Encyclopedia of COVID-19

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Medical Technology Research Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford CM1 1SQ, UK
Interests: qPCR; RT-qPCR; colorectal cancer; molecular staging; clostridium difficile; MRSA; aspergillus
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Dear Colleagues,

Towards the end of 2019, a cluster of severe acute respiratory disease cases emerged in the region of Wuhan, China. Chinese scientists rapidly identified the etiological agent as a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus rapidly spread around the world, infecting, disabling, and killing millions of people, placing immense strains on public health infrastructures, and resulting in untold economic damage. The exceptional threat of a deadly and debilitating new disease led to an extraordinary and unprecedented collaborative effort between the world’s research, medical, publishing, and industrial communities.

Starting with the speedy publication of its genomic sequence in January 2020, this has resulted in the publication of thousands of scientific papers describing the origins and evolution of the virus, its structure, biology and variability and epidemiology. The same is true for recording massive investment in the development of existing as well as new testing methodologies, identification of potential therapeutics, improvements in patient management, and, perhaps most astonishingly of all, the multiple approaches to designing novel vaccines in record time. This is complemented by numerous reports detailing the disease’s devastating potential to impose substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burdens on the human population.

The Scholarly Community Encyclopedia is a user generated content knowledge platform (https://encyclopedia.pub/) that was released by MDPI in April 2018, with the aim of providing a comprehensive and reliable record for science development. Encyclopedia is a new international journal affiliated journal to this platform. Its content will be peer-reviewed and published quarterly using the open access model. It will be supplemented with topical books or collections that summarise current knowledge and contemplate future developments about a range of life science and medical themes. 

The first of these books is dedicated to the topic of COVID-19. It aims to provide a single source of reliable, comprehensive, and easily accessible information to chart this unparalleled progress. Contributions can be opinions and critiques, even controversial ones, as long as they are well argued and accompanied by factual evidence. All submissions will be peer-reviewed. For planned entry papers, we invite interested researchers to contact the publishers with titles and short definitions (about 100 words) to fit that brief.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COVID-19

Part I  SARS-CoV-2 origin and evolution

1.1

Coronaviruses

        1.1.1

        Bat CV

        1.1.2

        Human CV

        1.1.3

        Mutations and lineages

        1.1.4

        Directed evolution

        1.1.5

        Heteroplasmy

1.2

Lessons from SARS

        1.2.1

        Transparency of reporting

        1.2.2

        Role of WHO

        1.2.3

        Monitoring and sequencing

1.3

Politicisation of origins

        1.3.1

        Science vs politics

1.4

Spread

Part II  Symptoms and diagnosis

2.1

Pre- and asymptomatic COVID

2.2

Typical symptoms

2.3

Children

2.4

Molecular Diagnostics (e.g. RT-PCR)

2.5

Serological Diagnostics (e.g. antibody testing)

2.6

Immunological Diagnostics (e.g. antigen testing)

2.7

High Tech Detection (e.g. CT and x-ray tomography)

2.8

Drug treatments and clinical studies

        2.8.1

        Antibacterial/viral drugs

        2.8.2

        Rheumatoid arthritis drugs

        2.8.3

        “Quack” drugs

        2.8.4

        Prescribing issues

2.9

Managing long-term effects

Part III  Virus infection and immunity

3.1

Molecular virology

        3.1.1

        Genome organisation

        3.1.2

        Protein complements

        3.1.3

        Replication/transcription complex

        3.1.4

        Replication fidelity

        3.1.5

        RNA processing

3.2

Pathogenesis

        3.2.1

        Life cycle

        3.2.2

        Viral effects on host

        3.2.3

        Immune antagonism

3.3

Herd immunity (“Great Barrington”)

3.4

Vaccine development

        3.4.1

        Conventional vaccines

        3.4.2

        Viral vector vaccines

        3.4.3

        mRNA vaccines

3.5

Regulatory affairs

        3.4.1

        FDA vs CDC vs Chinese CDC vs EMA vs MHRA

3.6

Immunisation strategies

        3.6.1

        UK strategy delaying 2nd dose

        3.6.2

        Indonesia strategy economically active people first

        3.6.3

        Old and vulnerable first

3.7

Anti-vaxxers

Part IV  Epidemiology and public health interventions

4.1

Public Health issues

4.2

Initial responses

        4.2.1

        China, Taiwan, S. Korea, New Zealand, Europe, USA, Brazil, Sweden, Chile, Australia

4.3

Epidemiology

        4.3.1

        Transmission

        4.3.2

        Incubation period

        4.3.3

        Spectrum of disease severity

        4.3.4

        Risk factors for severe illness or death

.

