Agricultural Management for Climate Change Adaptation, Greenhouse Gas Mitigation, and Agricultural Productivity

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 25637

Special Issue Editors

Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Newnham, Launceston 7248, Australia
Interests: agriculture; crop modeling; climate change and agriculture; climate change adaptation; genotype x environment interaction; farming systems; soil carbon; GHG emissions; yield gap
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Guest Editor
College of Agriculture, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
Interests: sustainable agriculture; environment; crop production; climate change and agriculture; environmental impact assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increased likelihood of extreme weather events driven by global warming and the intensification of the water cycle is a major risk to the continuing and stable production across many agri-food systems. Coupled with increasing global population growth and demand for food, increasingly frequent extreme climatic events elicit an urgent and compelling need for the development of new knowledge, technologies and practices enabling scalable, sustainable intensification.

Robust projections of climate impacts on crop growth underpinned by process-based models are fundamental in the quest to design effective, holistic and systems-based adaptations that minimise down-side risk associated with future climates. The application of such models enables integrated consideration of nonlinear physiological crop feedbacks to environmental, genetic and management conditions, supporting the development of effective, socially acceptable and profitable climate change adaptation and/or greenhouse gas emissions mitigation strategies. However, the major limitation of these process-based crop models is that they have not fully considered the impacts of extreme weather-climate events. Meanwhile, multivariate statistical crop models have been developed based on the relationship between long-term observed yield and multiple climatic variables. The advantage of these statistical crop models is their simplicity and straightforward and intuitive interpretation. However, they simplify the biophysical process of how crops may respond to changes in climate, soil, and management options in comparison to process-based models. Recently, hybrid approaches based on biophysical models and advanced machine learning algorithms have been developed. They provide more accurate predictions in estimating crop yield by incorporating the crop growth model outputs and growth stage-specific extreme climate events into the machine learning model. Such newly developed hybrid models should be encouraged and applied in climate change impact assessment.

With this Special Issue of Agronomy, we seek integrative studies that shed light on new, developed or improved models to better understand the interaction of crops and environmental conditions under climate change, as well as reviews that offer original perspectives on crop models developed in response to climate change. Articles highlighting the use of crop modelling to cope with climate change with different agronomic options are also welcome.

Dr. Ke Liu
Prof. Dr. Yunbo Zhang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • process-based crop model
  • statistical crop model
  • climate change
  • crop yield
  • GHG emissions

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Achieving Sustainable Agricultural Development through Crop Management and Environmental Harmony
by Yunbo Zhang
Agronomy 2023, 13(10), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13102579 - 8 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
With the surge in global climate warming and the escalation of extreme weather events, agriculture is facing more frequent and intense challenges [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

16 pages, 3892 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Evolution of Precipitation Heterogeneity Characteristics in the Heilongjiang Province from 1961 to 2020
by Fanxiang Meng, Zhimin Sun, Fangli Dong, Yan Jiang, Hengfei Zhang, Ennan Zheng, Tianxiao Li and Long Yang
Agronomy 2023, 13(12), 3057; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13123057 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Precipitation unevenness significantly influences the rational allocation of water resources and the management of agricultural irrigation. Based on precipitation data from 29 meteorological stations in Heilongjiang Province, China, from 1961 to 2020, this study calculated the precipitation concentration index (PCI), precipitation concentration degree [...] Read more.
Precipitation unevenness significantly influences the rational allocation of water resources and the management of agricultural irrigation. Based on precipitation data from 29 meteorological stations in Heilongjiang Province, China, from 1961 to 2020, this study calculated the precipitation concentration index (PCI), precipitation concentration degree (PCD), and precipitation concentration period (PCP) to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of precipitation heterogeneity at three distinct timescales: year, maize growth period, and the four stages of the maize growth period. The findings reveal that the rainy season in Heilongjiang Province commences earlier in the southwest compared with the northeast and northwest, with a primary concentration in July. At the annual scale, PCI in southwestern Heilongjiang Province surpasses that in the southeastern region, displaying an approximate east–west gradient in PCD and PCP values ranging from 0.544 to 0.746 and 196 to 203, respectively. During the growth period scale, precipitation concentrates in the southwest and central regions, occurring earlier than in the northeast and northwest. In contrast to the annual scale, the PCI value is smaller, and precipitation predominantly concentrates in mid and late July. Examining the four stages of the maize growth period, PCD generally exhibits a decreasing gradient from west to east. The highest values of PCI and PCD manifest in the southwestern part of Heilongjiang Province, with precipitation concentrated in the middle of each growth stage. The research results serve as a valuable reference for policymakers and stakeholders involved in water resource allocation and agricultural water management in Heilongjiang Province. Full article
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23 pages, 1957 KiB  
Article
Assessment and Application of EPIC in Simulating Upland Rice Productivity, Soil Water, and Nitrogen Dynamics under Different Nitrogen Applications and Planting Windows
by Tajamul Hussain, Hero T. Gollany, David J. Mulla, Zhao Ben, Muhammad Tahir, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Ke Liu, Saliha Maqbool, Nurda Hussain and Saowapa Duangpan
Agronomy 2023, 13(9), 2379; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13092379 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
A suitable nitrogen (N) application rate (NAR) and ideal planting period could improve upland rice productivity, enhance the soil water utilization, and reduce N losses. This study was conducted for the assessment and application of the EPIC model to simulate upland rice productivity, [...] Read more.
