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Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 33 articles

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Entry
Deep Meaningful Learning
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 988-997; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030075 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1854
Definition
Deep meaningful learning is the higher-order thinking and development through manifold active intellectual engagement aiming at meaning construction through pattern recognition and concept association. It includes inquiry, critical thinking, creative thinking, problem-solving, and metacognitive skills. It is a theory with a long academic [...] Read more.
Deep meaningful learning is the higher-order thinking and development through manifold active intellectual engagement aiming at meaning construction through pattern recognition and concept association. It includes inquiry, critical thinking, creative thinking, problem-solving, and metacognitive skills. It is a theory with a long academic record that can accommodate the demand for excellence in teaching and learning at all levels of education. Its achievement is verified through knowledge application in authentic contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
Entry
Trefoil Factor Family (TFF) Peptides
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 974-987; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030074 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 668
Definition
Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides mainly consist of characteristic TFF domains, which contain about 40 amino acid residues, including 6 conserved cysteine residues. TFF peptides possess a single (mammalian TFF1 and TFF3), two (mammalian TFF2, Xenopus laevis xP2) or four TFF domains ( [...] Read more.
Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides mainly consist of characteristic TFF domains, which contain about 40 amino acid residues, including 6 conserved cysteine residues. TFF peptides possess a single (mammalian TFF1 and TFF3), two (mammalian TFF2, Xenopus laevis xP2) or four TFF domains (X. laevis xP4). They exhibit lectin activities and are characteristic exocrine products of the mucous epithelia. Here, they play different roles for mucosal protection and the innate immune defense: TFF1 is a gastric tumor suppressor; TFF2 builds a lectin complex with the mucin MUC6, physically stabilizing the inner gastric mucus layer; and TFF3 forms a disulfide-linked heterodimer with IgG Fc binding protein (FCGBP), probably preventing the infiltration of microorganisms. Minor amounts of TFF peptides are endocrine products of the immune and nervous systems. Pathologically, TFF peptides are linked to inflammation. There are increasing indications that TFF peptides can antagonize cytokine receptors, such as receptors for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα (thereby acting as anti-inflammatory peptides). TFF peptides can probably also activate a variety of receptors, such as CXCR4. The TFF domain is a unique shuffled module which is also present in a number of mosaic proteins, such as zona pellucida proteins, sugar degrading enzymes and frog skin mucins. Here, their function seems to be defined by a lectin activity, which might even allow a role in fertilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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The Barnett Critique
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 964-973; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030073 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 912
Definition
The Barnett critique states that there is an internal inconsistency between the theory that is implied by simple sum monetary aggregation (perfect substitutability among components) and the economic theory that produces the models within which those aggregates are used. That inconsistency causes the [...] Read more.
The Barnett critique states that there is an internal inconsistency between the theory that is implied by simple sum monetary aggregation (perfect substitutability among components) and the economic theory that produces the models within which those aggregates are used. That inconsistency causes the appearance of unstable demand and supply for money. The incorrect inference of unstable money demand has caused serious harm to the field of monetary economics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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Deep Eutectic Solvents and Pharmaceuticals
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 942-963; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030072 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1114
Definition
Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are eutectic mixtures that present a deviation from the ideal thermodynamic solid–liquid phase behavior, where a significant depression in the melting temperature occurs. If properly designed and chosen, DES may be liquid at room and the human body’s temperatures [...] Read more.
Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are eutectic mixtures that present a deviation from the ideal thermodynamic solid–liquid phase behavior, where a significant depression in the melting temperature occurs. If properly designed and chosen, DES may be liquid at room and the human body’s temperatures and display a biocompatible character, thus representing relevant options in the pharmaceutical field. Accordingly, DES have been studied as alternative solvents or in formulations of pharmaceuticals to improve their solubility and stability. Depending on the DES components, these mixtures might exhibit interesting biological activities compatible with several applications. The use of DES as functional agents or as novel liquid forms of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API-DES) with the goal of improving bioavailability, permeability and therapeutic efficacy of a given API stands as alternative strategies in the pharmaceutical field for drug delivery purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Digital Literacy and Electronic Business
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 934-941; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030071 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1168
Definition
Digital literacy is a term that traditionally describes the extent to which a person is able to use interactive digital devices for living and working, such as computers and smartphones, as well as services delivered through these devices. The advent of the digital [...] Read more.
