out aiming to characterize the resistance profile and mechanisms to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase-and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides and to analyze the relationship between these three populations using inter simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting. Dose–response trials confirmed that the three populations were susceptible to glyphosate but resistant to nicosulfuron-methyl. Resistance to ALS inhibitors was due to several amino acid substitutions in positions Pro197, Trp574 and Ser653. Moreover, the substitutions Ser653Ile and Pro197Thr are described for the first time in this species. At field-labeled rates, all populations were fully controlled with alternative herbicides with other sites of action. Amaranthus palmeri individuals were clustered in three groups based on unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, which corresponded to the three sampled populations, with a 67% of genetic relationship among them. Considering this high genetic variability and the different positions and amino acid substations found between populations, it was hypothesized that different colonization events occurred from the American continent probably prior to the introduction of glyphosate resistant crops. Prevention from new introductions is warranted because new herbicide resistance traits could arrive, complicating the management of this invasive weed species, while managing or eradicating the already established populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Open AccessArticle
Resistance Evolution to EPSPS Inhibiting Herbicides in False Barley (Hordeum murinum) Harvested in Southern Spain
Agronomy 2020, 10(7), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10070992 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A failure of the EPSPS-inhibiting herbicide glyphosate to control several populations of Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum (or H. murinum) occurred in southern Spain after more than fifteen applications in both crop (olive, orchards, and citrus) and non-crop (dry areas, roadsides and ditches) [...] Read more.
A failure of the EPSPS-inhibiting herbicide glyphosate to control several populations of Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum (or H. murinum) occurred in southern Spain after more than fifteen applications in both crop (olive, orchards, and citrus) and non-crop (dry areas, roadsides and ditches) areas. Eight out of 18 populations studied were resistant (R) to glyphosate with R factors higher than four based on GR50. These populations also had the highest values of LD50 and the lowest levels of shikimic acid accumulation. Two adjuvants tested increased glyphosate efficacy in both susceptible (S) and R populations thanks to better spray foliar retention. Moreover, PS I-, PS II-, and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides, in pre- or post-emergence, proved to be the best chemical alternatives with different sites of action (SoA) to control both S and glyphosate-R populations. This study represents the first report worldwide of glyphosate resistance in H. murinum found in very different crop and non-crop areas from southern Spain. To design chemical strategies to implement integrated weed management programs for glyphosate-R H. murinum, both adjuvants and herbicides with alternative SoA as well as application timings should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Open AccessArticle
Resistance Mechanisms to 2,4-D in Six Different Dicotyledonous Weeds Around the World
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040566 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
2,4-D resistance is increasing around the world due to both transgenic crops and resistance to other herbicides. The objective of the this study was to characterize the currently unknown mechanisms of 2,4-D resistance in five weed species from around the globe: Amaranthus hybridus [...] Read more.
2,4-D resistance is increasing around the world due to both transgenic crops and resistance to other herbicides. The objective of the this study was to characterize the currently unknown mechanisms of 2,4-D resistance in five weed species from around the globe: Amaranthus hybridus (Argentina), Conyza canadensis (Hungary), Conyza sumatrensis (France), Hirschfeldia incana (Argentina) and Parthenium hysterophorus (Dominican Republic), using Papaver rhoeas (Spain) as a standard resistant (R) species. Dose-response trials using malathion and absorption, translocation and metabolism experiments were performed to unravel the resistance mechanisms. R plants produced at least 3-folds less ethylene than susceptible plants, confirming the resistance to 2,4-D, together with resistance factors >4. A. hybridus, P. hysterophorus and P. rhoeas showed both reduced translocation and enhanced metabolism. In the two Conyza sps., the only resistance mechanism found was enhanced metabolism. Malathion synergized with 2,4-D in all these species, indicating the role of cytochrome P450 in the herbicide degradation. In H. incana, reduced translocation was the only contributing mechanism to resistance. Among the six dicotyledonous weed species investigated, there was a differential contribution to 2,4-D resistance of enhanced metabolism and reduced translocation. Thus, extrapolating 2,4-D resistance mechanisms from one weed species to another is very risky, if even related. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evolving Multiple Resistance to EPSPS, GS, ALS, PSI, PPO, and Synthetic Auxin Herbicides in Dominican Republic Parthenium hysterophorus Populations. A Physiological and Biochemical Study
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040554 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
Two Parthenium hysterophorus populations resistant (R) and susceptible (S) harvested in banana crop from the Dominican Republic were studied. All S plants died when the herbicides were applied at field dose, except with paraquat. For the R population, the order of plant survival [...] Read more.