A suitable nitrogen (N) application rate (NAR) and ideal planting period could improve upland rice productivity, enhance the soil water utilization, and reduce N losses. This study was conducted for the assessment and application of the EPIC model to simulate upland rice productivity, soil water, and N dynamics under different NARs and planting windows (PWs). The nitrogen treatments were 30 (N30), 60 (N60), and 90 (N90) kg N ha−1 with a control (no N applied −N0). Planting was performed as early (PW1), moderately delayed (PW2), and delayed (PW3) between September and December of each growing season. The NAR and PW impacted upland rice productivity and the EPIC model predicted grain yield, aboveground biomass, and harvest index for all NARs in all PWs with a normalized good–excellent root mean square error (RMSEn) of 7.4–9.4%, 9.9–12.2%, and 2.3–12.4% and d-index range of 0.90–0.98, 0.87–0.94, and 0.89–0.91 for the grain yield, aboveground biomass, and harvest index, respectively. For grain and total plant N uptake, RMSEn ranged fair to excellent with values ranging from 10.3 to 22.8% and from 6.9 to 28.1%, and a d-index of 0.87–0.97 and 0.73–0.99, respectively. Evapotranspiration was slightly underestimated for all NARs at all PWs in both seasons with excellent RMSEn ranging from 2.0 to 3.1% and a d-index ranging from 0.65 to 0.97. A comparison of N and water balance components indicated that PW was the major factor impacting N and water losses as compared to NAR. There was a good agreement between simulated and observed soil water contents, and the model was able to estimate fluctuations in soil water contents. An adjustment in the planting window would be necessary for improved upland rice productivity, enhanced N, and soil water utilization to reduce N and soil water losses. Our results indicated that a well-calibrated EPIC model has the potential to identify suitable N and seasonal planting management options. Full article
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15 pages, 2170 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Genotypic Variability and Analysis of Yield and Its Components in Irrigated Rice to Stabilize Yields in the Senegal River Valley Affected by Climate Change
by Yonnelle Dea Moukoumbi, Sandrine Mariella Bayendi Loudit, Mouritala Sikirou, Daouda Mboj, Tajamul Hussain, Roland Bocco and Baboucarr Manneh
Agronomy 2023, 13(9), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13092218 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Rice is an important cereal crop in many countries, but its production in the Senegal River Valley is hampered by adverse climatic conditions. This study was aimed at evaluating the diversity among genotypes and the association between several phenological and yield attributes of [...] Read more.
