Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Pest and Disease Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019) | Viewed by 31760

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Interests: chemical ecology; insect physiology; plant–insect interactions; host–plant resistance; pest management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Arthropod and disease pests are often important contraints on  crop productivity. Mananging these pests entails managing and manipulating the complex interactions between plants and the arthropods and microrganisms that feed on them.  These interactions are known to be strongly influenced by environmental factors, and the environment of an agroecosystem is in turn strongly influenced by crop production practices.

Application of synthetic pesticides is widely acknowledged to be an unsatisfactory and unsustainable approach to managing crop-pest interactions.  A wide range of alternative tactics to managing crop-pest interactions are available, including plant resistance, biological control, and cultural practices.  However, using these altrnative tactics usually entails modifying ordinary or typical production practices (e.g., rotating crops, planting cover crops, using a resistant variety, amending soil with silicon or mycorrhizae), and adoption of these alternative practices can present a barrier to famers.

This Special Issue will focus on “Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems”. We welcome original research, reviews, and opinionpieces covering all aspects of the use of alternatives to pesticides in management programs, with special emphasis on the challenges, costs, and benefits associated with integrating these alternative tactics into crop production systems.

Prof. Michael J. Stout
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • integrated pest management
  • arthropod pests
  • plant disease
  • plant resistance
  • cultural practices
  • biological control
  • crop production

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 1310 KiB  
Article
Effects of Planting Date for Soybean Growth, Development, and Yield in the Southern USA
by Nick R. Bateman, Angus L. Catchot, Jeff Gore, Don R. Cook, Fred R. Musser and J. Trent Irby
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040596 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4432
Abstract
As fluctuating commodity prices change the agriculture landscape on a yearly basis, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has become the predominant crop in the southern USA, accounting for 65 percent of the total row crop production in the state. To accommodate increased [...] Read more.
As fluctuating commodity prices change the agriculture landscape on a yearly basis, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has become the predominant crop in the southern USA, accounting for 65 percent of the total row crop production in the state. To accommodate increased soybean production, planting dates have expanded, spanning from late March through July. To determine the impact of this expanded planting window on soybean development and yield, field experiments were conducted at Starkville and Stoneville, MS, in 2013 and 2014. Treatments included seven planting dates ranging from 25 March to 15 July and two soybean cultivars (one Maturity Group IV and one Maturity Group V cultivar). These studies were conducted in irrigated high––yielding environments. Experimental units were sampled weekly for insect pests and insecticides were applied when populations exceeded the levels at which applications were recommended. Planting date had a significant impact on crop development, plant height, canopy closure, and yield. As planting date was delayed, the time required for crop development decreased from 122 total days for plantings on 25 March to 83 days for plantings on 15 July. For plantings after 2 June, plant height decreased by 1.1 cm per day. Canopy closure decreased by 1.01% per day after 27 May. Soybean yield decreased 26.7 kg/ha per day when soybean was planted after 20 April. This research demonstrates the importance of early planting dates for soybean producers in the southern US to ensure profitability by maximizing yield potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 213 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Tillage, At-Planting Treatment, and Nematicide on Tobacco Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Reniform Nematode (Tylenchida: Hoplolamidae) Management in Cotton
by Whitney D. Crow, Angus L. Catchot, Jeff Gore, Darrin M. Dodds, Donald R. Cook and Thomas W. Allen
Agronomy 2020, 10(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10020300 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
There are numerous early-season pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., that are economically important, including tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford & Oliveira). Both of these species have the potential to reduce plant growth and delay crop maturity, [...] Read more.