Digital literacy is a term that traditionally describes the extent to which a person is able to use interactive digital devices for living and working, such as computers and smartphones, as well as services delivered through these devices. The advent of the digital society at large and electronic business, specifically in the past decades, has broadened the use of digital devices beyond the isolated uses of working and simple communication; this advent has created digital ecosystems in which workers and consumers are embedded to various degrees, such as social media platforms or integrated shopping and media platforms. This embedding implies that a traditional, narrow notion of digital literacy needs to be extended and made more precise. For this purpose, we use the related notions of digital dexterity, digital proficiency and digital awareness. The term digital dexterity describes the extent to which an individual can handle or operate digital devices or services from a physical perspective. The term digital proficiency describes the extent to which an individual can use digital means to effectively and efficiently facilitate their living and working. The term digital awareness describes the extent to which individuals can understand what their position in digital ecosystems is, including the opportunities and threats of participating in these ecosystems. Digital literacy in the modern, broad interpretation is then the combination of digital dexterity, digital proficiency and digital awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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The Capital Asset Pricing Model
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 915-933; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030070 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Definition
The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is an influential paradigm in financial risk management. It formalizes mean-variance optimization of a risky portfolio given the presence of a risk-free investment such as short-term government bonds. The CAPM defines the price of financial assets according [...] Read more.
The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is an influential paradigm in financial risk management. It formalizes mean-variance optimization of a risky portfolio given the presence of a risk-free investment such as short-term government bonds. The CAPM defines the price of financial assets according to the premium demanded by investors for bearing excess risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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Amanita muscaria: Ecology, Chemistry, Myths
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 905-914; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030069 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1750
Definition
Amanita muscaria is the most emblematic mushroom in the popular representation. It is an ectomycorrhizal fungus endemic to the cold ecosystems of the northern hemisphere. The basidiocarp contains isoxazoles compounds that have specific actions on the central nervous system, including hallucinations. For this [...] Read more.
Amanita muscaria is the most emblematic mushroom in the popular representation. It is an ectomycorrhizal fungus endemic to the cold ecosystems of the northern hemisphere. The basidiocarp contains isoxazoles compounds that have specific actions on the central nervous system, including hallucinations. For this reason, it is considered an important entheogenic mushroom in different cultures whose remnants are still visible in some modern-day European traditions. In Siberian civilizations, it has been consumed for religious and recreational purposes for millennia, as it was the only inebriant in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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Low-Pressure Turbine Cooling Systems
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 893-904; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030068 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 645
Definition
Modern low-pressure turbine engines are equipped with casings impingement cooling systems. Those systems (called Active Clearance Control) are composed of an array of air nozzles, which are directed to strike turbine casing to absorb generated heat. As a result, the casing starts to [...] Read more.
Modern low-pressure turbine engines are equipped with casings impingement cooling systems. Those systems (called Active Clearance Control) are composed of an array of air nozzles, which are directed to strike turbine casing to absorb generated heat. As a result, the casing starts to shrink, reducing the radial gap between the sealing and rotating tip of the blade. Cooling air is delivered to the nozzles through distribution channels and collector boxes, which are connected to the main air supply duct. The application of low-pressure turbine cooling systems increases its efficiency and reduces engine fuel consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Next Generation of AMR Network
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 871-892; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030067 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1293
Definition
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity, especially in low-resource settings, and requires an interdisciplinary response across academia, government, countries, and societies. If unchecked, AMR will hamper progress towards reaching the United Nations Sustainable Development [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity, especially in low-resource settings, and requires an interdisciplinary response across academia, government, countries, and societies. If unchecked, AMR will hamper progress towards reaching the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including ending poverty and hunger, promoting healthy lives and well-being, and achieving sustained economic growth. There are many global initiatives to curb the effects of AMR, but significant gaps remain. New ways of thinking and operating in the context of the SDGs are essential to making progress. In this entry, we define the next generation of the AMR research network, its composition, and strategic activities that can help mitigate the threats due to AMR at the local, regional, and global levels. This is supported by a review of recent literature and bibliometric and network analyses to examine the current and future state of AMR research networks for global health and sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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Automobile Tires’ High-Carbon Steel Wire
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 859-870; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030066 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 655
Definition
It is a well-known fact that to manufacture an automobile tire more than 200 different materials are used, including high-carbon steel wire. In order to withstand the affecting forces, the tire tread is reinforced with steel wire or other products such as ropes [...] Read more.