Rice is an important cereal crop in many countries, but its production in the Senegal River Valley is hampered by adverse climatic conditions. This study was aimed at evaluating the diversity among genotypes and the association between several phenological and yield attributes of irrigated rice to mitigate the consequences of climate change. During the dry season of 2013–2014, 300 irrigated high yielding oryza sativa indica panel were used in an Alpha-lattice experiment at the Ndiaye research station in Senegal. Results revealed considerable differences between genotypes in yield and yield attributes. Grain yields ranged between 1378 and 9776 kg/ha. There were also substantial differences in the genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation, broad-sense heritability, genetic advance, and genetic advance as a percentage of the mean between evaluated traits. Days to heading (DH) had a higher broad-sense heritability (67.31%), indicating that the chances of transferring this trait for selection purposes will be higher, and genotypes may be used to generate early or late flowering lines. Significant positive and negative correlations were found between the studied traits and grain yield. Path analysis indicated that the maximum positive direct impact was observed with the harvest index (0.256), and the maximum negative direct effect was observed with the days to heading (−0.142). Results showed that 56 accessions outperformed the local check Giza 178, whose yield was 8987 kg/ha. Using principal component analysis and a dendrogram, genotypes were classified into four groups. The plant materials had significant variability and may be utilized to develop desired features in rice-breeding programs. Full article
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15 pages, 2235 KiB  
Article
Current State and Limiting Factors of Wheat Yield at the Farm Level in Hubei Province
by Rui Yang, Matthew Tom Harrison and Xiaoyan Wang
Agronomy 2023, 13(8), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13082043 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Longitudinal wheat yields in China have declined in recent times due to climate change, more frequent natural disasters, and suboptimal agronomic management. To date, it has been unclear which factors have predominated yield penalties realised hitherto in Hubei Province. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Longitudinal wheat yields in China have declined in recent times due to climate change, more frequent natural disasters, and suboptimal agronomic management. To date, it has been unclear which factors have predominated yield penalties realised hitherto in Hubei Province. This study aimed to identify key factors limiting wheat production across systems and agroecological regions, and provide a basis for increasing crop production while engendering food security. Survey data from 791 households in Hubei Province were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Significant spatial heterogeneity in average wheat yields was observed, with the Jianghan Plain region having significantly lower yields compared with the northwest region (yield gap: 1125 kg·hm−2). Dryland wheat had higher average yields than rice-rotation wheat (yield gap: 134 to 575 kg·hm−2). Socioeconomic factors, cultivation management measures, and environmental factors contributed differently to yield differences. Input costs and economic benefits were key social factors influencing wheat production. Variation in management were mainly attributed to planting methods, while soil fertility and climatic factors limited yields in some regions. In the northwest, low soil fertility and susceptibility to drought and high temperatures had greater influence on yields. In the Jianghan Plain, soil waterlogging and erosion were key challenges. Waterlogging increased the probability of low yields by 8.6 times, while severe soil erosion increased probability of yield loss by a factor of almost five. Low-yield farms in the Jianghan Plain were 21% higher than those in the northwest. Extreme weather events also contributed to low yields in the Jianghan Plain. We note significant potential for increasing farm-level wheat production in Hubei Province, with large existing differences across agro-ecological regions and planting modes. Differences in cultivation practices was a major driving factor of yield gaps between planting modes, while soil fertility and meteorological disasters drive regional yield differences. These results have implications for those aspiring to narrow the yield gap across regions and increase production of cereal crops. Full article
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15 pages, 1624 KiB  
Article
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Double-Season Rice Field under Different Tillage Practices and Fertilization Managements in Southeast China
by Tong Yang, Zhi Yang, Chunchun Xu, Fengbo Li, Fuping Fang and Jinfei Feng
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071887 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
To better understand the effects of tillage practice and fertilization management on greenhouse gas emissions and yields, a four-year field experiment was conducted to assess the effects of tillage practices (rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT)) on the emissions of methane (CH [...] Read more.
To better understand the effects of tillage practice and fertilization management on greenhouse gas emissions and yields, a four-year field experiment was conducted to assess the effects of tillage practices (rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT)) on the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and rice yield under four fertilization management strategies (no fertilizer without straw (CK), inorganic fertilizer without straw (F), inorganic fertilize with biochar (FB), and inorganic fertilizer with straw (FS)). The results showed that NT significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 21.1% and 52.6% compared to RT in early and late rice, respectively. Conversely, NT led to a significant increase in N2O emissions by 101.0%, 79.0%, and 220.8% during the early rice, late rice, and fallow periods. Nevertheless, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were significantly mitigated, respectively, by 36.4% and 35.9% in NT, compared to RT treatment. There were significant interactions between tillage practice and fertilization management. Compared with CK, the F and FB treatments significantly reduced the GWP, respectively, by 40.4% and 53.8%, as well as the GHGI, respectively, by 58.2% and 69.9% in the RT condition; however, no significant difference was found under the NT condition. In contrast, the FS treatment significantly increased GWP and GHGI in both the RT and NT conditions. Overall, FB treatment had the same significantly low GHGI rating, with a value of 0.44 kg CO2-eq kg−1 yield year−1 in RT and NT. Thus, the conversion of straw to biochar and its application to rice fields is a potentially sustainable agricultural strategy for mitigating GHG emissions and increasing yields. This study provides theoretical and practical support for double-season rice production in climate-smart agriculture. Full article
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14 pages, 8187 KiB  
Article
Impact of Tillage and Straw Management on Soil Properties and Rice Yield in a Rice-Ratoon Rice System
by Di Yang, Youning Wang and Qixia Wu
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071762 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
The rice-ratoon system has long been considered an important economic, time-saving, and labor-saving planting method. Optimal tillage and straw management are beneficial to increasing the growth and yield of recycled rice. However, there is little research on the physical and chemical properties of [...] Read more.
