Special Issue "Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Weed Science and Weed Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Antonia María Rojano-Delgado
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Guest Editor
Department Agricultural chemistry & Soil sciences, University Cordoba, 14014 Cordoba, Spain
Interests: herbicide cross resistance; herbicide multiple resistance; herbicides; weeds; CytP450; GST; resistant mechanisms
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

As we all know, climate change is becoming more and more evident with each day that passes. The effect of climate change on agriculture is observed in variations of temperatures and rainfall that affect the proliferation and spread of invasive weeds (among other species), but also in the effectiveness of herbicides in those conditions.

These two aspects, together with the fact of emergence of herbicide resistance in weeds and the strict international policies related with herbicide use, mean that agriculture is increasingly facing more problems and difficulties in obtaining a good harvest.

We cannot forget that Agriculture is a primary economic sector. In recent years, agricultural practices have become more respectful and appropriate to avoid resistant weeds. However, the emergence of cross- and multiple-resistance in weed species mean that the known molecules are insufficient to kill them, therefore leading to additional problems.

This Special Issue will focus on “Cross- and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides". We welcome new research, reviews, and opinion articles covering all related topics, including new herbicide formulation studies, new active ingredients as herbicides, new cross-multiple resistant weed populations, resistant mechanisms, effectiveness enhancers, genetics and crop improvement, management solutions, nonchemical and chemical control alternatives, field case studies, and political positions regarding the use of herbicides.

Dr. Antonia María Rojano-Delgado
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • herbicide cross resistance
  • herbicide multiple resistance
  • herbicides
  • weeds
  • CytP450
  • GST
  • resistant mechanisms

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Article
First Case of Multiple Resistance to EPSPS and PSI in Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Collected in Rice and Herbicide-Resistant Crops in Colombia
Agronomy 2021, 11(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010096 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 563
Abstract
Eleusine indica is a highly competitive and difficult-to-control plant in annual and perennial crops. In Colombia, broad-spectrum herbicides, such as paraquat and glyphosate, have begun to present poor levels of control for this weed. The multiple resistance to glyphosate and paraquat, the increase [...] Read more.
Eleusine indica is a highly competitive and difficult-to-control plant in annual and perennial crops. In Colombia, broad-spectrum herbicides, such as paraquat and glyphosate, have begun to present poor levels of control for this weed. The multiple resistance to glyphosate and paraquat, the increase in herbicide performance with adjuvants (Retenol® and Trend® 90), and alternative herbicides were evaluated in a resistant (R) population of E. indica collected in rice fields, which is rotated with herbicide-resistant (HR) crops. Based on plant mortality, the R population was 9.8 and 7.2 times more resistant than susceptible (S) plants to glyphosate and paraquat, respectively. R plants accumulated 4.2 less shikimic acid and had at least 70% less electrolyte leakage than S plants when they were exposed to glyphosate and paraquat, respectively. Both adjuvants increased the foliar retention of herbicides. In addition, adjuvants also increased the performance of glyphosate effectiveness between 22% and 58% and that of paraquat from 61% to 100%. Alternative herbicides (atrazine, clethodim, imazamox, diuron, flazasulfuron, glufosinate, oxyfluorfen, quizalofop, and tembotrione) provided high levels of control in both populations of E. indica. This is the first case of multiple resistant E. indica confirmed in Colombia. Adjuvants improved the leaf retention and efficacy of glyphosate and paraquat. In summary, the alternative herbicides evaluated in this study should be adopted by Colombian farmers and provide additional herbicide modes-of-action to combat future resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Article
Fitness Cost of Imazamox Resistance in Wild Poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L.)
Agronomy 2020, 10(12), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121859 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) is a difficult-to-control weed in soybean production in Brazil that has developed resistance to herbicides, including acetolactate synthase inhibitors. We investigated the potential fitness cost associated to the Ser-653-Asn mutation that confers imazamox resistance in this weed. [...] Read more.
Wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) is a difficult-to-control weed in soybean production in Brazil that has developed resistance to herbicides, including acetolactate synthase inhibitors. We investigated the potential fitness cost associated to the Ser-653-Asn mutation that confers imazamox resistance in this weed. Plant height, leaf and stem dry weight, leaf area and seed production per plant as well as the growth indices of specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, relative growth rate and net assimilation in F2 homozygous resistant (R) and susceptible (S) wild poinsettia progenies were pairwise compared. S plants were superior in most of the traits studied. Plant heights for S and R biotypes, recorded at 95 days after planting (DAP), were 137 and 120 cm, respectively. Leaf areas were 742 and 1048 cm2 in the R and S biotypes, respectively. The dry weights of leaves and stems in the S plants were 30 and 35%, respectively, higher than in the R plants. In both biotypes, the leaves had a greater share in dry weight at early development stages, but from 50 DAP, the stem became the main contributor to the dry weight of the shoots. The R biotype produced 110 ± 4 seed plant−1, i.e., 12 ± 3% less seeds per plant than that of the S one (125 ± 7 seed plant−1). The growth indices leaf area ratio and specific leaf area were generally higher in the S biotype or similar between both biotypes; while the relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were punctually superior in the R biotype. These results demonstrate that the Ser-653-Asn mutation imposed a fitness cost in imazamox R wild poinsettia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Article
Multiple Resistance to Glyphosate and 2,4-D in Carduus acanthoides L. from Argentina and Alternative Control Solutions
Agronomy 2020, 10(11), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111735 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
Carduus acanthoides L. is an invasive species native to Europe and distributed in other parts of the world, including North and South America. In Cordoba, Argentina, control failures of this species have been reported in Roundup Ready (RR) soybean crops where glyphosate and [...] Read more.
Carduus acanthoides L. is an invasive species native to Europe and distributed in other parts of the world, including North and South America. In Cordoba, Argentina, control failures of this species have been reported in Roundup Ready (RR) soybean crops where glyphosate and 2,4-D have frequently been applied, although there are no confirmed reports worldwide of resistance to glyphosate and 2,4-D in this species. Dose–response tests showed multiple-resistance to both active principles. The resistant population (R) had LD50 values of 1854.27 and 1577.18 g ae ha−1 (grams of acid equivalent per hectare), while the susceptible (S) population had LD50 values of 195.56 and 111.78 g ae ha−1 for glyphosate and 2,4-D, respectively. Low accumulations of shikimic acid (glyphosate) and ethylene (2,4-D) at different doses in the R population compared to the S population support the results observed in the dose–response curves. No significant differences in leaf retention were observed for glyphosate and 2,4-D in the R and S populations. However, the use of adjuvants increased the retention capacity of herbicides in both populations. Ten alternative herbicides with seven different action mechanisms (MOAs) were evaluated and the most effective active principles were dicamba, bromoxynil, atrazine, tembotrione, flazasulfuron, glufosinate, and paraquat. These findings are the first evidence of glyphosate and 2,4 D resistance in C. acanthoides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Article
Stressful Conditions Affect Seed Quality in Glyphosate Resistant Conyza bonariensis (L.)
Agronomy 2020, 10(11), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111706 - 04 Nov 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist is one of the main glyphosate-resistant weeds in no-till fields in Brazil. Here, the seed quality of glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) C. bonariensis biotypes, collected from different sites, was evaluated under stressful conditions by different seed tests. Glyphosate [...] Read more.
Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist is one of the main glyphosate-resistant weeds in no-till fields in Brazil. Here, the seed quality of glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) C. bonariensis biotypes, collected from different sites, was evaluated under stressful conditions by different seed tests. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed by dose-response and shikimate accumulation assays. The resistance factors were 6.9 (R1/S1), 4.5 (R2/S2), and 5.8 (R3/S3). Biotypes S1, S2, and S3 accumulated 2.7, 2.4, and 2.8 times more shikimic acid than biotypes R1, R2, and R3, respectively. Stress-free seed viability and germination potential ranged from 39% to 57% and from 37% to 57%, respectively, with no difference between R and S biotypes within each collection site. Seed incubation at 8 °C over 7 days (cold test) promoted greater germination in S biotypes (54% to 79%) compared to R ones (28% to 39%). In the accelerated aging tests (incubation at 42 °C over 48 hours), the germination decreased in both S (11% to 27%) and R (6% to 16%) biotypes. In the high-temperature stress tests, there were no differences in germination within biotypes at 35 and 45 °C; however, at 60 °C, the germination of the S1, R1, S2, R2, S3, and R3 biotypes was reduced by approximately 51%, 54%, 63%, 59%, 40%, and 30%, respectively. Under non-stressful conditions, germination potential and seed viability were similar in R and S biotypes; however, under cold or heat stress conditions, R biotypes reduced their germination rates, revealing that glyphosate resistance causes a fitness penalty in C. bonariensis at the seed level. However, because seed viability was not determined after experiments, it cannot be stated that such reduction in germination was due to the death or only a dormant phase of the seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Article
Resistance to Fomesafen, Imazamox and Glyphosate in Euphorbia heterophylla from Brazil
Agronomy 2020, 10(10), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101573 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 615
Abstract
Euphorbia heterophylla is a species of weed that was previously controlled by fomesafen, imazamox and glyphosate, but continued use of these herbicides has selected resistant populations from the Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). One resistant (R) strain and one susceptible (S) strain to [...] Read more.
