Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Biosystem and Biological Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 48296

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Vegetable and Herb Crops, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Doświadczalna 50A, 20-280 Lublin, Poland
Interests: spice and medicinal plants; ontogenetic and environmental variability; cultivation; yield quality; essential oil; biological activity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Quality of Vegetables and Medicinal Plants, Department of Vegetable and Herbal Crops, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Interests: medicinal and aromatic plants; plant production; crop modeling; isolation of bioactive compounds; phytochemistry; essential oils and volatile biogenic compounds; antioxidant activity; natural antimicrobial compounds; pharmacology of natural products; nanoemulsions; agricultural biochemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: spice and medicinal plants; chemical composition; yield quality; medicinal raw material as source of biostimulants for vegetable plants; vertical farming; urban agriculture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Natural products, i.e., food, drugs, cosmetics, flavors, dyes, and preservatives, have recently become the subject of great interest. There is no doubt that the basic condition for the suitability and use of these products is a strong scientific basis, especially in terms of biological activity. Medicinal aromatic plants (MAP) play a valuable and important role in economic, social, cultural, and ecological aspects of local communities around the world. MAP, commonly known as herbs or spices, are distinguished by their original aroma and valuable healing effects. They areknown in folk medicine, and have modern proven healing effects. Their properties are modified by various factors of variation: genetic, ontogenetic, environmental, and post-harvest.

This Special Issue encourages the submission of high-quality scientific articles and reviews covering the latest developments in the morphological, chemical, and biological characterization of aromatic plants.

Potential topics: 

  • Aromatic plants of natural sites and cultivated species;
  • Biochemical diversity;
  • Aromatic plant products with high biological and functional potential;
  • Variability of the chemical composition of aromatic plants;
  • Agrotechnical factors increasing the yield quality;
  • Essential oils and essential oil-bearing plants;
  • Stabilization of oil raw materials;techniques for extraction, identification and quantification of volatile substances;
  • Biological activity of aromatic substances.

Prof. Dr. Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak
Dr. Agnieszka Najda
Prof. Dr. Anita Biesiada
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • medicinal aromatic plants
  • biodiversity
  • herbal crops
  • yield variability factors
  • essential oil
  • extraction methods
  • quality assessment
  • aromatic products
  • biological activity

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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10 pages, 253 KiB  
Editorial
Chemical Diversity, Yield, and Quality of Aromatic Plants
by Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak
Agronomy 2023, 13(6), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13061614 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Natural products, i.e., food, drugs, cosmetics, flavors, dyes, and preservatives, have recently become a subject of great interest. There is no doubt that the primary condition for the suitability and use of these products is a solid scientific basis, especially in terms of [...] Read more.
Natural products, i.e., food, drugs, cosmetics, flavors, dyes, and preservatives, have recently become a subject of great interest. There is no doubt that the primary condition for the suitability and use of these products is a solid scientific basis, especially in terms of biological activity. Medicinal aromatic plants (MAPs) play a valuable and vital role in the economic, social, cultural, and ecological aspects of local communities worldwide. MAPs, commonly known as herbs or spices, are distinguished by their original aroma and valuable healing effects. They are common in folk medicine and have modern proven healing effects. These plants are characterized by great diversity both morphologically and chemically, as well as in terms of biological activity. Their properties are modified by various factors of variation: genetic, ontogenetic, environmental, and post-harvest. This review presents the results of the latest research on the use of wild and cultivated aromatic plants in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food production sectors. In addition, the relationship between the quantity and quality of MAP yield and the genetic, environmental, and agrotechnical factors involved was discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

18 pages, 2507 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Allelopathic Activity Interactions of Some Medicinal Plants Using Fractional Inhibitory Concentration and Isobologram
by Somayeh Sadeqifard, Somayeh Mirmostafaee, Mohammad Reza Joharchi, Jaleh Zandavifard, Majid Azizi and Yoshiharu Fujii
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123001 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Allelopathy is a physiological process with an ecological concept and application. Allelopathy is the result of the production of biologically active molecules by growing plants or their remains, which may have a direct effect on the growth and development of individuals of the [...] Read more.