There are numerous early-season pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., that are economically important, including tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford & Oliveira). Both of these species have the potential to reduce plant growth and delay crop maturity, ultimately resulting in reduced yields. A field study was conducted during 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the influence of tillage, at-planting insecticide treatment, and nematicide treatment on pest management, cotton development, and yield. Treatment factors consisted of two levels of tillage (no-tillage and conventional tillage); seven levels of at-planting insecticide treatments (imidacloprid, imidacloprid plus thiodicarb, thiamethoxam, thiamethoxam plus abamectin, acephate plus terbufos, aldicarb, and an untreated control); and two levels of nematicide (no nematicide and 1,3-dichloropropene). There were no significant interactions between tillage, at-planting insecticide treatment, or nematicide for any parameters nor was there a difference in the main effect of nematicide on thrips control or damage. The main effects of tillage and at-planting insecticide treatment impacted thrips densities and damage. The no-tillage treatments and aldicarb in-furrow or acephate seed treatment plus terbufos in-furrow significantly reduced thrips populations. Early-season plant response was impacted by tillage and at-planting insecticide treatment; however, that did not result in significant yield differences. In regard to nematicide treatment, the use of 1,3-dichloropropene resulted in lower yields than the untreated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems)
15 pages, 3931 KiB  
Article
Phytophthora Antagonism of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Roots of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.)
by Van Anh Ngo, San-Lang Wang, Van Bon Nguyen, Chien Thang Doan, Thi Ngoc Tran, Dinh Minh Tran, Trung Dzung Tran and Anh Dzung Nguyen
Agronomy 2020, 10(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10020286 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5324
Abstract
In this study, 90 root samples were collected from 30 black pepper farms in three provinces in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. A total of 352 endophytic bacteria were isolated and their morphology described. An in vitro assay on the antifungal activity of [...] Read more.
In this study, 90 root samples were collected from 30 black pepper farms in three provinces in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. A total of 352 endophytic bacteria were isolated and their morphology described. An in vitro assay on the antifungal activity of these isolates was then conducted and 47 isolates were found to have antagonistic activity on Phytophthora fungi. The antifungal activity of the 47 isolates was evaluated in vivo by shoot assay. Among these 47 isolates, 6 were selected for further investigation. The six isolates were classified and identified by sequencing the 16S RNA gene and phylogeny. The results showed that all six endophytic bacteria belong to the following species of Bacillus genus: B. siamensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. velezenis, and B. methylotrophiycus. Enzymatic activity related to the antifungal activity of the six potent isolates was determined; it showed that they possessed high chitinase and protease activities. These isolates were applied for black pepper seedlings in greenhouse. The results showed three promising isolates: B. siamensis EB.CP6, B. velezensis EB.KN12, and B. methylotrophycus EB.KN13. Black pepper seedlings treated with the promising bacteria had the lowest rate of root disease (8.45–11.21%) and lower fatal rate (11.11–15.55%) compared to the control group (24.81% and 24.44%). In addition, the three promising isolates strongly affected the growth of the black pepper seedlings in greenhouse. The plant height, length of roots, and fresh biomass of the seedlings in the treated plots were higher than those in the control plots. Thus, the endophytic bacterial isolates have the potential to act as biocontrol agent for the sustainable production of black pepper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems)
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18 pages, 4030 KiB  
Article
The Potential Distribution of the Potato Tuber Moth (Phthorimaea Operculella) Based on Climate and Host Availability of Potato
by Jae-Min Jung, Sang-Geui Lee, Kwang-Ho Kim, Sung-Wook Jeon, Sunghoon Jung and Wang-Hee Lee
Agronomy 2020, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10010012 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4416
Abstract
This study evaluated the potential distribution of the potato tuber moth. This species severely impacts global potato production, especially in China and India, which have the world’s largest potato production. We developed two indices considering host plant availability and production in addition to [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the potential distribution of the potato tuber moth. This species severely impacts global potato production, especially in China and India, which have the world’s largest potato production. We developed two indices considering host plant availability and production in addition to climatic suitability, which was simulated using the CLIMEX model. Thus, three different indices were used to project potential distribution of the potato tuber moth under a climate change scenario: (1) climatic suitability (ecoclimatic index (EI)) (EIM), (2) climatic suitability combined with host plant availability (EIN1), and (3) climatic suitability combined with host plant production (EIN2). Under the current climate, EIM was high in southern India and central to southern China, while EIN1 and EIN2 were approximately 38% and 20% lower than EIM, respectively. Under the Special Report on Emissions Scenario A1B, the potato tuber moth would probably not occur in India, but its distribution could be extended to the north, reaching N47°. The areas with the highest climatic suitability by potato tuber moth based on three indices were Sichuan and Karnataka in response to climate change. These areas require adequate pest control, such as prevention of spread through transport of potato seed or by using cold storage facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems)