It is a well-known fact that to manufacture an automobile tire more than 200 different materials are used, including high-carbon steel wire. In order to withstand the affecting forces, the tire tread is reinforced with steel wire or other products such as ropes or strands. These ropes are called steel cord. Steel cord can be of different constructions. To ensure a good adhesive bond between the rubber of the tire and the steel cord, the cord is either brass-plated or bronzed. The reason brass or bronze is used is because copper, which is a part of these alloys, makes a high-strength chemical composition with sulfur in rubber. For steel cord, the high carbon steel is usually used at 0.70–0.95% C. This amount of carbon ensures the high strength of the steel cord. This kind of high-quality, unalloyed steel has a pearlitic structure which is designed for multi-pass drawing. To ensure the specified technical characteristics, modern metal reinforcing materials for automobile tires, metal cord and bead wire, must withstand, first of all, a high breaking load with a minimum running meter weight. At present, reinforcing materials of the strength range 2800–3200 MPa are increasingly used, the manufacture of which requires high-strength wire. The production of such wire requires the use of a workpiece with high carbon content, changing the drawing regimes, patenting, and other operations. At the same time, it is necessary to achieve a reduction in the cost of wire manufacturing. In this context, the development and implementation of competitive processes for the manufacture of high-quality, high-strength wire as a reinforcing material for automobile tires is an urgent task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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L-Asparaginase-Based Biosensors
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 848-858; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030065 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 673
Definition
L-asparaginase (ASNase) is an aminohydrolase enzyme widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Although currently its main applications are focused on the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acrylamide reduction in starch-rich foods cooked at temperatures above [...] Read more.
L-asparaginase (ASNase) is an aminohydrolase enzyme widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Although currently its main applications are focused on the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acrylamide reduction in starch-rich foods cooked at temperatures above 100 °C, its use as a biosensor in the detection and monitoring of L-asparagine levels is of high relevance. ASNase-based biosensors are a promising and innovative technology, mostly based on colorimetric detection since the mechanism of action of ASNase is the catalysis of the L-asparagine hydrolysis, which releases L-aspartic acid and ammonium ions, promoting a medium pH value change followed by color variation. ASNase biosensing systems prove their potential for L-asparagine monitoring in ALL patients, along with L-asparagine concentration analysis in foods, due to their simplicity and fast response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences)
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β-Glucans
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 831-847; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030064 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 667
Definition
β-glucans are complex polysaccharides that are found in several plants and foods, including mushrooms. β-glucans display an array of potentially therapeutic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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The New Sociology of Religion
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 822-830; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030063 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 835
Definition
The new sociology of religion differs from the classical and mainstream sociology, which was in force until the end of the last century, in that it no longer considers religion only as an independent variable, but places it together with other dependent variables, [...] Read more.
The new sociology of religion differs from the classical and mainstream sociology, which was in force until the end of the last century, in that it no longer considers religion only as an independent variable, but places it together with other dependent variables, so that it becomes possible to investigate new themes, especially those that do not consider religious involvement—from atheism to the phenomenon of ‘nones’ (non-believers and non-practicing), from spirituality to forms of para-religions and quasi-religions and the varied set of multiple religions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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Robert of Anjou (1309–1343)
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 812-821; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030062 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 567
Definition
Robert of Anjou King of Sicily (1309–1343). Robert of Anjou was the third king of the Angevin dynasty on the throne of Sicily. He ruled from 1309 to 1343, but, in these years, Sicily was under the domain of the Aragonese dynasty and, [...] Read more.