Allelopathy is a physiological process with an ecological concept and application. Allelopathy is the result of the production of biologically active molecules by growing plants or their remains, which may have a direct effect on the growth and development of individuals of the same species or other species after changing their shape and entering the environment. As regards, the use of natural compounds in the control of weeds and pests is a priority. In this research, the allelopathic activity of 123 specimens of medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated individually by the dish-pack method using lettuce seeds as a model. Then, the strongest inhibitory ones were selected and their allelopathic interaction effects were investigated for the first time by interacting them together. Two methods were used to evaluate allelopathic interaction effects: calculating Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) and drawing Isobologram diagrams. Lettuce hypocotyl length, root length, germination percentage, and germination rate were investigated. Pelargonium graveolens (leaf) had the greatest inhibitory effect on lettuce radicle growth (EC50 = 5.31 mg/well) and Echinophora platyloba (stem) had the greatest effect on hypocotyl growth inhibition (EC50 = 7.91 mg/well). Also, the lowest lettuce germination percentages were observed in the treatments Lavandula officinalis (flower) and Nepeta binaloudensis (leaf), respectively (23.61, 22.85%). The highest inhibitory effect by considering lettuce germination rate was detected in Salvia ceratophylla (leaf), (12.86 seed/day) and the lowest belonged to Nepeta binaloudensis (leaf) and Lavandula officinalis (flower), respectively (3.60, 3.32 seed/day). According to FIC calculations and isobolograms, two types of interaction, including synergist (Nepeta binaloudensis (leaf) with Trachyspermum ammi (fruit) and Nepeta binaloudensis (leaf) with Lavandula officinalis (flower) and antagonist (Pelargonium graveolens (leaf) with Lavandula officinalis (flower)), were observed significantly among the plants tested in this research. These interactions can be used to prepare more effective natural herbicides and decrease the use of herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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13 pages, 3345 KiB  
Article
Variation in the Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Cultivars of Lavandula angustifolia and L. × intermedia
by Magdalena Walasek-Janusz, Agnieszka Grzegorczyk, Daniel Zalewski, Anna Malm, Sylwia Gajcy and Robert Gruszecki
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12122955 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
The antimicrobial properties of essential oil from Lavandula sp. raise hopes related to its use in phytotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils from cultivars of L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote Blue Strain’, ‘Hidcote Blue’) and L. × intermedia (‘Phenomenal’, [...] Read more.
The antimicrobial properties of essential oil from Lavandula sp. raise hopes related to its use in phytotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils from cultivars of L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote Blue Strain’, ‘Hidcote Blue’) and L. × intermedia (‘Phenomenal’, ‘Grosso’) grown in central-eastern Poland, that is, at the border of the northern lavender cultivation range. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined by GC/MS. Essential oil concentrations (20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.6, 0.3, 0.16, 0.08, and 0.04 mg/mL) were tested to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) towards ten strains of Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria, and eight yeasts in vitro culture. Essential oils from the Lavendula cultivars showed antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms analysed. The yeasts were characterised by higher sensitivity to lavender oil compared to bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria. The lowest MIC values for bacteria and fungi were obtained for ‘Grosso’. Furthermore, the ‘Grosso’ oil showed the highest fungicidal activity, while the highest bactericidal activity was found in ‘Hidcote Blue’ and ‘Grosso’. Using Staphylococcus aureus as an example, it was shown that different bacterial strains of the same species show varying sensitivity to the essential oil. A higher oil content was noted for the cultivars L. × intermedia, especially for the ‘Phenomenal’. Linalyl acetate and linalool were the main components of the essential oil in all cultivars. However, in the ‘Grosso’ oil, a high content of terpinen-4-ol (18.08%) was also recorded. An analysis of the relationships between the content of the main components in the analysed essential oils and the antimicrobial activity of essential oils suggested that linalool and terpinen-4-ol were compounds potentially responsible for antimicrobial activity. The obtained results allow us to conclude that essential oil with significant antimicrobial activity can be obtained from Lavandula sp. plants harvested in the northern part of the cultivation range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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11 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
Studies on the Yield and Chemical Composition of the Herb of Plants of the Genus Ocimum Depending on the Development Stage of the Plant
by Grażyna Zawiślak, Magdalena Walasek-Janusz, Ewa Dorota Zalewska and Robert Gruszecki
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112710 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
The research aimed to present the possibility of cultivating selected plants of the genus Ocimum in central-eastern Poland and to assess the chemical composition of the obtained raw material, considering the development stage of the plant. The research object consisted of six selected [...] Read more.