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9 pages, 1592 KiB  
Article
Cladobotryum mycophilum as Potential Biocontrol Agent
by Mila Santos, Fernando Diánez, Alejandro Moreno-Gavíra, Brenda Sánchez-Montesinos and Francisco J. Gea
Agronomy 2019, 9(12), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9120891 - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
A study was conducted to explore the efficacy of potential biocontrol agent Cladobotryum mycophilum against different phytopathogenic fungi. The growth rates of 24 isolates of C. mycophilum were determined, and their antagonistic activity was analysed in vitro and in vivo against Botrytis cinerea [...] Read more.
A study was conducted to explore the efficacy of potential biocontrol agent Cladobotryum mycophilum against different phytopathogenic fungi. The growth rates of 24 isolates of C. mycophilum were determined, and their antagonistic activity was analysed in vitro and in vivo against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum, Fusarium solani, Phytophthora parasitica, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanidermatum and Mycosphaerella melonis. Most isolates grow rapidly, reaching the opposite end of the Petri dish within 72–96 h. Under dual-culture assays, C. mycophilum showed antagonistic activity in vitro against all phytopathogenic fungi tested, with mycelial growth inhibition ranging from 30 to 90% against all the different phytopathogens tested. Similarly, of all the selected isolates, CL60A, CL17A and CL18A significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the disease incidence and severity in the plant assays compared to the controls for the different pathosystems studied. Based on these results, we conclude that C. mycophilum can be considered as a potential biological control agent in agriculture. This is the first study of Cladobotryum mycophilum as a biological control agent for different diseases caused by highly relevant phytopathogens in horticulture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems)
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24 pages, 3070 KiB  
Article
Response of Bt and Non-Bt Cottons to High Infestations of Bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) and Tobacco Budworm (Heliothis virescens (F.)) under Sprayed and Unsprayed Conditions
by Kerry C. Allen, Randall G. Luttrell, Nathan S. Little, Katherine A. Parys and Omaththage P. Perera
Agronomy 2019, 9(11), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110759 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2981
Abstract
Early-maturing and full-season Bt and non-Bt cottons were exposed to high densities of tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens (F.)) and bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) in 0.04 ha field cages during the summers of 2011 and 2012 to measure the possible need for [...] Read more.
Early-maturing and full-season Bt and non-Bt cottons were exposed to high densities of tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens (F.)) and bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) in 0.04 ha field cages during the summers of 2011 and 2012 to measure the possible need for supplemental use of insecticides on Bt cotton. Fruit survival within-season and at-harvest was carefully mapped on individual plants within comparative plots of all cottons untreated and sprayed with lambda-cyhalothin (0.0448 kg a.i./ha) or chlorantraniliprole (0.1009 kg a.i./ha) following insect infestations. Differences in lint yields among cotton maturity groups were not always detected, but early-maturing Bt cottons were among the higher yielding experimental plots for both years. Depending on the insecticide treatment, average harvested fruit ranged from 0.3 to 7.1 open bolls per plant for non-Bt cotton plots, while Bt cotton plots ranged from 1.8 to 7.5 open bolls per plant during the two-year study. Bt cottons generally protected fruit from insect damage and resulted in final yields comparable to those of insecticide sprayed Bt and non-Bt cottons. Unsprayed non-Bt cottons were significantly damaged by insects in these high-infestation environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems)
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12 pages, 969 KiB  
Article
Study of Novel Endophytic Bacteria for Biocontrol of Black Pepper Root-knot Nematodes in the Central Highlands of Vietnam
by Thi Phuong Hanh Tran, San-Lang Wang, Van Bon Nguyen, Dinh Minh Tran, Dinh Sy Nguyen and Anh Dzung Nguyen
Agronomy 2019, 9(11), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110714 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4599
Abstract
Black pepper is an industrial crop with high economic and export value. However, black pepper production in Vietnam has been seriously affected by the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. The purpose of this study was to select active endophytic bacteria (EB) for the cost-effective [...] Read more.