Euphorbia heterophylla is a species of weed that was previously controlled by fomesafen, imazamox and glyphosate, but continued use of these herbicides has selected resistant populations from the Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). One resistant (R) strain and one susceptible (S) strain to fomesafen, imazamox and glyphosate were compared, the latter by recurrent selection. Dose-response tests showed multiple resistance to these herbicides. The required imazamox concentration to inhibit ALS by 50% was approximately 16 times greater in the R population than in the S population. Based on the EPSPS activity results, the R population was 10 fold less sensitive to glyphosate than the S counterpart. In addition, basal EPSPS activity from R plants was 3.3 fold higher than the level detected on S plants. The Proto IX assays showed high resistance to fomesafen in the R population that accumulated less Proto IX than the S population. Malathion assays showed the participation of CytP450 in fomesafen resistance, but a molecular mechanism could also be involved. To our knowledge, this is the first characterisation of multiple resistance to these three groups of herbicides in E. heterophylla in the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Article
Amaranthus palmeri a New Invasive Weed in Spain with Herbicide Resistant Biotypes
Agronomy 2020, 10(7), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10070993 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Amaranthus palmeri is the most prominent invasive weed in agricultural land from North America, partly due to its propensity to evolve resistance to multiple herbicide sites of action. In the last two decades, reports of this species have increased throughout the American continent [...] Read more.
Amaranthus palmeri is the most prominent invasive weed in agricultural land from North America, partly due to its propensity to evolve resistance to multiple herbicide sites of action. In the last two decades, reports of this species have increased throughout the American continent and occasionally in other continents. In 2007, A. palmeri populations were found in three localities in northeastern Spain, and they are still present today. To determine whether these three populations resulted from a common or independent introduction events—and when and from where they could have occurred—research was carried out aiming to characterize the resistance profile and mechanisms to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase-and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides and to analyze the relationship between these three populations using inter simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting. Dose–response trials confirmed that the three populations were susceptible to glyphosate but resistant to nicosulfuron-methyl. Resistance to ALS inhibitors was due to several amino acid substitutions in positions Pro197, Trp574 and Ser653. Moreover, the substitutions Ser653Ile and Pro197Thr are described for the first time in this species. At field-labeled rates, all populations were fully controlled with alternative herbicides with other sites of action. Amaranthus palmeri individuals were clustered in three groups based on unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, which corresponded to the three sampled populations, with a 67% of genetic relationship among them. Considering this high genetic variability and the different positions and amino acid substations found between populations, it was hypothesized that different colonization events occurred from the American continent probably prior to the introduction of glyphosate resistant crops. Prevention from new introductions is warranted because new herbicide resistance traits could arrive, complicating the management of this invasive weed species, while managing or eradicating the already established populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Article
Resistance Evolution to EPSPS Inhibiting Herbicides in False Barley (Hordeum murinum) Harvested in Southern Spain
Agronomy 2020, 10(7), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10070992 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
A failure of the EPSPS-inhibiting herbicide glyphosate to control several populations of Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum (or H. murinum) occurred in southern Spain after more than fifteen applications in both crop (olive, orchards, and citrus) and non-crop (dry areas, roadsides and ditches) [...] Read more.
A failure of the EPSPS-inhibiting herbicide glyphosate to control several populations of Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum (or H. murinum) occurred in southern Spain after more than fifteen applications in both crop (olive, orchards, and citrus) and non-crop (dry areas, roadsides and ditches) areas. Eight out of 18 populations studied were resistant (R) to glyphosate with R factors higher than four based on GR50. These populations also had the highest values of LD50 and the lowest levels of shikimic acid accumulation. Two adjuvants tested increased glyphosate efficacy in both susceptible (S) and R populations thanks to better spray foliar retention. Moreover, PS I-, PS II-, and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides, in pre- or post-emergence, proved to be the best chemical alternatives with different sites of action (SoA) to control both S and glyphosate-R populations. This study represents the first report worldwide of glyphosate resistance in H. murinum found in very different crop and non-crop areas from southern Spain. To design chemical strategies to implement integrated weed management programs for glyphosate-R H. murinum, both adjuvants and herbicides with alternative SoA as well as application timings should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Article
Resistance Mechanisms to 2,4-D in Six Different Dicotyledonous Weeds Around the World
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040566 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
2,4-D resistance is increasing around the world due to both transgenic crops and resistance to other herbicides. The objective of the this study was to characterize the currently unknown mechanisms of 2,4-D resistance in five weed species from around the globe: Amaranthus hybridus [...] Read more.