The research aimed to present the possibility of cultivating selected plants of the genus Ocimum in central-eastern Poland and to assess the chemical composition of the obtained raw material, considering the development stage of the plant. The research object consisted of six selected plants from the genus Ocimum: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurescens, Ocimum basilicum × citrodorum, Ocimum basilicum ‘Cinnamon’, Ocimum basilicum ‘Siam Queen’, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum ‘Minette’. The herb was harvested on the following dates: mid-June (vegetative stage), mid-July (beginning of flowering), late July/early August (full flowering), end of August (late flowering). The research showed that plants of genus Ocimum sp. can be successfully introduced to cultivation in central-eastern Poland. The yield of these plants was at a high level (average yield of fresh herb—1.15 kg m−2 and average marketable yield—0.14 kg m−2). Plants of genus Ocimum sp. accumulated the least essential oil, flavonoids, and tannins in the vegetative stage (mean: essential oil—0.86%, flavonoids—0.60%, tannins—0.41%). The highest content of all tested secondary metabolites was found in the variety O. basilicum var. minimum “Minette”. The variability of the content of the analyzed compounds depending on the growth and flowering stage of the plants under study is diversified. For this reason, the date of harvesting raw materials from these plants should be selected individually to obtain a high-quality product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
12 pages, 890 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Efficacy and Convenience of Krameria lappacea for the Development of Botanical Fungicides and New Alternatives of Antifungal Treatment
by Martin Zabka
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2599; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112599 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
The support of trends in agriculture with limited or restricted use of pesticides is linked to the difficulty of protection against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi. Therefore, it is a great challenge to find alternatives to these dangerous fungi. These alternatives include using safe [...] Read more.
The support of trends in agriculture with limited or restricted use of pesticides is linked to the difficulty of protection against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi. Therefore, it is a great challenge to find alternatives to these dangerous fungi. These alternatives include using safe antifungal plant substances of medicinal or aromatic plants as components of botanical pesticides. Within 69 plant species, only 13 were selected as potentially of interest. However, the species Krameria lappacea, whose extraction yield (economic factor) achieved 17.6% and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50) 0.11–1.24 mg mL−1, was found to be enormously advantageous. Extraordinary efficacy on a set of dangerous filamentous fungi, comparable to expensive essential oils or active phenolic compounds, was demonstrated. In the most effective extract fraction, two main substances from the group of neolignans, analogues of kramerixin, were detected by using GC-MS and LC-MS analysis, and their molecular structure was determined. The advantage of K. lappacea was discussed on the basis of the mode of action and chemical properties of the detected neolignans. K. lappacea could be a suitable source for environmentally friendly preparations, thanks to its high yield in simple extraction, excellent antifungal activity, broad antifungal spectrum, harmlessness, and assumed lower volatility of active compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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17 pages, 2065 KiB  
Communication
Phytotoxic Effects of Three Origanum Species Extracts and Essential Oil on Seed Germinations and Seedling Growths of Four Weed Species
by Saban Kordali, Gulbahar Kabaagac, İsmail Sen, Ferah Yilmaz and Agnieszka Najda
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102581 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
The use of chemical pesticides to protect agricultural products is a global concern because of their adverse effects on the environment and public health. To avoid the dangers of synthetic herbicides, research has turned to natural alternatives. This study was conducted to evaluate [...] Read more.
The use of chemical pesticides to protect agricultural products is a global concern because of their adverse effects on the environment and public health. To avoid the dangers of synthetic herbicides, research has turned to natural alternatives. This study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic effect of essential oil (EO) extracted from Origanum syriacum, Origanum onites, and Origanum majorana. In addition, the chemical composition of the essential oil was elucidated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. A total of 11 different components of O.syriacum were identified, and the main components were carvacrol (88.49), p-Cymene (5.71), γ-Terpinene (1.63), β-Caryoplhyllene (1.48), and Terpinen-4-ol (0.65), respectively. For O. onites, 10 different compounds were identified, and the main components were carvacrol (58.65), Thymol (30.97), Linalool (4.17), p-Cymene (1.94), and β-Caryoplhyllene (0.98), respectively. Finally, for O. majorana, 14 different compounds were identified, and the main components were carvacrol (40.57), α-Terpineol (29.28), p-Cymene (9.02), γ-Terpinene (5.80), and carvacrol methyl ether (3.46). Finally, 14 compounds from the Origanum majorana species were identified, with carvacrol (40.57), -Terpineol (29.28), p-Cymene (9.02), and -Terpinene (5.80) as the parent compound (3.46). Oxygenated monoterpenes were the highest in all species’ EO content. EOs and plant extracts were tested at 5, 10, and 20 L/Petri concentrations against seed germination and seedling growth in four weed species (Thlaspi arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Rumex cripus, and Lactuca serriola). The concentrations of essential oil were set as 5, 10, and 20 µL/Petri dishes for seed germination. In the greenhouse experiment, the final concentration of solutions was set as 20 µL and the solutions were directly sprayed on the surface of the weeds, and the mortality rates were noted after 24 and 48 h of application. It was observed that increasing the application decreased seed germination. The phytotoxic effects on the seedling germination in the greenhouse were observed, resulting in 48.76–94% mortality rates. Consequently, the essential oil from Origanum species could be considered as an alternative bio-herbicide to tested weeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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10 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Use of Oregano and Coconut Hydrolates to Improve Onion Seed Quality
by Agnieszka Rosińska
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102478 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Onion seeds are often contaminated by pathogenic fungi, such as Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., which decrease seed quality. The usage of hydrolates is an alternative method to chemical treatment, and is safe for the natural environment, human health and life. The aim of [...] Read more.