The rice-ratoon system has long been considered an important economic, time-saving, and labor-saving planting method. Optimal tillage and straw management are beneficial to increasing the growth and yield of recycled rice. However, there is little research on the physical and chemical properties of soil under tillage and straw management, and its effects on the yield and fertilizer utilization of recycled rice. A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of four types of tillage and straw management on rice yield and soil properties in central China during 2020–2021. The types of management were no-till with residues retained (NT+S); plow tillage with residue retention (PT+S); no-till with residues removed (NT-S); and plow tillage with residue removed (PT-S). Compared with PT, yield decreased by 38.8% in NT, while straw returning effectively increased the yield of regenerated rice. NT+S increased the yield of main season rice by 37.0% and ratoon rice by 45.3%. Compared with non-returning straw, straw returning increased soil total porosity, soil organic carbon, and activity of β-glucosidase and urease, among which TP and SOC were increased by 8.8% and 27.8%, respectively. The results showed that returning straw to the field could significantly reduce the yield loss caused by no-tillage and improve the soil structure. No-tillage combined with returning straw to the field of regenerative rice is a green, light, and simplified cultivation mode worthy of further exploration. Full article
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23 pages, 2953 KiB  
Article
Improving Morpho-Physiological Indicators, Yield, and Water Productivity of Wheat through an Optimal Combination of Mulching and Planting Patterns in Arid Farming Systems
by Salah El-Hendawy, Bazel Alsamin, Nabil Mohammed and Yahya Refay
Agronomy 2023, 13(6), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13061660 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Mulching practices (M), which conserve soil water and improve water productivity (WP), are receiving increasing attention worldwide However, so far, little attention has been given to investigating the effects of the integrations of mulching and planting patterns (IMPPs) on spring wheat performance under [...] Read more.
Mulching practices (M), which conserve soil water and improve water productivity (WP), are receiving increasing attention worldwide However, so far, little attention has been given to investigating the effects of the integrations of mulching and planting patterns (IMPPs) on spring wheat performance under arid regions conditions. A two-year field study was conducted to compare the effects of eight IMPPs on growth parameters at 80 and 100 days after sowing (DAS), growth indicators, physiological attributes, grain yield (GY), and WP of wheat under adequate (1.00 ET) and limited (0.50 ET) irrigation conditions. The IMPPs included three planting patterns (PPs), that is, flat (F), raised-bed (RB), and ridge–furrow (RF), in combination with three M, that is, no-mulch (NM), plastic film mulch (PFM), and crop residues mulch (CRM). The results indicated that PPs mulched with PFM and CRM significantly increased growth indicators, different growth parameters, physiological attributes, GY, and WP by 6.9–39.3%, 8.2–29.2%, 5.2–24.9%, 9.9, and 11.2%, respectively, compared to non-mulched PPs. The F and RB patterns mulched with CRM were more effective in improving growth parameters at 100 DAS (2.7–13.6%), physiological attributes (0.2–20.0%), GY, and WP (9.7%) than were the F and RB patterns mulched with PFM under 1.00 ET, while the opposite was true under 0.50 ET conditions. Although the RFPFM failed to compete with other IMPPs under 1.00 ET, the values of different parameters in this PP were comparable to those in F and RB patterns mulched with PFM, and were 1.3–24.5% higher than those in F and RB patterns mulched with CRM under 0.50 ET conditions. Although the RFNM did not use mulch, the values of different parameters for this PP were significantly higher than those of F and RB patterns without mulch. Irrespective of irrigation treatments, the heatmap analysis based on different stress tolerance indices identified the different PPs mulched with PFM as the best IMPPs for the optimal performance of wheat under arid conditions, followed by PPs mulched with CRM. The different growth indicators exhibited second-order and strong relationships with GY (R2 = 0.78 to 0.85) and moderate relationships with WP (R2 = 0.59 to 0.79). Collectively, we concluded that using PPs mulched with CRM is the recommended practice for achieving good performance and production for wheat under adequate irrigation, whereas using PPS mulched with PFM is recommended as a viable management option for sustainable production of wheat and improving WP under limited irrigation in arid countries. Full article
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12 pages, 3434 KiB  