                Ethnicity

                Social status

4.4

Spreaders

4.5

Fatality rates

4.6

Mistakes resulting in deaths

        4.6.1

        Care homes

4.7

Mental issues

4.8

Long COVID

4.9

Prevention/management

        4.9.1

        Social control measures

        4.9.2

        Social distancing

        4.9.3

        Liberty issues

.

                        Apps

                        Vaccine passports

        4.9.4

        Lockdowns

.

                        Severity

                        Length

                        Compliance

        4.9.5

        Individual control measures

4.10

Fringe opinions/conspiracy theories

Prof. Dr. Stephen Bustin
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (41 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

11 pages, 256 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 and Participatory Music-Making
by Esther M. Morgan-Ellis
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(2), 709-719; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4020044 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 623
Definition
Participatory music-making is any music-making activity in which individuals engage for the sake of the activity itself. It can be contrasted with presentational music-making, which takes the production of a performance or recording for consumption by an audience as a principal objective. During [...] Read more.
Participatory music-making is any music-making activity in which individuals engage for the sake of the activity itself. It can be contrasted with presentational music-making, which takes the production of a performance or recording for consumption by an audience as a principal objective. During the COVID-19 pandemic, participatory musicians adopted a variety of technological means by which to make music together online. While virtual activities allowed these individuals to sustain their communities and grow as musicians, they did not satisfy all the needs met by in-person music-making. Additionally, online music-making increased access for some but posed barriers to access for others. Virtual participatory music-making remains relevant following the relaxation of pandemic restrictions, and it will likely grow in significance as communications technologies and internet access improve. Full article
14 pages, 1036 KiB  
Review
The Effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the Angiopoietin/Tie Axis and the Vascular Endothelium
by Dolgormaa Janchivlamdan, Maitreyi Shivkumar and Harprit Singh
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 544-557; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010035 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause potentially life-threatening coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is a multisystem disease and is associated with significant respiratory distress, systemic hyperinflammation, vasculitis, and multi-organ failure. SARS-CoV-2 causes the deterioration of numerous systems, with increasing evidence [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause potentially life-threatening coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is a multisystem disease and is associated with significant respiratory distress, systemic hyperinflammation, vasculitis, and multi-organ failure. SARS-CoV-2 causes the deterioration of numerous systems, with increasing evidence implying that COVID-19 affects the endothelium and vascular function. The endothelium is important for preserving vascular tone and homeostasis. The overactivation and dysfunction of endothelial cells are significant outcomes of severity in patients with COVID-19. The Angiopoietin 1/Tie 2 pathway plays an important role in endothelium quiescence and vessel stability. The disruption of Angiopoietin/Tie balance affects the vessel contact barrier and leads to vessel leakage, and this in turn causes endothelial dysfunction. Although vascular instability through SARS-CoV-2 is associated with endothelial dysfunction, it is still not understood if the virus affects the Angiopoietin/Tie axis directly or via other mechanisms such as cytokine storm and/or immune response associated with the infection. This review provides an overview of the impact SARS-CoV-2 has on endothelial function and more specifically on the Angiopoietin/Tie pathway. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