Onion seeds are often contaminated by pathogenic fungi, such as Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., which decrease seed quality. The usage of hydrolates is an alternative method to chemical treatment, and is safe for the natural environment, human health and life. The aim of the experiment was the determination of the effect of treatment with oregano and coconut hydrolates on the quality of onion seeds. Germination, vigour and seed health of two samples of onion seeds were tested. Seed germination was evaluated according to ISTA Rules, seed health by agar test and vigour by seed speed and uniformity of germination. Seeds were treated with hydrolate solutions at concentrations of 10, 20, 50 and 100%; untreated seeds and seeds soaking in water and treated with fungicide were control. Generally, the use of hydrolates improved the germination capacity at first and final count for both analyzed samples. After treating with hydrolate solutions, less abnormal diseased seedlings were also observed. Higher concentrations of hydrolates were effective in the limitation of the incidence of fungi A. alternata, Cladosporium spp. and Fusarium spp., either by complete elimination or a reduction of their presence on the seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
18 pages, 21171 KiB  
Article
Diversity of Chemical Composition and Morphological Traits of Eight Iranian Wild Salvia Species during the First Step of Domestication
by Ghasem Esmaeili, Hamideh Fatemi, Mahnaz Baghani avval, Majid Azizi, Hossein Arouiee, Jamil Vaezi and Yoshiharu Fujii
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2455; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102455 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
As one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family, Salvia has a wide distribution worldwide. Despite their great importance and medicinal use, most Salvia species are collected from their natural habitats, and some of them are endangered and vulnerable. This study aimed [...] Read more.
As one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family, Salvia has a wide distribution worldwide. Despite their great importance and medicinal use, most Salvia species are collected from their natural habitats, and some of them are endangered and vulnerable. This study aimed to evaluate the domestication process of eight Iranian native Salvia species. The studied species were cultivated and adapted to the cultivation area after two years, and then some of their important biochemical properties were investigated. According to some significant results, the root architecture was closely correlated with the climatic conditions of the species origins. The distribution of total dry matter varied widely among species; accordingly, S. sclarea and S. officinalis had 65.6% and 55.9% dry weights in their leaves, respectively. Moreover, S. nemorosa had a 24.3% dry weight in its flowers, while S. frigida (Jahrom), S. frigida (Targavar), S. virgata (Eghled), and S. macrosiphon had 44.6%, 43.3%, 46.0%, and 44.3% dry weights in their roots. The most potent antioxidant activity (IC50) was observed in the roots of S. macrosiphon (10.9 μg/mL) and S. sclarea (14.9 μg/mL), the stem of S. nemorosa (14.3 μg/mL), and the leaves of S. atropatana (14.0 μg/mL). Rosmarinic acid, a key phenolic substance in Salvia species, was present in the range of 0.24–0.47 mg/g dry weight. The essential oil content ranged from 0.35% in S. atropatana to 1.45% (w/w) in S. officinalis. β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and germacrene D were the major ingredients of the essential oils. The cluster analysis based on the essential oil data revealed the most similarities between S. sclarea and S. macrosiphon, and a clear separation of S. virgate, S. syriaca, and S. officinalis from other species. Salvia spp. contain a wide variety of compounds of interest under cultivation, with S. sclarea having the greatest potential to profit from the production of medicinal compounds, such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and essential oils. Furthermore, S. officinalis, S. nemorosa, and S. sclarea are the best species for producing raw medicinal materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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18 pages, 3454 KiB  
Article
Mentha aquatica L. Populations from the Hyrcanian Hotspot: Volatile Oil Profiles and Morphological Diversity
by Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam, Ahmad Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad Reza Morshedloo, Mohammad Asadi, Farzad Rasouli, Lamia Vojodi Mehrabani and Agnieszka Najda
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102277 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Mentha aquatica L. (Lamiaceae) is found in different parts of Iran. Its essential oil and preparations regulate bile function and are used as a stomach tonic and disinfectant. This study investigates the morphological and essential oil diversity of M. aquatica populations from the [...] Read more.
