Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Horticultural and Floricultural Crops".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 28152

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Horticulture, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Interests: horticultural crop germplasm enhancement; abiotic stress; organ formation; fruit development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003, China
Interests: vegetable biotechnology; abiotic stress response; vegetable quality regulation; hormones in horticultural plants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Horticultural crops have high economic value, playing an essential role in human life. However, the genetic basis underlying horticultural crop traits is still lacking. With the exception of a few prominent species such as tomato, which is frequently used as a model for molecular biology research, limited information is available about the genetic, physiological, and biochemical properties of most horticultural crops.

In recent decades, sequencing technologies and powerful bioinformatic approaches are increasingly being used, resulting in the completion or advances in genome sequencing of horticultural plants. The data from the sequencing results of horticultural plants largely advance our understanding of their biology and accelerate breeding for novel traits and phenotypes with the help of modern techniques in molecular biology applied to horticultural plants.

This Special Issue will present a broad range of innovative approaches used to address the following topics in horticultural plants, which are of broad international and disciplinary interest:

  • all type of omics, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics;
  • genetic engineering and genome editing;
  • organ formation and development and their genetic basis;
  • genetic analysis of tolerance or resistance;
  • genome biology and evolution;
  • genetic basis of quality and production;
  • stable and transient transformation technology.

Prof. Dr. Lijun Ou
Dr. Guanglong Wang
Prof. Dr. Aisheng Xiong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • omics
  • genetics
  • biotechnology
  • cellular and molecular biology
  • origination and evolution of horticultural crops

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2971 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis Identifies Salt Stress Response Genes in Bottle Gourd Rootstock-Grafted Watermelon Seedlings
by Yu Wang, Junqian Zhou, Wenxu Wen, Jin Sun, Sheng Shu and Shirong Guo
Agronomy 2023, 13(3), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030618 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Soil salinization poses a huge challenge to the development of agriculture and seriously decreases crop yield and quality. In recent years, grafting has become one of the key agronomic techniques used to enhance plant abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we found that [...] Read more.
Soil salinization poses a huge challenge to the development of agriculture and seriously decreases crop yield and quality. In recent years, grafting has become one of the key agronomic techniques used to enhance plant abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we found that watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] grafted onto bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) significantly enhanced salt tolerance. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a total of 8462 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and the number of up- and down-regulated genes were 3207 and 5255, respectively. The DEGs in the bottle gourd rootstock-grafted plants were mainly involved in carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction. Furthermore, proteome analysis identified 28 differently expressed proteins (DEPs) in bottle gourd rootstock-grafted plants under salt stress. These DEPs were closely associated with amino acid and protein synthesis, photosynthesis, mitochondrial metabolism and carbon metabolism, and stress defense. Combined transcriptome and proteome analyses showed that salt stress-responded genes in bottle gourd rootstock-grafted watermelon seedlings were mainly involved in plant hormone signal transduction, photosynthesis, and amino acid synthesis pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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16 pages, 4580 KiB  
Article
Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Dynamic Accumulation of Sugar and Acid during Stem Development of Brassica juncea
by Fangjie Xie, Zhengying Xuan, Wanqin Chen, Jiageng Du, Yalin Wang, Entong Huo, Ling Guo and Mengyao Li
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3227; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123227 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1503
Abstract
The composition and content of sugar and acid are important indicators of organ development and the quality of horticultural products. B. juncea is an important vegetable in the cruciferous family, with a swollen fleshy stem as the edible organ. Elucidating the characteristics of [...] Read more.