20 pages, 523 KiB  
Entry
Kidney Issues Associated with COVID-19 Disease
by Periklis Dousdampanis, Athanasia Mouzaki, Konstantina Trigka, Ioannis Stefanidis, Konstantinos-Eugenios Galanopoulos, Ioannis-Santo Siavelis, Dionysia Stathopoulou and Stelios F. Assimakopoulos
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 1085-1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030079 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1502
Definition
Infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting COVID-19 can cause both lung and kidney damage. SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect renal cells expressing ACE2 receptors, resulting in kidney damage, and acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. The pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated [...] Read more.
Infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting COVID-19 can cause both lung and kidney damage. SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect renal cells expressing ACE2 receptors, resulting in kidney damage, and acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. The pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated AKI is multifactorial. Local and systemic inflammation, immune system dysregulation, blood coagulation disorders, and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are factors that contribute to the development of AKI in COVID 19 disease. COVID-19 patients with kidney involvement have a poor prognosis, and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) infected with SARS-CoV-2 have an increased mortality risk. CKD patients with COVID-19 may develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. In particular, patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and requiring dialysis, as well as patients who have undergone kidney transplantation, have an increased risk of mortality and require special consideration. Nephrologists and infectious disease specialists face several clinical dilemmas in the prophylaxis and treatment of CKD patients with COVID-19. This entry presents recent data showing the effects of COVID-19 on the kidneys and CKD patients and the challenges in the management of CKD patients with COVID-19, and discusses treatment strategies for these patients. Full article
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12 pages, 290 KiB  
Entry
Telemental Health and Diverse Populations amid COVID-19
by Jiadong Yu and D. A. Bekerian
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 267-278; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010017 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3847
Definition
Telemental health is defined as the delivery of psychological and mental health services via telecommunication technologies, including telephone-delivered therapy, videoconferencing, and internet-delivered programs. Research indicates that telemental health services are as effective as in-person services, and a dramatic increase in the use of [...] Read more.
Telemental health is defined as the delivery of psychological and mental health services via telecommunication technologies, including telephone-delivered therapy, videoconferencing, and internet-delivered programs. Research indicates that telemental health services are as effective as in-person services, and a dramatic increase in the use of telemental health has been observed during COVID-19. However, there are still persistent challenges and concerns about mental health providers’ competencies, clients’ data privacy, and legal and regulatory issues during this pandemic. Additionally, disparities in the use of telemental health services with diverse populations, based on factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, language, and culture, have been identified during this pandemic. Full article