Mentha aquatica L. (Lamiaceae) is found in different parts of Iran. Its essential oil and preparations regulate bile function and are used as a stomach tonic and disinfectant. This study investigates the morphological and essential oil diversity of M. aquatica populations from the Hyrcanian hotspot of Iran. Plant samples were collected from Gilan, Golestan, and Mazandaran provinces in the Caspian Region for analysis. The results showed significant differences among the studied ecotypes for the stem diameter, collar diameter, number of inflorescences, length and width of inflorescence, sepal diameter, sepal length, and secondary stem length number. Principal component analysis showed that the first seven principal components explained 90.6% of the total variation. Moreover, essential oil concentration varied widely from 1.13% for a sample from Behshahr-Mazandaran, down to 0.27% for one from Abbas abad-Mazandaran. GC–MS analysis identified 29 constituents that accounted for 91% of the total essential oil. The main components of the essential oil were menthofuran (13.21–52.46%), 1,8-cineole (12.42–25.55%), (E)-caryophyllene (3.18–15.43%), viridiflorol (1.04–11.16%), germacrene D (1.70–8.29%), caryophyllene oxide (0.51–4.96%), neryl acetate (1.11–4.95%), p-cymene (1.55–4.77%), and β-pinene (1.7–3.45%). Overall, meaningful diversity was recorded among the populations; Rahimabad-Gilan and Behshahr-Mazandaran would be reliable selections for the food and pharmaceutical industries due to their higher yields and content of α-pinene, 1, 8-cineole, menthofuran, viridiflorol, and β-caryophyllene. Further evaluation of populations from diverse habitats is needed to guide future breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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11 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Essential Oil Diversity of Turnip-Rooted Parsley Cultivars
by Robert Gruszecki and Magdalena Walasek-Janusz
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081949 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The quality of turnip-rooted parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. tuberosum) as a seasoning ingredient depends on the content and composition of the essential oil. The content of essential oil is influenced by many factors, the main of which are genetic variations and [...] Read more.
The quality of turnip-rooted parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. tuberosum) as a seasoning ingredient depends on the content and composition of the essential oil. The content of essential oil is influenced by many factors, the main of which are genetic variations and environmental conditions. The presented work presents for the first time a comparison of such numerous cultivars of root parsley in terms of the essential oil content in both the roots and the leaves. The experiment compared the content and composition of the essential oils of fifteen parsley cultivars in two growing seasons. The essential oil was obtained by the hydrodistillation method, and the composition analysis was performed using the GC/MS technique. The essential oil content in parsley roots ranged from 0.013 to 0.045 mL 100 g−1 FW, while in leaves, it was within the range of 0.041–0.121 mL 100 g−1 FW. The leaf essential oil yield was also higher than the roots, proving that parsley leaves are a valuable spice and should not be treated as a waste product as before. It was observed in the research that the content of essential oils changed significantly due to the weather conditions in the analysed growing seasons; however, some cultivars, such as ‘Kinga’, ‘Eagle’, and ‘Berlińska PNE’, had a stable content of essential oils in the analysed period. The dominant component of the essential oils obtained from the roots of all cultivars was apiol. However, in the case of the essential oils obtained from the leaves, the main ingredients were myristicin, β-pinene, Z-falcarinol, and β-phellandrene, but their content was highly varied depending on the weather conditions in the analysed growing seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
11 pages, 849 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Proline on the Yield and Essential Oil Content of Turnip-Rooted Parsley (Petroselinum crispum ssp. tuberosum)
by Robert Gruszecki, Aneta Stawiarz and Magdalena Walasek-Janusz
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081941 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Proline is an amino acid that increases plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, but the effects of its application can be influenced by many factors. The present study investigated the effects of time and the number of applications of this amino acid [...] Read more.