Robert of Anjou King of Sicily (1309–1343). Robert of Anjou was the third king of the Angevin dynasty on the throne of Sicily. He ruled from 1309 to 1343, but, in these years, Sicily was under the domain of the Aragonese dynasty and, hence, his authority was limited to the continental land of the Kingdom and his court was mainly focused in the city of Naples. From an iconographic point of view, he is particularly interesting because, between his official representations (namely, commissioned directly by him or his entourage), he was the first king of Sicily who made use not only of stereotyped images of himself, but also of physiognomic portraits. In particular, this entry focuses on these latter items, comprising the following four artworks: Simone Martini’s altarpiece, the Master of Giovanni Barrile’s panel, the Master of the Franciscan tempera’s canvas, and the so-called Lello da Orvieto’s fresco. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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Knowledge Integration in Smart Factories
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 792-811; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030061 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 938
Definition
Knowledge integration is well explained by the human–organization–technology (HOT) approach known from knowledge management. This approach contains the horizontal and vertical interaction and communication between employees, human-to-machine, but also machine-to-machine. Different organizational structures and processes are supported with the help of appropriate technologies [...] Read more.
Knowledge integration is well explained by the human–organization–technology (HOT) approach known from knowledge management. This approach contains the horizontal and vertical interaction and communication between employees, human-to-machine, but also machine-to-machine. Different organizational structures and processes are supported with the help of appropriate technologies and suitable data processing and integration techniques. In a Smart Factory, manufacturing systems act largely autonomously on the basis of continuously collected data. The technical design concerns the networking of machines, their connectivity and the interaction between human and machine as well as machine-to-machine. Within a Smart Factory, machines can be considered as intelligent manufacturing systems. Such manufacturing systems can autonomously adapt to events through the ability to intelligently analyze data and act as adaptive manufacturing systems that consider changes in production, the supply chain and customer requirements. Inter-connected physical devices, sensors, actuators, and controllers form the building block of the Smart Factory, which is called the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT uses different data processing solutions, such as cloud computing, fog computing, or edge computing, to fuse and process data. This is accomplished in an integrated and cross-device manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Age-Friendly Built Environment
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 781-791; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030060 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1230
Definition
Age-friendly built environments have been promoted by the World Health Organisation (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland) under the Global Age-friendly Cities (AFC) movement in which three domains are related to the built environment. These are: housing, transportation, outdoor spaces and public buildings. The aim is [...] Read more.
Age-friendly built environments have been promoted by the World Health Organisation (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland) under the Global Age-friendly Cities (AFC) movement in which three domains are related to the built environment. These are: housing, transportation, outdoor spaces and public buildings. The aim is to foster active ageing by optimising opportunities for older adults to maximise their independent living ability and participate in their communities to enhance their quality of life and wellbeing. An age-friendly built environment is inclusive, accessible, respects individual needs and addresses the wide range of capacities across the course of life. Age-friendly housing promotes ageing in familiar surroundings and maintains social connections at the neighbourhood and community levels. Both age-friendly housing and buildings provide barrier-free provisions to minimise the needs for subsequent adaptations. Age-friendly public and outdoor spaces encourage older adults to spend time outside and engage with others against isolation and loneliness. Age-friendly public transport enables older adults to get around and enhances their mobility. For achieving an age-friendly living environment, a holistic approach is required to enable independent living, inclusion and active participation of older adults in society. The eight domains of the AFC movement are not mutually exclusive but overlap and support with one another. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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Nanotechnology-Enabled COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 773-780; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030059 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1356
Definition
COVID-19 mRNA vaccines contain synthetic mRNA sequences encoded for the Spike proteins expressed on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, and utilize the host cells to produce specific antigens that stimulate both humoral and cellular immunities. Lipid nanoparticles are essential to facilitate the intracellular delivery [...] Read more.
COVID-19 mRNA vaccines contain synthetic mRNA sequences encoded for the Spike proteins expressed on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, and utilize the host cells to produce specific antigens that stimulate both humoral and cellular immunities. Lipid nanoparticles are essential to facilitate the intracellular delivery of the mRNA to its action site, the ribosome, to fully exert its effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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Working Capital
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 764-772; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030058 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 926
Definition
The simplest net working capital can be defined as the difference between the value of current assets and short-term liabilities together with other short-term accruals. It is equivalent to the part of the current assets financed with equity, provisions for liabilities, long-term liabilities, [...] Read more.