Article
CH4 and N2O Emission and Grain Yield Performance of Three Main Rice-Farming Patterns in Central China
by Chengwei Li, Jie Zhu, Xinyu Li, Jiao Deng, Wei Yang, Yong Zhou, Shaoqiu Li, Lixia Yi, Zhangyong Liu and Bo Zhu
Agronomy 2023, 13(6), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13061460 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
This study focuses on the development of more cropping systems in response to global warming and food security concerns. A two-year field experiment (2017–2018) was conducted to investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs), soil environmental factors and yield on traditional double-cropping rice [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the development of more cropping systems in response to global warming and food security concerns. A two-year field experiment (2017–2018) was conducted to investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs), soil environmental factors and yield on traditional double-cropping rice (DR), maize rice (MR) and ratooning rice (Rr). The results showed a significant annual effect of temperature and rainfall on GHG emissions under different cropping systems. Annual CH4 emissions under MR and Rr were significantly lower than under DR. Compared to DR, the highest cumulative N2O emissions were observed in MR (14.9 kg·ha−1) with a reduction of 23.7% in Rr. In addition, the upland crops significantly reduced CH4 emissions for late rice, while N2O emissions increased by 20.6%. Compared with DR and Rr, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were significantly lower for MR (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the annual yield of MR (16.40 t·ha−1) was 8.1% and 2.4% higher than that of DR and Rr, respectively. This study further found that soil temperature and NH4+-N content were positively correlated with CH4 and N2O emissions, and soil moisture was positively correlated with N2O emission. Thus, we concluded that MR has the greatest potential to improve crop yield and mitigate GHG emissions in central China. Full article
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11 pages, 1896 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Rice Sowing Dates for High Yield and Climate Adaptation in Central China
by Kaiwen Liu, Chunyan Song, Pei Ye, Huan Liu, Zhihong Xia, Hassan Waseem, Yanjun Deng, Zhixiong Liu, Lu Wang, Bin Wang, Xinhao Yang and Jianqiang Zhu
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051339 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Optimizing the sowing date of rice can change the seasonal patterns and distributions of climate factors during the crop growing season, making it one of the most effective ways to adapt to climate change and achieve high yield. A four–year field experiment (2018–2021) [...] Read more.
Optimizing the sowing date of rice can change the seasonal patterns and distributions of climate factors during the crop growing season, making it one of the most effective ways to adapt to climate change and achieve high yield. A four–year field experiment (2018–2021) was conducted at Jingzhou Agricultural Meteorological Experiment Station, central China, with four different sowing dates (SD) each year, late April (SD1), early May (SD2), mid–May (SD3) and late May (SD4). Dry matter accumulation, grain yield and climate conditions were observed across sowing dates. Our findings revealed that delaying the sowing date from early May to mid or late May could increase grain yield by 5.6% to 8.6%. However, sowing too early could increase heat stress, decrease the net effective accumulated temperature, inhibit rice growth, and reduce grain yield. On the other hand, sowing too late could increase the risk of low temperatures after flowering. From the perspective of increasing net effective accumulated temperature, reducing heat stress and low temperature after flowering, mid to late May was the most favorable sowing date to ensure high yield. It is suggested that optimizing rice sowing dates can effectively avoid the threat of heat stress and better match thermal resources, thereby increasing rice productivity. Full article
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22 pages, 3972 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Tillage Practices on Soil Stability and Erodibility for Red Soil Sloping Farmland in Southern China
by Huifang Jin, Shangshu Huang, Dongmei Shi, Junkai Li, Jifu Li, Yanli Li and Hai Zhu
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051310 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
Tillage practices significantly influence soil nutrient retention, soil structure, and stability. However, the impact of tillage practices on soil stability and erosion resistance through the perturbation approach of soil structure remains unclear. This study aimed to establish universal principles across slope surface and [...] Read more.