Proline is an amino acid that increases plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, but the effects of its application can be influenced by many factors. The present study investigated the effects of time and the number of applications of this amino acid on the yield of root parsley in field conditions. The experimental material comprised of two parsley cultivars (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill), ‘Halblange’ and ‘Sonata’. The parsley plants were sprayed with proline (1000 mg L−1) at growth stages determined according to the BBCH scale: BBCH 15–16 (I: 5–6 leaf phase), BBCH 41 (II: roots start to widen, diameter > 0.5 cm), and BBCH scale 42–43 (III: roots are 20–30% of the typical diameter), including I + II, II + III, and I + II + III. The time and number of proline applications affected the weight of leaves and the total and marketable yield. The amino acid spraying increased the average number of plants during harvest in the ‘Halblange’ but decreased the number in the ‘Sonata’ in all applications. Using proline twice or three times reduced the total essential oil content and modified its composition. The most beneficial effect in terms of the composition was achieved by using proline twice at stages II + III, even in ‘Sonata’, where the values were lower in the other treatments than in the control. Spraying three times did not give better results in terms of the composition and content of the essential oil. However, the use of this amino acid did not affect the total and marketable yield of the roots or the leaf weight of the parsley compared to the control. Our study showed that the time of the proline application may be more important than the number of applications, and the results may be cultivar-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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10 pages, 660 KiB  
Communication
Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. Leaves: Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Elastase and Collagenase Inhibition
by Chahinez Oulebsir, Hakima Mefti-Korteby, Zahr-Eddine Djazouli, Bachar Zebib and Othmane Merah
Agronomy 2022, 12(6), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061466 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4326
Abstract
Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), which belongs to the Rutaceae family, is used around the Mediterranean Sea for ornamental and agronomic purposes as a rootstock for the Citrus species. Peels and flowers, the most-used parts of Citrus aurantium L., have constituted a largely [...] Read more.
Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), which belongs to the Rutaceae family, is used around the Mediterranean Sea for ornamental and agronomic purposes as a rootstock for the Citrus species. Peels and flowers, the most-used parts of Citrus aurantium L., have constituted a largely promising area of research for their many medicinal properties. However, the leaves of sour orange have not yet been studied extensively. The present study aimed at investigating the essential oil composition of sour orange leaves grown in Algeria and determining their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Essential oil composition of leaves harvested before flowering was determined by GC-MS. Total phenol content, antioxidant activities (DPPH) and elastase and collagenase inhibition were assessed. Forty-three volatile compounds were detected in essential oil from leaves with a yield of 0.57%. The major compounds were linalool, linalyl acetate and α-Terpineol. Results show that the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of essential oil are low, 3.48 ± 0.10 mg/g (Gallic Acid Equivalent/EO) and IC50 > 10,000 mg·L−1, respectively. In contrast, EO present an interesting level of elastase and collagenase inhibition. This result emphasizes the potential interest of the essential oil of sour orange mainly in relation to its anti-aging mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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15 pages, 1844 KiB  
Article
Stachys lavandulifolia Populations: Volatile Oil Profile and Morphological Diversity
by Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam, Yadeghar Salimi, Mohammad Reza Morshedloo, Mohammad Asadi, Farzad Rasouli, Sezai Ercisli, Hafize Fidan, Crina Carmen Muresan and Romina Alina Marc
Agronomy 2022, 12(6), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061430 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
The morphological and essential oil diversity of Stachys lavandulifolia populations from the west and northwest of Iran were evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between the populations for nearly all the evaluated traits. The broadest variation ranges were recorded for the auxiliary [...] Read more.