The simplest net working capital can be defined as the difference between the value of current assets and short-term liabilities together with other short-term accruals. It is equivalent to the part of the current assets financed with equity, provisions for liabilities, long-term liabilities, and the remaining part of accruals. Therefore, it is the capital that finances only that part of the current assets that are not financed with short-term liabilities. This amount is financed with fixed capital. Summing up, net working capital is the fixed capital that finances the company’s current assets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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COVID-19: Evidenced Health Disparity
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 744-763; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030057 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1497
Definition
Health disparity is an unacceptable, unjust, or inequitable difference in health outcomes among different groups of people that affects access to optimal health care, as well as deterring it. Health disparity adversely affects disadvantaged subpopulations due to a higher incidence and prevalence of [...] Read more.
Health disparity is an unacceptable, unjust, or inequitable difference in health outcomes among different groups of people that affects access to optimal health care, as well as deterring it. Health disparity adversely affects disadvantaged subpopulations due to a higher incidence and prevalence of a particular disease or ill health. Existing health disparity determines whether a disease outbreak such as coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), will significantly impact a group or a region. Hence, health disparity assessment has become one of the focuses of many agencies, public health practitioners, and other social scientists. Successful elimination of health disparity at all levels requires pragmatic approaches through an intersectionality framework and robust data science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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Geometric Design of Suburban Roundabouts
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 720-743; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030056 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 774
Definition
A modern roundabout is an intersection with a circulatory roadway at which the vehicle speed is low, and the traffic is continuous and circulating in one direction around the central island towards the exits at the approach legs. Modern roundabout design is an [...] Read more.
A modern roundabout is an intersection with a circulatory roadway at which the vehicle speed is low, and the traffic is continuous and circulating in one direction around the central island towards the exits at the approach legs. Modern roundabout design is an iterative process that is composed of the following steps: (1) the identification of the roundabout as the optimal traffic solution; (2) the definition of the number of lanes at the intersection based on the required capacity and the level of service; (3) the initial design of the roundabout geometry; (4) design vehicle swept path, the fastest path analysis, and visibility performance checks; and (5) detailed roundabout design if the results of the performance checks are in line with the design recommendations. Initial roundabout geometry design elements are not independent of each other; therefore, care must be taken to provide compatibility between them. An overview and a comparative analysis of the initial geometric design elements for suburban single-lane roundabouts defined in roundabout design guidelines and norms used in Croatia, Austria, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Serbia, and Switzerland is given in this entry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (1208–1250)
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 710-719; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030055 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 845
Definition
Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily (1208–1250). Frederick II of Hohenstaufen was the second king of the Swabian dynasty to sit on the throne of Sicily. He was crowned in 1198, but, in consideration of his young age, he only ruled independently [...] Read more.
Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily (1208–1250). Frederick II of Hohenstaufen was the second king of the Swabian dynasty to sit on the throne of Sicily. He was crowned in 1198, but, in consideration of his young age, he only ruled independently from 1208 to 1250 (the year of his death). He not only held the title of King of Sicily but also was the King of Germany (or of the Romans), the King of Jerusalem, and, above all, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. His most relevant and innovative iconographic representations were in Southern Italy. For this reason, we focus on the images in this geographical context. In particular, we have nine official (that is, those commissioned directly by him or his entourage) representations of him: the bull (in three main versions), the seal (in three main versions), five coins (four denari and one augustale), the statue of the Capua Gate, and the lost image of the imperial palace in Naples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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Migration Forecasting—Significance and Approaches
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 689-709; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030054 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 843
Definition
Migration is defined as the permanent change in an individual’s usual residence. Forecasting migration is an important requisite for population forecasts or for planning in fields that depend on the future size and structure of the population, such as economics, epidemiology, social insurance, [...] Read more.