The composition and content of sugar and acid are important indicators of organ development and the quality of horticultural products. B. juncea is an important vegetable in the cruciferous family, with a swollen fleshy stem as the edible organ. Elucidating the characteristics of sugar and acid accumulation during stem expansion of stem mustard and its regulatory mechanism could enhance stem quality. In this study, physiological indicators such as dry matter content, sugar–acid content and related enzyme activities were measured in eight stages of the tumorous stem. The results showed that the sugar and sucrose contents initially increased and then decreased during stem development: Sucrose exhibited a positive correlation with sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase, while acid content was highly positively correlated with malate dehydrogenase. Further analysis of the dynamic patterns of sugar and acid metabolite contents using metabolomics showed that 1097 metabolites were detected, including 229 organic acids and derivatives, 109 lipids, and other metabolites. Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis showed that metabolites were significantly enriched in organic acids, amino acids, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch, and sucrose metabolism. Analysis of the sugar pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle revealed obvious differences in the content and type of metabolites, with most upregulated metabolites in S3 and S4. The expression patterns of enzyme genes associated with the biosynthesis and accumulation of sugar and acid metabolites were found based on differentially expressed genes at different developmental stages, and gene expression levels were verified by qPCR, which showed that the expression patterns of enzyme genes associated with this pathway were highly consistent with the metabolite accumulation. These results suggest that amino acids, sugars, and acids play a critical role in regulating the development of tumorous stems. Results of the present study offer a theoretical basis to improving the quality of mustard by using a metabolomics approach to determine the dynamics of metabolites and related regulatory enzymes during development and the correlation between these levels, which provides novel insights into the potential mechanisms underlying sugar and acid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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14 pages, 3175 KiB  
Article
Identification of Key Regulatory Factors of Molecular Marker TGS377 on Chromosome 1 and Its Response to Cold Stress in Tomato
by Jia-Qi Zhang, Jian-Ping Tao, Liu-Xia Song, Rong-Rong Zhang, Hui Liu, Tong-Min Zhao, Wei-Min Zhu and Ai-Sheng Xiong
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12122985 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Low temperature, as a kind of stress factor, often leads to tomato growth stagnation or yield reduction or even no harvest in production. At present, numerous genes have been shown to be involved in the regulation of cold resistance in the tomato. Complex [...] Read more.
Low temperature, as a kind of stress factor, often leads to tomato growth stagnation or yield reduction or even no harvest in production. At present, numerous genes have been shown to be involved in the regulation of cold resistance in the tomato. Complex regulatory mechanisms responding to low temperature stress in the tomato are still unclear in their details. In this study, six accessions of tomato (‘NL-7’, ‘NL-15’, ‘NL-18’, ‘NL-21, ‘NL-37’, and ‘NL-67’) with different cold tolerance were selected to detect the response to low temperature. The results showed that ‘NL-15’, ‘NL-18’, and ‘NL-21’ tomato accessions had cold tolerance under 8 °C/6 °C (day/night) for 15-day treatments. The TGS377 molecular marker, closely related to cold tolerance, was located on chromosome 1. The potential factors were identified and bioinformatics analysis within 50 kb upstream and downstream of TGS377. Fifteen genes were identified, and their structural analysis and functional annotation were also performed. The expression levels of Solyc01g008480 and Solyc01g150104 in the cold-sensitive tomato accessions (‘NL-7’, ‘NL-37’, and ‘NL-67’) were higher than that in the cold-tolerant accessions (‘NL-15’, ‘NL-18’ and ‘NL-21’). The expression levels of Solyc01g008390 and Solyc01g008410 in the cold-tolerant tomato ‘NL-18’ accession was significantly higher than that in the cold-sensitive accessions (‘NL-15’, ‘NL-18’, and ‘NL-21’). The results suggested that these genes may be involved in regulating low temperature response in the tomato, which lays a foundation for the search of potential cold response regulators in the tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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12 pages, 2636 KiB  
Article
Establishment of a Protoplasts-Based Transient Expression System in Banana (Musa spp.)
by Chunhui Zhao, Shuyu Li, Chanjuan Du, Hui Gao, Di Yang, Gang Fu and Haitao Cui
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112648 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
The breeding of triploid banana cultivars with improved traits, such as yield and disease resistance, remains a major challenge for breeders. One reason is that the molecular study and functional gene analysis in bananas fall behind due to the difficulties of its genetic [...] Read more.
The breeding of triploid banana cultivars with improved traits, such as yield and disease resistance, remains a major challenge for breeders. One reason is that the molecular study and functional gene analysis in bananas fall behind due to the difficulties of its genetic manipulation. The plant protoplast-based transient transformation has been documented and widely used as a versatile and convenient system for functional gene analysis in many plant species. However, an efficient high-quality protoplast isolation and transformation system is still lacking for bananas. Here, we established an efficient protoplast isolation and transformation method for bananas by selecting proper source materials, optimizing conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis and PEG-mediated transfection. We found the best source materials for banana protoplasts’ isolation are young suckers, which give a yield of protoplasts ranging from 2.5 × 106 to 10.1 × 107 g−1 fresh weight after 5 to 6 h of enzymolysis. The yield is sufficient for most assays that have been established in protoplasts-based systems, such as protein subcellular localization and protein interaction assays. Moreover, using the established transient gene expression system in banana protoplasts, we validated the subcellular localization of Arabidopsis VESICLE SORTING RECEPTOR 1 (VSR1) and the protein self-interaction of Arabidopsis CNGC20 on the cell membrane. The results indicated this system works well and could be routinely used for the functional characterization of banana genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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14 pages, 3552 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Research on the Effects of Different Substrates on the Metabolome of Potted Peonies
by Yujie Zhu, Xia Chen, Yiyou Hu, Huayuan Zhao, Huasen Wang, Hongli Li, Zijie Zheng and Xiangtao Zhu
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112628 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) is a traditional ornamental flower in China. Peony potted culture has become mainstream. The development of agricultural and forestry waste instead of a nonrenewable peat matrix as the substrate is an important direction for the future industry of [...] Read more.
Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) is a traditional ornamental flower in China. Peony potted culture has become mainstream. The development of agricultural and forestry waste instead of a nonrenewable peat matrix as the substrate is an important direction for the future industry of potted peonies. However, the mechanism of the effects of different substrates on the growth and development of peonies remains unclear. In this experiment, “Luhehong”, a peony variety from Heze, Shandong Province, was selected as the main experimental material. The response mechanism of peony roots to different substrate proportions was analyzed using untargeted metabolomics of potted peonies. Results showed that the potential for pot growth of planted peonies using the mixed-straw mixing matrix (Matrix K) is better than that of the rice husk matrix (Matrix G) and the control matrix. Moreover, the comparative analysis of the metabolic groups indicates that the number of peony root secretions in the three matrices has a remarkable difference, possibly related to the nutrition supply levels of the peony roots, in the different matrices of adaptive response and adjustment. Furthermore, (2r)-3-hydroxyisovaleroylcarnitine, trigonelline, 2-acetylresorcinol, and dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized vitamin C)—four metabolites with the most substantial intergroup differences—are considered key metabolites. The metabolic pathway analysis of propanoate, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, and the two pathways related to an environmental response, namely, ABC transporters and phosphatidylinositol signaling system, indicated that these pathways were remarkably enriched. Both may be the key way to affect the growth and development of potted peonies. This study can provide an important reference for the rational allocation of the substrate of agricultural and forestry waste in potted peony cultivation and application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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14 pages, 4295 KiB  
Article
24-Epibrassinolide and 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile Promoted Celery Petioles and Hypocotyl Elongation by Altering Cellulose Accumulation and Cell Length
by Yan-Hua Liu, Miao Sun, Hao Wang, Jie-Xia Liu, Guo-Fei Tan, Jun Yan, Yuan-Hua Wang, Zhi-Ming Yan, Hui Liu, Jian-Ping Tao, Wei-Min Zhu, Sheng Shu and Ai-Sheng Xiong
Agronomy 2022, 12(7), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12071670 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
BRs (brassinosteroids), an endogenous hormone in plants, regulate cellulose accumulation, cell elongation and plant growth. Propiconazole (PCZ) is an effective inhibitor of BR biosynthesis. DCB (2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile) can inhibit the synthesis of cellulose and affects the chemical composition of cell walls. Celery is one [...] Read more.
BRs (brassinosteroids), an endogenous hormone in plants, regulate cellulose accumulation, cell elongation and plant growth. Propiconazole (PCZ) is an effective inhibitor of BR biosynthesis. DCB (2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile) can inhibit the synthesis of cellulose and affects the chemical composition of cell walls. Celery is one important leafy vegetable of the Apiaceae family with rich dietary fiber (including cellulose). The petioles length, leaf blades number and cellulose content determine the yield and quality of celery. The family members of AgCESAs are related to cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. To investigate the effects of BRs, PCZ and DCB on the growth of celery, celery cv. ‘Jinnan Shiqin’ plants were treated with 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL, most active form of BRs), PCZ and DCB, respectively. The results showed that exogenous application of BRs up-regulated the expression of AgCESAs genes and accumulated more cellulose in celery. The length of petioles and number of leaf blades in celery plants applied with exogenous BRs (1.24 × 106 mol/L 24-EBL) were increased 2.16 and 1.37 times of that in the control. The addition of PCZ inhibited the effects of exogenous BRs application. The lengths of hypocotyl and hypocotyl cells of celery plants treated with BRs were longer than that of the control. Under DCB treatments, the expression levels of AgCESAs genes in celery petioles and leaf blades were down-regulated compared with the control, and the celery plants showed decreased cellulose content, shorter petiole length and fewer leaf blades. The length of hypocotyl and hypocotyl cells of celery treated with DCB were shorter than that of the control. This study provided a reference for the functions of BRs and DCB on the growth and development of celery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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12 pages, 4138 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomics Analysis on Fertility Conversion in Thermosensitive Genetic Male Sterility Line Zhu1S under High Temperature
by Yan Chen, Yi Chen, Zhipan Xiang, Jiaxin Li, Huiling Chen, Dandan Mao and Liangbi Chen
Agronomy 2022, 12(6), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061255 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Zhu1S is a thermosensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) line of rice possessing outstanding combining ability and low critical temperature, which has been extensively utilized as a female parent in two-line hybrid ricebreeding. However, the fertility of Zhu 1S during hybrid seed production is frequently [...] Read more.