The morphological and essential oil diversity of Stachys lavandulifolia populations from the west and northwest of Iran were evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between the populations for nearly all the evaluated traits. The broadest variation ranges were recorded for the auxiliary shoot length, leaf length in the main branch, and the number of flowers in the inflorescences. Furthermore, cluster analysis divided 13 populations into four separate groups. GC/MS analysis verified the presence of 28 components comprising up to 94/4% of the oils. The dominant constituents were α-pinene (1.07–34.87%), (E)-caryophyllene (0.45–25.99%), germacrene D (3.36–20.61%), Δ-cadinene (2.82–19.90%), bicyclogermacrene (1.72–12.08%) α-terpineol (0–11.86%), α-muurolol (0.31–11.50%), p-cymene (0.67–9.67%), β-elemene (0.63–9.31%), and sabinene (0.32–6.29%). The results revealed that natural habitats and the related geo-climatological cues influenced morphological traits and oil composition. Considering the substantial environmental variations and the broad diversity, there would be a rich selection pool for the traits of interest. The populations are a step forward in the breeding programs for the highlighted essential oil constituents needed by the pharmaceutical and related industries. Furthermore, with the future comparative study of the populations from all Iranian territories and the neighboring countries, we will have a realistic idea of the coming conservational and exploitation programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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11 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.)—A Wild-Growing Aromatic Medicinal Plant with a Variable Essential Oil Composition
by Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Andrzej Sałata and Magdalena Kniaziewicz
Agronomy 2022, 12(2), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020277 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4437
Abstract
Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) is an aromatic medicinal plant whose use is limited by the presence of toxic thujone. This research aimed to evaluate the morphological and chemical properties of tansy plants growing in various natural habitats. The research determined the content [...] Read more.
Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) is an aromatic medicinal plant whose use is limited by the presence of toxic thujone. This research aimed to evaluate the morphological and chemical properties of tansy plants growing in various natural habitats. The research determined the content and chemical composition of the essential oil, the contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids, and the antioxidant activity levels of methanol extracts from tansy inflorescences. The highest amount of essential oil (1.05 mL·kg−1) was found in the raw material collected from the reclaimed area (R). Forty-seven compounds were identified in tansy oil, among which camphor (31.21–1.27%) and trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (76.09–0.09%) dominated, while the concentration of trans-thujone was low (2.67% on average). The highest amounts of flavonoids (0.52%) were found in the raw material collected from the ruderal (W) and reclaimed (R) sites, while the highest amount of phenolic acids (2.42%) was found in the raw material from the ruderal site (W). Tansy inflorescence extracts showed high antioxidant potential (88.41%). The reasons for the variability of the chemical composition of tansy were environmental and genetic variability factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

16 pages, 1849 KiB  
Review
Novel Perspective of Medicinal Mushroom Cultivations: A Review Case for ‘Magic’ Mushrooms
by Sarana Rose Sommano, Ratchuporn Suksathan, Thanarat Sombat, Pimjai Seehanam, Sasithorn Sirilun, Warintorn Ruksiriwanich, Sutee Wangtueai and Noppol Leksawasdi
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3185; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123185 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8985
Abstract
Fruiting bodies, mycelia, or spores in the form of extracts or powder of various medicinal mushrooms are used to prevent, treat, or cure a range of ailments and balance a healthy diet. Medicinal mushrooms are found in several genera of fungi and their [...] Read more.
Fruiting bodies, mycelia, or spores in the form of extracts or powder of various medicinal mushrooms are used to prevent, treat, or cure a range of ailments and balance a healthy diet. Medicinal mushrooms are found in several genera of fungi and their fruit bodies, cultured mycelia, and cultured broth contains phytochemical constituents such as triterpenes, lectins, steroids, phenols, polyphenols, lactones, statins, alkaloids, and antibiotics. Edible mushrooms are considered functional foods that can be used as supplements for complementary and alternative medicines where the markets are growing rapidly. Several species of edible mushrooms possess therapeutic potential and functional characteristics. The psilocybin-containing types, sometimes known as magic mushrooms, have been utilized for generations by indigenous communities due to their hallucinogenic, medicinal, and mind-manifestation properties. Recent clinical research also convinces that these psychedelics have the potential to treat addiction, depression, anxiety, and other mental health concerns. This has escalated the demand for the natural products derived from the mushrooms of these sources, yet the agronomic aspect and biotechnology approaches to produce the active ingredients are not collectively documented. The objectives of this review article are to examine the general type and variation of therapeutic mushrooms, especially those belonging to the Psilocybe. The biotechnology approach for cultivation and the production of secondary metabolites is also appraised. The ultimate purposes are to provide guidance for farmers and companies to pursue sustainable ways to produce natural products for the development of functional food and pharmaceuticals and to support the alteration of the stigmatic drug concerns around psychedelic mushrooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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16 pages, 1317 KiB  
Review
Aromatic Plants Metabolic Engineering: A Review
by Olga V. Shelepova, Ekaterina N. Baranova, Ekaterina V. Tkacheva, Yulia B. Evdokimenkova, Aleksandr A. Ivanovskii, Ludmila N. Konovalova and Alexander A. Gulevich
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3131; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123131 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Secondary metabolites of aromatic plants are used in many health applications as drugs, pheromones, insecticides, fragrances, and antioxidants. Due to the huge commercial demand for these secondary metabolites, the need to overcome the insufficient productivity of aromatic plants has become a significant challenge. [...] Read more.