Migration is defined as the permanent change in an individual’s usual residence. Forecasting migration is an important requisite for population forecasts or for planning in fields that depend on the future size and structure of the population, such as economics, epidemiology, social insurance, or infrastructure. As migration is the most volatile of all demographic components, its modeling is especially difficult. International migration can be modeled and forecast very differently; users should be familiar with the flaws and strengths of these different approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
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High-Speed Railway
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 665-688; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030053 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1291
Definition
Union Internationale des Chemins (UIC) defines the high-speed railway (HSR) as a high-speed railway system that contains the infrastructure and the rolling stock. The infrastructure can be newly built dedicated lines enabled for trains to travel with speed above 250 km/h or upgraded [...] Read more.
Union Internationale des Chemins (UIC) defines the high-speed railway (HSR) as a high-speed railway system that contains the infrastructure and the rolling stock. The infrastructure can be newly built dedicated lines enabled for trains to travel with speed above 250 km/h or upgraded conventional lines with a speed up to 200 or even 220 km/h. HSR requires specially built trains with increased power to weight ratio and must have an in-cab signalling system as traditional signalling systems are incapable of above 200 km/h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Novel Bioactive Extraction and Nano-Encapsulation
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 632-664; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030052 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1128
Definition
An extraction technology works on the principle of two consecutive steps that involves mixture of solute with solvent and the movement of soluble compounds from the cell into the solvent and its consequent diffusion and extraction. The conventional extraction techniques are mostly based [...] Read more.
An extraction technology works on the principle of two consecutive steps that involves mixture of solute with solvent and the movement of soluble compounds from the cell into the solvent and its consequent diffusion and extraction. The conventional extraction techniques are mostly based on the use of mild/high temperatures (50–90 °C) that can cause thermal degradation, are dependent on the mass transfer rate, being reflected on long extraction times, high costs, low extraction efficiency, with consequent low extraction yields. Due to these disadvantages, it is of interest to develop non-thermal extraction methods, such as microwave, ultrasounds, supercritical fluids (mostly using carbon dioxide, SC-CO2), and high hydrostatic pressure-assisted extractions which works on the phenomena of minimum heat exposure with reduced processing time, thereby minimizing the loss of bioactive compounds during extraction. Further, to improve the stability of these extracted compounds, nano-encapsulation is required. Nano-encapsulation is a process which forms a thin layer of protection against environmental degradation and retains the nutritional and functional qualities of bioactive compounds in nano-scale level capsules by employing fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials as encapsulation materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Challenges for Nanotechnology
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 618-631; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030051 - 25 Jul 2021
Viewed by 971
Definition
The term “Nanotechnology” describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with objects and technical components with small dimensions. Typically, bodies that are in–at least–two dimensions smaller than 0.1 µm are regarded as “nanobjects”. By this definition, a lot of advanced [...] Read more.
The term “Nanotechnology” describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with objects and technical components with small dimensions. Typically, bodies that are in–at least–two dimensions smaller than 0.1 µm are regarded as “nanobjects”. By this definition, a lot of advanced materials, as well as the advanced electronic devices, are objects of nanotechnology. In addition, many aspects of molecular biotechnology as well as macromolecular and supermolecular chemistry and nanoparticle techniques are summarized under “nanotechnology”. Despite this size-oriented definition, nanotechnology is dealing with physics and chemistry as well as with the realization of technical functions in the area between very small bodies and single particles and molecules. This includes the shift from classical physics into the quantum world of small molecules and low numbers or single elementary particles. Besides the already established fields of nanotechnology, there is a big expectation about technical progress and solution to essential economic, medical, and ecological problems by means of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology can only meet these expectations if fundamental progress behind the recent state of the art can be achieved. Therefore, very important challenges for nanotechnology are discussed here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Information Security Risk Assessment
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 602-617; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030050 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1455
Definition
Information security risk assessment is an important part of enterprises’ management practices that helps to identify, quantify, and prioritize risks against criteria for risk acceptance and objectives relevant to the organization. Risk management refers to a process that consists of identification, management, and [...] Read more.