Tillage practices significantly influence soil nutrient retention, soil structure, and stability. However, the impact of tillage practices on soil stability and erosion resistance through the perturbation approach of soil structure remains unclear. This study aimed to establish universal principles across slope surface and soil profile scales. We evaluated the effects of various tillage practices, including conventional tillage (CT), soil compaction (CM), subsoil tillage (ST), no tillage (NT), and subsoil tillage and soil compaction (SCM) on soil stability and erosion resistance in China’s red soil hilly region. Soil stability, erosion resistance, and other soil properties were quantified using field surveys and laboratory experiments. We discovered significant variations in soil aggregate stability (SAS), wet aggregate stability (WAS), soil mechanical stability (SMS), and soil erodibility (SE) among the five tillage methods. The K factor’s average value indicated that the 0–40 cm soil layer was more erodible for CT (0.472) than for other methods, with NT (0.26) being the least erodible. NT (0.43) was the most effective treatment for reducing SE, while SCM (0.41) enhanced soil fertility, controlled SE, and mitigated machinery-induced soil compaction risks. CM (0.38) maintained soil stability without improving the soil nutrient storage, while ST (0.33) improved the soil stability such as alleviating the soil hardening caused by CM. The results provide reference parameter values for selecting appropriate tillage methods to decrease soil degradation and erosion while enhancing the soil productivity in a red soil hilly region. Full article
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16 pages, 2827 KiB  
Article
Evaluation and Screening of Rapeseed Varieties (Brassica napus L.) Suitable for Mechanized Harvesting with High Yield and Quality
by Qin Li, Tao Luo, Tai Cheng, Shuting Yang, Huijie She, Jun Li, Bo Wang, Jie Kuai, Jing Wang, Zhenghua Xu and Guangsheng Zhou
Agronomy 2023, 13(3), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030795 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1831
Abstract
Improving seed yield and quality and optimizing plant architecture to adapt to mechanized harvesting are essential strategies for rapeseed industry development in the Yangtze River basin. The present study selected 24 elite rapeseed varieties from the middle region of the Yangtze River basin [...] Read more.
Improving seed yield and quality and optimizing plant architecture to adapt to mechanized harvesting are essential strategies for rapeseed industry development in the Yangtze River basin. The present study selected 24 elite rapeseed varieties from the middle region of the Yangtze River basin as materials to investigate the growth period, plant architecture characteristics, lodging resistance, yield, and seed quality across 2 growing seasons. The results showed that plant biomass, silique number per plant, and seed yield showed a significant positive correlation with each other. A high plant growth rate was the prerequisite for early maturity varieties to achieve high yield. The path analysis illustrated that plant architecture can directly affect the seed yield (direct path efficiency = 0.17) or indirectly affect the yield through lodging (indirect path efficiency: −0.37 × 0.30 = −0.11). Therefore, modifying the plant architecture needs to balance the tradeoff between seed yield and lodging. The comprehensive performance of selected genotypes was evaluated by combining D-CRITIC (Distance-based inter-criteria correlation) and membership function methods. From the comprehensive performance across two cropping seasons, the varieties V24, V23, V22, V21, V12, V17, V19, and V20 had substantial potential for mechanized harvesting with high yield and good seed quality. These results provide a theoretical basis for farmers’ decisions and breeding of rapeseed suitable for mechanized harvesting in the Yangtze River basin. Full article
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18 pages, 2937 KiB  
Article
The Use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria to Reduce Greenhouse Gases in Strawberry Cultivation under Different Soil Moisture Conditions
by Dominika Paliwoda, Grzegorz Mikiciuk, Małgorzata Mikiciuk, Tymoteusz Miller, Anna Kisiel, Lidia Sas-Paszt, Agnieszka Kozioł and Adam Brysiewicz
Agronomy 2023, 13(3), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030754 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
One of the main causes of climate change is the emission of GHGs, and one of the sources for the generation of such gasses is agriculture via plant production. Considering the foregoing, a study was conducted to assess PGPRs in strawberry cultivation which [...] Read more.