Black pepper is an industrial crop with high economic and export value. However, black pepper production in Vietnam has been seriously affected by the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. The purpose of this study was to select active endophytic bacteria (EB) for the cost-effective and environmentally friendly management of Meloidogyne sp. Thirty-four EB strains were isolated. Of these, five isolates displayed the highest activity, demonstrating 100% mortality of J2 nematodes. These active EB were identified based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene; notably, all the potential endophytic bacterial strains belong to the genus of Bacillus. In greenhouse tests, Bacillus megaterium DS9 significantly reduced nematodes in the soil and pepper plant roots with great inhibition values of 81.86% and 73.11%, respectively, with the lowest rate of nematodes built up at 0.23. This active antinematodes strain also showed good effect on promoting pepper plant growth. Some enzymatic activities, including chitinase and protease activity related to the biocontrol of Meiloidogyne sp., were also detected. The results investigated in the current study suggested that these selected EB strains may be good candidates for biocontrol agents of Meloidogyne sp., and plant promoting effects. The results also enhanced the novel active antinematode endophytic bacterial communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 1566 KiB  
Article
Dynamic of Vascular Streak Dieback Disease Incidence on Susceptible Cacao Treated with Composted Plant Residues and Trichoderma asperellum in Field
by Ade Rosmana, Muhammad Taufik, Asman Asman, Nurul Jihad Jayanti and Andi Akbar Hakkar
Agronomy 2019, 9(10), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9100650 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4190
Abstract
Trichoderma asperellum, composted plant residues, and its combination can control vascular-streak dieback (VSD) disease caused by fungus Ceratobasidium theobromae in laboratory conditions. In this trial, we evaluated these treatments in two years through the application of foliar spraying and stem infusion for [...] Read more.
Trichoderma asperellum, composted plant residues, and its combination can control vascular-streak dieback (VSD) disease caused by fungus Ceratobasidium theobromae in laboratory conditions. In this trial, we evaluated these treatments in two years through the application of foliar spraying and stem infusion for T. asperellum alone, through soil amendment for compost alone, and T. asperellum plus this organic fertilizer in the field on susceptible cacao clone. The disease is characterized by full-leaf chlorosis and necrosis that can develop rapidly to the entire branch, with around 70% incidence in seven months, and we detected the pathogen in branches showing light symptoms. All treatments except for T. asperellum plus composted plant residues three and seven months post application did not have any impact on the reduction of VSD incidence in the first year. In the second year, we observed a significant reduction of the disease by both T. asperellum in combination with compost and compost alone in a time span of three to seven months, and with T. asperellum spraying and infusion in a time span of five to seven months. By comparing to the control, the efficacy of these treatments in controlling the VSD disease seven months post-first application in the last year was 44.4%, 23.5%, 23.1%, and 15.1%, respectively. Detection of trees inoculated with T. asperellum indicated that this fungus was present in root and branch tissues except for treatment through infusions, while in the uninoculated trees, Trichoderma was not present or was present at a very low level. These data showed that combination of T. asperellum and composted plant residues applied through soil amendment was able to control VSD disease effectively and could potentially be used at large scale to control this disease and other diseases infesting aerial parts of cacao, and to improve soil fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating Pest Management into Agricultural Production Systems)
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