Information security risk assessment is an important part of enterprises’ management practices that helps to identify, quantify, and prioritize risks against criteria for risk acceptance and objectives relevant to the organization. Risk management refers to a process that consists of identification, management, and elimination or reduction of the likelihood of events that can negatively affect the resources of the information system to reduce security risks that potentially have the ability to affect the information system, subject to an acceptable cost of protection means that contain a risk analysis, analysis of the “cost-effectiveness” parameter, and selection, construction, and testing of the security subsystem, as well as the study of all aspects of security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematics & Computer Science)
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Social Housing Customization in Brazil
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 589-601; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030049 - 21 Jul 2021
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Definition
Social housing customization in Brazil refers to the current processes of development and evolution of government-funded neighborhoods for the lowest-income population. The mass production of small housing units that do not satisfy family needs instigates a self-design and self-construction process post-occupancy to customize [...] Read more.
Social housing customization in Brazil refers to the current processes of development and evolution of government-funded neighborhoods for the lowest-income population. The mass production of small housing units that do not satisfy family needs instigates a self-design and self-construction process post-occupancy to customize the units. Ultimately, these changes to the units bring unintended negative consequences for the families and the city. In this context, mass customization is seen as an alternative to address some of the problems related to unit design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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Machine Learning for Additive Manufacturing
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 576-588; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030048 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1431
Definition
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the name given to a family of manufacturing processes where materials are joined to make parts from 3D modelling data, generally in a layer-upon-layer manner. AM is rapidly increasing in industrial adoption for the manufacture of end-use parts, which [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the name given to a family of manufacturing processes where materials are joined to make parts from 3D modelling data, generally in a layer-upon-layer manner. AM is rapidly increasing in industrial adoption for the manufacture of end-use parts, which is therefore pushing for the maturation of design, process, and production techniques. Machine learning (ML) is a branch of artificial intelligence concerned with training programs to self-improve and has applications in a wide range of areas, such as computer vision, prediction, and information retrieval. Many of the problems facing AM can be categorised into one or more of these application areas. Studies have shown ML techniques to be effective in improving AM design, process, and production but there are limited industrial case studies to support further development of these techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Frederick III of Aragon (1296–1337)
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 566-575; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030047 - 14 Jul 2021
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Definition
Frederick III of Aragon, King of Sicily (1296–1337). Frederick III of Aragon was the third king of the Aragonese dynasty on the throne of Sicily. He ruled from 1296 to 1337 and he was the only Aragonese king of Sicily who made a [...] Read more.
Frederick III of Aragon, King of Sicily (1296–1337). Frederick III of Aragon was the third king of the Aragonese dynasty on the throne of Sicily. He ruled from 1296 to 1337 and he was the only Aragonese king of Sicily who made a significant use of his image. In particular, we have four official (namely, commissioned directly by him or his entourage) representations of him: the royal seal, the billon silver denaro coin, the lost mosaic from the Church of Santa Maria della Valle (known as Badiazza) near Messina, and the mosaic in the Cathedral of Messina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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Metal Nanoparticles as Free-Floating Electrodes
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 551-565; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030046 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Definition
Colloidal metal nanoparticles in an electrolyte environment are not only electrically charged but also electrochemically active objects. They have the typical character of metal electrodes with ongoing charge transfer processes on the metal/liquid interface. This picture is valid for the equilibrium state and [...] Read more.
Colloidal metal nanoparticles in an electrolyte environment are not only electrically charged but also electrochemically active objects. They have the typical character of metal electrodes with ongoing charge transfer processes on the metal/liquid interface. This picture is valid for the equilibrium state and also during the formation, growth, aggregation or dissolution of nanoparticles. This behavior can be understood in analogy to macroscopic mixed-electrode systems with a free-floating potential, which is determined by the competition between anodic and cathodic partial processes. In contrast to macroscopic electrodes, the small size of nanoparticles is responsible for significant effects of low numbers of elementary charges and for self-polarization effects as they are known from molecular systems, for example. The electrical properties of nanoparticles can be estimated by basic electrochemical equations. Reconsidering these fundamentals, the assembly behavior, the formation of nonspherical assemblies of nanoparticles and the growth and the corrosion behavior of metal nanoparticles, as well as the formation of core/shell particles, branched structures and particle networks, can be understood. The consequences of electrochemical behavior, charging and self-polarization for particle growth, shape formation and particle/particle interaction are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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