Secondary metabolites of aromatic plants are used in many health applications as drugs, pheromones, insecticides, fragrances, and antioxidants. Due to the huge commercial demand for these secondary metabolites, the need to overcome the insufficient productivity of aromatic plants has become a significant challenge. Plant breeding is a traditional, labor-intensive, and limited method to improve the ability of aromatic plants to produce secondary metabolites. Modern methods of biotechnology, including genetic engineering and genome editing, can be useful and cost-effective in improving aromatic plants, as they can increase the efficiency of obtaining plants with high productivity and the creation of resistant forms and breeding lines. This review illustrates the importance of developing methods for the modification of aromatic plants belonging to different families, with a predictable quality, resistance to adverse factors and pests, and intensive growth and high yields and productivity of valuable essential oils. Particular attention is paid to successful examples of the modification of aromatic plants, applied methods, and principal approaches Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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13 pages, 1610 KiB  
Review
Biological and Chemical Diversity of Angelica archangelica L.—Case Study of Essential Oil and Its Biological Activity
by Milica Aćimović, Milica Rat, Lato Pezo, Biljana Lončar, Milada Pezo, Ana Miljković and Jovan Lazarević
Agronomy 2022, 12(7), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12071570 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2497
Abstract
Garden angelica (Angelica archangelica L.), native to the northern temperate region, is widespread in Europe and Asia. Since the middle ages, it has been used for healing and as a vegetable in traditional dishes. In the modern era, it has been proven [...] Read more.
Garden angelica (Angelica archangelica L.), native to the northern temperate region, is widespread in Europe and Asia. Since the middle ages, it has been used for healing and as a vegetable in traditional dishes. In the modern era, it has been proven that A. archangelica has a complex chemical composition. The main derivatives that contribute to the plant’s biological activities are essential oil and coumarins. In this review, the focus is on the cross-analysis of the taxonomy of A. archangelica, and its distribution in different regions, with the presentation of the richness of its biochemical composition, which overall contributes to the widespread use of the roots of this plant in folk medicine. It belongs to the plants that were introduced to the wider area of Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe; as a medicinal plant, it represents a significant part of the medical flora of many areas. Cluster analysis of pooled data indicates a clear differentiation of chemotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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21 pages, 1674 KiB  
Review
Modern Use of Bryophytes as a Source of Secondary Metabolites
by Michał Dziwak, Katarzyna Wróblewska, Antoni Szumny and Renata Galek
Agronomy 2022, 12(6), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061456 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5047
Abstract
Bryophytes constitute a heterogeneous group of plants which includes three clades: approximately 14,000 species of mosses (Bryophyta), 6000 species of liverworts (Marchantiophyta), and 300 species of hornworts (Anthocerotophyta). They are common in almost all ecosystems, where they play important roles. Bryophytes lack developed [...] Read more.
Bryophytes constitute a heterogeneous group of plants which includes three clades: approximately 14,000 species of mosses (Bryophyta), 6000 species of liverworts (Marchantiophyta), and 300 species of hornworts (Anthocerotophyta). They are common in almost all ecosystems, where they play important roles. Bryophytes lack developed physical barriers, yet they are rarely attacked by herbivores or pathogens. Instead, they have acquired the ability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites with diverse functions, such as phytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, insect antifeedant, and molluscicidal activities. Secondary metabolites in bryophytes can also be involved in stress tolerance, i.e., in UV-absorptive and drought- and freezing-tolerant activities. Due to these properties, for centuries bryophytes have been used to combat health problems in many cultures on different continents. Currently, scientists are discovering new, unique compounds in bryophytes with potential for practical use, which, in the age of drug resistance, may be of considerable importance. The aim of this review is to present bryophytes as a potential source of compounds with miscellaneous possible uses, with a focus on volatile compounds and antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic potential, and as sources of materials for further promising research. The paper also briefly refers to the methods of compound extraction and acquisition. Formulas of compounds were drawn by the authors using ChemDraw software (PerkinElmer, Boston, MA, USA) with reference to data published in various papers, the ACD/Labs dictionary database, PubChem, and Scopus. The data were gathered in February 2022. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Diversity, Yield and Quality of Aromatic Plant)
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