One of the main causes of climate change is the emission of GHGs, and one of the sources for the generation of such gasses is agriculture via plant production. Considering the foregoing, a study was conducted to assess PGPRs in strawberry cultivation which were able to limit GHG emissions. The first experimental factor was the inoculation of plant roots with the Bacillus sp. strains DLGB3, DKB26, DKB58, and DKB 84; the Pantoea sp. strains DKB63, DKB64, DKB65, and DKB68; Azotobacter sp. AJ 1.2; and Pseudomonas sp. PJ 1.1. The second experimental factor constituted the different moisture levels of the growth substrate. In the experiment, emissions of NH3, CO2, N2O, and CH4 were measured. In light of the conducted research, five strains were selected (Azotobacter sp. AJ 1.2; Pantoea sp. DKB64, DKB63, and DKB68; and Pseudomonas sp. strain PJ 1.1) that showed the greatest potential for reducing GHG emissions depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. The application of the tested bacterial strains under different moisture conditions in the substrate either reduced or did not affect GWP. This research on PGPR, which was conducted to select strains of rhizosphere bacteria that would be able to reduce GHG emissions, may form the basis for creating an inoculum and can be employed as an effective strategy for mitigating certain abiotic stresses. Full article
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14 pages, 1931 KiB  
Article
Greater Propensity to Photosynthesize Enables Superior Grain Quality of Indica–japonica Hybrid Rice under Shading
by Cheng Shang, Matthew Tom Harrison, Jun Deng, Jiayu Ye, Xuefen Zhong, Chunhu Wang, Xiaohai Tian, Liying Huang, Ke Liu and Yunbo Zhang
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020535 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Indica–japonica hybrid rice (I–JR) typically has greater grain yield than that of Indica hybrid rice (IR) under prolific shading, but it is not known how shading impacts on physiological characteristics underpinning grain quality. Here, we conducted a two-year field experiment in the mid-reaches [...] Read more.
Indica–japonica hybrid rice (I–JR) typically has greater grain yield than that of Indica hybrid rice (IR) under prolific shading, but it is not known how shading impacts on physiological characteristics underpinning grain quality. Here, we conducted a two-year field experiment in the mid-reaches of the Yangtze River region using I–JR (genotypes Yongyou 1540 and Yongyou 538) and IR (genotypes Y-liangyou 900 and Quanyouhuazhan). We found that shading reduced grain appearance and quality, particularly milling and heading rates, and chalkiness. Shading disrupted carbon and nitrogen metabolism, impacting traits influencing the human perception of the taste of the grain, such that amylose decreased by 5.9% (I–JR) and 12.9% (IR); grain protein significantly increased, with lesser effects in I–JR than IR under shading. Shading also reduced peak, hot, and final viscosities, and breakdown value. I–JR had improved rice quality compared with that of IR due to the greater propensity of the former to photosynthesize under shading, leading to the improved functioning of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Full article
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19 pages, 3988 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Molecular Responses of Wheat to Low Light Intensity
by Xiu Li, Rui Yang, Liulong Li, Ke Liu, Matthew Tom Harrison, Shah Fahad, Mingmei Wei, Lijun Yin, Meixue Zhou and Xiaoyan Wang
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010272 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
Here we document physiological and molecular attributes of three wheat cultivars (ZM9023, YM158 and FM1228) under low light intensity with advanced technologies, including non-standard quantitative technology and quantitative proteomics technology. We found lower dry matter accumulation of YM158 compared with ZM 9023 and [...] Read more.
Here we document physiological and molecular attributes of three wheat cultivars (ZM9023, YM158 and FM1228) under low light intensity with advanced technologies, including non-standard quantitative technology and quantitative proteomics technology. We found lower dry matter accumulation of YM158 compared with ZM 9023 and FM1228 under low light intensities due to up-regulation of photosynthetic parameters electron transport rate (ETR), Y(II), Fv/Fm, Chl (a + b) of YM158 and down-regulation of Chl a/b. ETR, Y(II) and Fv/Fm significantly decreased between ZM9023 and FM1228. The ETR between PSII and PSI of YM158 increased, while light use efficiency (LUE) of ZM9023 and FM1228 decreased. We found that YM158 had greater propensity to adapt to low light compared with ZM9023, as the former was able to increase photochemical electron transfer rate, enhance photosystem activity, and increase the light energy under low light. This meant that the YM158 flag leaf has stronger regulatory mechanism under low light environment. Through proteomic analysis, we found LHC protein (LHCB1, LHCB4, LHCA2, LHCA3) for YH158 was significantly up-regulated, while the PSII subunit protein of FM1228 and ZM9023 b559 subunit protein were down-regulated. We also documented enhanced light use efficiency (LUE) due to higher light capture pigment protein complex (LHC), photosystem II (PSII), PSI and cytochrome B6F-related proteins, with dry matter accumulation being positively correlated with Fv/Fm, ETR, and ΦPS(II), and negatively correlated with initial fluorescence F0. We suggest that Fv/Fm, ETR, and ΦPS(II) could be considered in shade tolerance screening to facilitate wheat breeding. Full article
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