Two Parthenium hysterophorus populations resistant (R) and susceptible (S) harvested in banana crop from the Dominican Republic were studied. All S plants died when the herbicides were applied at field dose, except with paraquat. For the R population, the order of plant survival was as follows: glyphosate and paraquat > flazasulfuron > glufosinate > fomesafen > 2,4-D. The resistance factors obtained in the dose–response assays showed a high resistance to glyphosate, flazasulfuron, and fomesafen, medium resistance to glufosinate and 2,4-D, and a natural tolerance to paraquat (resistance factor (RF) = 1.0). The I50 values obtained in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), acetolactate synthase (ALS), and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity studies with glyphosate, flazasulfuron, and glufosinate, respectively, were greater in R than in S. The effect of fomesafen was measured by the Proto IX levels, obtaining five times more Proto IX in the S than in the R population. The resistance to 2,4-D in the R was determined by the lower accumulation of ethylene compared to the S population. The studies with 14C-paraquat conclude that the lower absorption and translocation in both the R and S populations would explain the natural tolerance of P. hysterophorus. This is the first case of multiple resistance to herbicides with different mechanisms of action confirmed in P. hysterophorus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Open AccessArticle
New Case of False-Star-Grass (Chloris distichophylla) Population Evolving Glyphosate Resistance
Agronomy 2020, 10(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10030377 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chloris distichophylla, suspected of glyphosate resistance (GR), was collected from areas of soybean cultivation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A comparison was made with a susceptible population (GS) to evaluate the resistance level, mechanisms involved, and control alternatives. Glyphosate doses required to [...] Read more.
Chloris distichophylla, suspected of glyphosate resistance (GR), was collected from areas of soybean cultivation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A comparison was made with a susceptible population (GS) to evaluate the resistance level, mechanisms involved, and control alternatives. Glyphosate doses required to reduce the dry weight (GR50) or cause a mortality rate of 50% (LD50) were around 5.1–3 times greater in the GR population than in the GS population. The shikimic acid accumulation was around 6.2-fold greater in GS plants than in GR plants. No metabolized glyphosate was found in either GR or GS plants. Both populations did not differ in the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) basal activity or in vitro inhibition of EPSPS activity by glyphosate (I50). The maximum glyphosate absorption was observed at 96 hours after treatment (HAT), which was twofold higher in the GS plants than in the GR plants. This confirms the first case of glyphosate resistance in C. distichophylla. In addition, at 96 HAT, the GS plants translocated more 14C-glyphosate than the GR ones. The best options for the chemical control of both C. distichophylla populations were clethodim, quizalofop, paraquat, glufosinate, tembotrione, diuron, and atrazine. The first case of glyphosate resistance in C. distichophylla was due to impaired uptake and translocation. Chemical control using multiple herbicides with different modes of action (MOA) could be a tool used for integrated weed management (IWM) programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Ecological fitness associated with mutation endowing resistance to Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase inhibitors herbicide in Phalaris brachystachys Link
Authors: Sajedeh Golmohammadzadeh1, Javid Gherekhloo2*, Farshid Ghaderi-Far3, Antonia M. Rojano-Delgado4, M. Dolores Osuna-Ruíz5, Behnam Kamkar6, and Rafael De Prado7
Affiliation: 1 Agronomy Department, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran; [email protected] 2 Associate Professor, Agronomy Department, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran; [email protected] 3 Associate Professor, Agronomy Department, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran; [email protected] 4 Researcher, Department of Agricultural Chemistry andSoil Science, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; [email protected] 5 Researcher, Center for Scientific and Technological Research of Extremadura (CICYTEX), Badajoz, Spain; [email protected] 6 Professor, Agrotechnology Department, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran; [email protected] 7 Professor, Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; [email protected]

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