2,4-D resistance is increasing around the world due to both transgenic crops and resistance to other herbicides. The objective of the this study was to characterize the currently unknown mechanisms of 2,4-D resistance in five weed species from around the globe: Amaranthus hybridus (Argentina), Conyza canadensis (Hungary), Conyza sumatrensis (France), Hirschfeldia incana (Argentina) and Parthenium hysterophorus (Dominican Republic), using Papaver rhoeas (Spain) as a standard resistant (R) species. Dose-response trials using malathion and absorption, translocation and metabolism experiments were performed to unravel the resistance mechanisms. R plants produced at least 3-folds less ethylene than susceptible plants, confirming the resistance to 2,4-D, together with resistance factors >4. A. hybridus, P. hysterophorus and P. rhoeas showed both reduced translocation and enhanced metabolism. In the two Conyza sps., the only resistance mechanism found was enhanced metabolism. Malathion synergized with 2,4-D in all these species, indicating the role of cytochrome P450 in the herbicide degradation. In H. incana, reduced translocation was the only contributing mechanism to resistance. Among the six dicotyledonous weed species investigated, there was a differential contribution to 2,4-D resistance of enhanced metabolism and reduced translocation. Thus, extrapolating 2,4-D resistance mechanisms from one weed species to another is very risky, if even related. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Article
Evolving Multiple Resistance to EPSPS, GS, ALS, PSI, PPO, and Synthetic Auxin Herbicides in Dominican Republic Parthenium hysterophorus Populations. A Physiological and Biochemical Study
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040554 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Two Parthenium hysterophorus populations resistant (R) and susceptible (S) harvested in banana crop from the Dominican Republic were studied. All S plants died when the herbicides were applied at field dose, except with paraquat. For the R population, the order of plant survival [...] Read more.
Two Parthenium hysterophorus populations resistant (R) and susceptible (S) harvested in banana crop from the Dominican Republic were studied. All S plants died when the herbicides were applied at field dose, except with paraquat. For the R population, the order of plant survival was as follows: glyphosate and paraquat > flazasulfuron > glufosinate > fomesafen > 2,4-D. The resistance factors obtained in the dose–response assays showed a high resistance to glyphosate, flazasulfuron, and fomesafen, medium resistance to glufosinate and 2,4-D, and a natural tolerance to paraquat (resistance factor (RF) = 1.0). The I50 values obtained in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), acetolactate synthase (ALS), and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity studies with glyphosate, flazasulfuron, and glufosinate, respectively, were greater in R than in S. The effect of fomesafen was measured by the Proto IX levels, obtaining five times more Proto IX in the S than in the R population. The resistance to 2,4-D in the R was determined by the lower accumulation of ethylene compared to the S population. The studies with 14C-paraquat conclude that the lower absorption and translocation in both the R and S populations would explain the natural tolerance of P. hysterophorus. This is the first case of multiple resistance to herbicides with different mechanisms of action confirmed in P. hysterophorus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Article
New Case of False-Star-Grass (Chloris distichophylla) Population Evolving Glyphosate Resistance
Agronomy 2020, 10(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10030377 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Chloris distichophylla, suspected of glyphosate resistance (GR), was collected from areas of soybean cultivation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A comparison was made with a susceptible population (GS) to evaluate the resistance level, mechanisms involved, and control alternatives. Glyphosate doses required to [...] Read more.
Chloris distichophylla, suspected of glyphosate resistance (GR), was collected from areas of soybean cultivation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A comparison was made with a susceptible population (GS) to evaluate the resistance level, mechanisms involved, and control alternatives. Glyphosate doses required to reduce the dry weight (GR50) or cause a mortality rate of 50% (LD50) were around 5.1–3 times greater in the GR population than in the GS population. The shikimic acid accumulation was around 6.2-fold greater in GS plants than in GR plants. No metabolized glyphosate was found in either GR or GS plants. Both populations did not differ in the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) basal activity or in vitro inhibition of EPSPS activity by glyphosate (I50). The maximum glyphosate absorption was observed at 96 hours after treatment (HAT), which was twofold higher in the GS plants than in the GR plants. This confirms the first case of glyphosate resistance in C. distichophylla. In addition, at 96 HAT, the GS plants translocated more 14C-glyphosate than the GR ones. The best options for the chemical control of both C. distichophylla populations were clethodim, quizalofop, paraquat, glufosinate, tembotrione, diuron, and atrazine. The first case of glyphosate resistance in C. distichophylla was due to impaired uptake and translocation. Chemical control using multiple herbicides with different modes of action (MOA) could be a tool used for integrated weed management (IWM) programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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Erratum
Erratum: Torra et al. Amaranthus palmeri a New Invasive Weed in Spain with Herbicide Resistant Biotypes. Agronomy 2020, 10, 993
Agronomy 2021, 11(7), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071332 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 223
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following correction to the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
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