Zhu1S is a thermosensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) line of rice possessing outstanding combining ability and low critical temperature, which has been extensively utilized as a female parent in two-line hybrid ricebreeding. However, the fertility of Zhu 1S during hybrid seed production is frequently affected by high temperature, thus leading to its fertility alteration and aborted hybrid seed production. To understand its fertility conversion mechanism under high temperature, we employed transcriptomics analyses on the anthers of young panicles of Zhu 1S during the fertility alternation sensitivity stage under high (Zhu 1S-H) and low (Zhu 1S-L) temperatures. The results showed that a total of 1119 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between Zhu 1S-H and Zhu1S-L anthers, including 680 up-regulated and 439 down-regulated genes. Bioinformatics analysis of these DEGs revealed that the high temperature induction caused fertility-sterility conversion in Zhu1S, mainly by decreasing the mRNA abundances of important genes closely related to plant hormone and MAPK signal pathway and transcriptional regulation factors, thereby impeding the growth and development of the anther of Zhu 1S, which ultimately affected the fertility transition of Zhu 1S under high temperature. The protein–protein interaction network analysis indicates that transcription factor OsTIFY11C possibility plays a central role in the fertility transition of Zhu 1S under high temperature.The present studies offer a theoretical foundation for further research into the molecular mechanism underlying fertility conversion in TGMS line Zhu 1S. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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13 pages, 2162 KiB  
Article
Changes in Photosynthetic Characteristics of Paeonia suffruticosa under High Temperature Stress
by Wen Ji, Haiyan Luo, Yuqin Song, Erman Hong, Zhijun Li, Bangyu Lin, Chenwei Fan, Huasen Wang, Xinzhang Song, Songheng Jin, Xia Chen and Xiangtao Zhu
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051203 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
This study explored the changes in the photosynthetic characteristics of the Fengdan peony under high-temperature stress to provide a reference for understanding the tolerance of peony plants under heat stress. In this study, the effects of high-temperature stress (40 °C) on the photosynthetic [...] Read more.
This study explored the changes in the photosynthetic characteristics of the Fengdan peony under high-temperature stress to provide a reference for understanding the tolerance of peony plants under heat stress. In this study, the effects of high-temperature stress (40 °C) on the photosynthetic characteristics of the Fengdan leaves were studied. At 25 °C, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of the leaves decreased gradually with the increase in heat stress time, and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased first and then increased. High-temperature stress reduced the light energy absorption (ABS/RC) and capture (TRO/RC), light energy for electron transport (ETO/RC), and heat dissipation (DIO/RC) per unit leaf area. The maximum photochemical efficiency (FV/FM), leaf photochemical performance index (PIabs), the probability that captured excitons can transfer electrons to other electron acceptors in the electron transport chain beyond QAO), and the quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), decreased gradually. The results showed that high temperatures damaged the photosynthetic capacity of the peony leaves and destroyed the photosynthetic apparatus of leaves. This study provides a reference for understanding the photosynthetic characteristics and tolerance of peony plants under heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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12 pages, 2250 KiB  
Communication
Delphinidins and Naringenin Chalcone Underlying the Fruit Color Changes during Maturity Stages in Eggplant
by Xing Wang, Shuangxia Luo, Qiang Li, Lijun Song, Weiwei Zhang, Ping Yu, Shuxin Xuan, Yanhua Wang, Jianjun Zhao, Xueping Chen and Shuxing Shen
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051036 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2974
Abstract
Purple eggplant fruits often turn brown during maturity stages, severely influencing their market value and shelf life. However, the metabolites and genes accounting for the fruit color changes are largely unknown. Here, metabolites and gene expression analyses were used to explore the candidates [...] Read more.
Purple eggplant fruits often turn brown during maturity stages, severely influencing their market value and shelf life. However, the metabolites and genes accounting for the fruit color changes are largely unknown. Here, metabolites and gene expression analyses were used to explore the candidates underlying the differences in fruit color changes between two eggplant genotypes, ‘14-345’ and ‘CGN23829’, with contrasting fruit color changes during fruit development. We found that flavonoids are the most differentially accumulated metabolites between ‘14-345’ and ‘CGN23829’. Higher contents of D3R and D3G are important for keeping the purple color at the maturity stage. Naringenin chalcone likely accounts for the color changes from purple to brown in ‘14-345’. Notably, at the physiological maturity stage, lower expression of early biosynthetic genes (EBGs) involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway is important to keep lower contents of metabolites upstream of anthocyanins, thus leading to more purple coloring. Taken together, the results indicate that delphinidins and naringenin chalcone play important roles in determining eggplant fruit color changes at maturity stages, which is helpful for further dissecting the mechanisms underlying fruit color differences and changes in eggplants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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15 pages, 1852 KiB  
Article
Integrative Transcriptomics and Proteomics Elucidate the Regulatory Mechanism of Hydrangea macrophylla Flower-Color Changes Induced by Exogenous Aluminum
by Haixia Chen, Denghui Wang, Yali Zhu, Wenfang Li, Jiren Chen and Yufan Li
Agronomy 2022, 12(4), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12040969 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
The mechanism through which Hydrangea macrophylla are able to change color has been the focus of investigation for many studies. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the complexation of aluminum ions and anthocyanins to regulate the color change remains unclear. Here, the color-changing [...] Read more.
The mechanism through which Hydrangea macrophylla are able to change color has been the focus of investigation for many studies. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the complexation of aluminum ions and anthocyanins to regulate the color change remains unclear. Here, the color-changing mechanism was investigated in Hydrangea macrophylla plants under aluminum stress using proteome and transcriptome sequencing methods. Catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, 3-O-delphinidin and Al3+ contents in sepal were significantly upregulated upon Al3+ treatment. Moreover, 1628 differentially expressed genes and 448 differentially expressed proteins were identified between the treated and untreated conditions. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes and differentially expressed proteins were enriched in categories related to the cell wall, peroxidase activity, and peroxisome pathways. Importantly, eight genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were significantly downregulated at the transcript and protein levels under aluminum stress. These results suggest that aluminum ions induce expression changes of related key genes, which regulate the hydrangea’s flower color. Overall, this study provides a valuable reference for the molecular mechanism relating to the color change and adaptation of Hydrangea macrophylla in response to aluminum stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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Review

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18 pages, 11355 KiB  
Review
Crop Lodging and The Roles of Lignin, Cellulose, and Hemicellulose in Lodging Resistance
by Qing Li, Canfang Fu, Chengliang Liang, Xiangjiang Ni, Xuanhua Zhao, Meng Chen and Lijun Ou
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081795 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4880
Abstract
With increasingly frequent extreme weather events, lodging has become an important limiting factor for crop yield and quality and for mechanical harvesting. Lodging resistance is a precondition for “super high yield” crops, and the question of how to achieve lodging resistance to guarantee [...] Read more.
With increasingly frequent extreme weather events, lodging has become an important limiting factor for crop yield and quality and for mechanical harvesting. Lodging resistance is a precondition for “super high yield” crops, and the question of how to achieve lodging resistance to guarantee high yield is an urgent scientific problem. Here, we summarize the anatomical results of lodging resistance stems and find that the lodging resistance of stems is closely related to stem components. Therefore, we focus on the roles of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, which provide stem rigidity and strength, in crop lodging resistance. By combing the synthetic regulatory molecular network of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, we find that only some of the genes involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose have been shown to significantly affect lodging resistance. However, many relevant genes remain to be studied in sufficient detail to determine whether they can be applied in breeding for lodging resistance. This work provides valuable information for future studies of lodging resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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16 pages, 808 KiB  
Review
Cucurbitaceous Vegetables’ Gummy Stem Blight Research
by Qing Luo, Guo-Fei Tan, Yi-Qiao Ma, Ping-Hong Meng and Jian Zhang
Agronomy 2022, 12(6), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061283 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3300
Abstract
Cucurbits are an important vegetable crop of the gourd family. Unfortunately, gummy stem blight (GSB) causes a major fungal disease on Cucurbitaceous vegetable crops. It is also known as black root when affecting fruits, and it is found all over the world. GSB [...] Read more.
Cucurbits are an important vegetable crop of the gourd family. Unfortunately, gummy stem blight (GSB) causes a major fungal disease on Cucurbitaceous vegetable crops. It is also known as black root when affecting fruits, and it is found all over the world. GSB is caused by the fungal pathogen Didymella bryoniae. Research efforts have investigated the different developmental stages and various parts of Cucurbits affected with this disease. In the present paper, we have completed a systematic review for the disease’s symptomatic, pathogenic microbes, resistance resources, resistance inheritance regularity, molecular biology and genomic study of resistance gene and control method, etc., on Cucurbits. This review provides the background and rationale for future studies aiming to address the issues existing in gummy stem blight research and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Horticultural Crops-from Omics to Biotechnology)
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