2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021

13 pages, 311 KiB  
Review
Effects of in Utero SARS-CoV-2 Exposure on Newborn Health Outcomes
by Margaret H. Kyle and Dani Dumitriu
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 15-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010002 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 600 million people worldwide, including millions of pregnant women. While newborns exposed to other viruses in utero are sometimes at high risk for vertical transmission, a substantial body of literature since early [...] Read more.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 600 million people worldwide, including millions of pregnant women. While newborns exposed to other viruses in utero are sometimes at high risk for vertical transmission, a substantial body of literature since early 2020 has demonstrated that vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected mother to neonate is rare, and that newborns who do become infected with SARS-CoV-2 generally have favorable outcomes. In this review, the authors evaluate the existing literature on vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its potential mechanisms and discuss short- and long-term health outcomes in newborns who were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in utero. The authors conclude that vertical transmission and adverse neonatal and infant/child outcomes are unlikely, but that neonates exposed to prenatal maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection may be at slightly higher risk for preterm birth, possibly related to increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease in pregnant women, placental changes, or infection timing. Ultimately, the need for additional and longer-term follow-up data in this population is highlighted. Full article
8 pages, 247 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 and Bell’s Palsy
by Eve N. Tranchito, Amanda Goslawski, Claudia I. Cabrera, Cyrus C. Rabbani, Nicole M. Fowler, Shawn Li, Jason E. Thuener, Pierre Lavertu, Rod P. Rezaee, Theodoros N. Teknos and Akina Tamaki
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1935-1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040133 - 6 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3493
Definition
There are various neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent data suggest a connection between hemifacial paralysis, or Bell’s palsy, and COVID-19. Although the etiology of Bell’s palsy is unknown, the leading proposed etiology is viral in nature. Since the onset of [...] Read more.
There are various neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent data suggest a connection between hemifacial paralysis, or Bell’s palsy, and COVID-19. Although the etiology of Bell’s palsy is unknown, the leading proposed etiology is viral in nature. Since the onset of the pandemic, numerous studies have investigated the relationship between Bell’s palsy, COVID-19 infection, and COVID-19 vaccination. The researchers studied the current literature on the topic of COVID-19 as it relates to Bell’s palsy. Full article
9 pages, 222 KiB  
Entry
The Post-Pandemic Transformation of Art and Architecture Libraries
by Rose Orcutt, Lucy Campbell, Maya Gervits and Barbara Opar
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1893-1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040131 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2081
Definition
This entry paper considers the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the processes and functions of art and architecture libraries in North America and distinguishes between temporary changes and those that will endure and are here to stay. COVID-19 impacted all aspects of [...] Read more.
This entry paper considers the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the processes and functions of art and architecture libraries in North America and distinguishes between temporary changes and those that will endure and are here to stay. COVID-19 impacted all aspects of human life, placing tremendous stress on institutions and individuals globally. Academic libraries responded to the crisis by bringing resources to communities remotely and keeping constituents engaged to maintain a sense of normalcy. While libraries in schools of architecture, art, and design, responded similarly to other academic libraries, they also had unique needs. This entry paper is informed by two surveys of art and architecture library staff and faculty, alongside a preliminary literature review. The results of the first survey were published in Art Documentation and the results and analysis of the second survey are forthcoming. Both temporary and long-standing changes were implemented to ensure uninterrupted service in academic institutions. Temporary solutions included extending loan periods, quarantining materials, enforcing social distancing, and expanding document delivery. Changes that will endure post-pandemic include the increased acquisition of digital materials, remote instruction and reference consultations, increased resource access, and the utilization of a vast array of technologies. Full article
13 pages, 807 KiB  
Entry
Gross Pathology in COVID-19
by Bei Zhang
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1790-1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040123 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4217
Definition
The global infectious disease COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a new member of the Coronaviridae family. Though presented as a novel disease that primarily affects the respiratory system, multi-organ involvement has been well-noticed and documented since the beginning of the pandemic. When performed [...] Read more.
The global infectious disease COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a new member of the Coronaviridae family. Though presented as a novel disease that primarily affects the respiratory system, multi-organ involvement has been well-noticed and documented since the beginning of the pandemic. When performed properly with adequate safety measures, autopsy provides the most valuable information to decipher the pathogenesis of this novel disease, therefore providing a basis for clinical management. In addition to reviewing the macroscopic changes in organs and tissues involved in COVID-19, the relevant microscopic alterations and possible pathogenesis are also discussed. Full article
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17 pages, 935 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19-Associated Encephalopathy (COVEP): Basic Aspects of Neuropathology
by George S. Stoyanov, Dimo Stoyanov, Martin Ivanov, Anton B. Tonchev, Hristo Popov and Lilyana Petkova
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1773-1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040122 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2938
Definition
SARS-CoV-2, a member of the betacoronavirus group and causative agent of COVID-19, is a virus affecting multiple systems, not only the respiratory. One of the systems affected by the virus is the central nervous system, with neuropathological studies reporting a wide set of [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2, a member of the betacoronavirus group and causative agent of COVID-19, is a virus affecting multiple systems, not only the respiratory. One of the systems affected by the virus is the central nervous system, with neuropathological studies reporting a wide set of morphological phenomena—neuroinflammation, vascular and blood-brain barrier alterations, neurodegeneration, and accelerated aging, while contradicting data is present on the direct neuroinvasive potential of the virus and active viral replication within neurons. The depicted changes, other than an acute effect (which may contribute to the death of the patient) also have chronic sequelae in the context of post-COVID syndrome cognitive impediments, sleep, and mood disorders. The following chapter describe the basic neuropathological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 as based on the present evidence in scientific literature and propose the term COVEP—COVID-associated encephalopathy—to unite the undisputed effects of the infection on nervous system morphology and function. Full article
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10 pages, 646 KiB  
Entry
Implementation of Blended Learning during COVID-19
by Santiago Batista-Toledo and Diana Gavilan
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1763-1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040121 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 9265
Definition
Blended learning (BL) is a teaching model that combines face-to-face activities in the classroom with activities outside the classroom through the introduction of technology that is computer-based, distance, or mobile learning, among others. There are several BL models to adopt, depending on the [...] Read more.
Blended learning (BL) is a teaching model that combines face-to-face activities in the classroom with activities outside the classroom through the introduction of technology that is computer-based, distance, or mobile learning, among others. There are several BL models to adopt, depending on the importance and extent to which the technology is used. It brings great benefits to the learner and involves teachers in the design of new teaching methods. Full article
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12 pages, 753 KiB  
Entry
SARS, MERS and COVID-19-Associated Renal Pathology
by Hristo Popov, George S. Stoyanov, Lilyana Petkova, Dimo Stoyanov, Martin Ivanov and Anton B. Tonchev
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1710-1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040117 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1803
Definition
Coronaviruses are a large group of RNA viruses, the most notable representatives of which are SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Human coronavirus infections were first documented in the 1960s, when members causing seasonal common colds were successfully replicated in human embryonal trachea and kidney [...] Read more.
Coronaviruses are a large group of RNA viruses, the most notable representatives of which are SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Human coronavirus infections were first documented in the 1960s, when members causing seasonal common colds were successfully replicated in human embryonal trachea and kidney cell cultures and classified based on electron microscopy. The history of coronaviruses stretched far back to that point, however, with some representatives causing disease in animals identified several decades prior and evolutionary data pointing towards the origin of this viral group more than 55 million years ago. In the short time period of research since they were discovered, coronaviruses have shown significant diversity, genetic peculiarities and varying tropism, resulting in the three identified causative agents of severe disease in humans—SARS, MERS and the most recent one, COVID-19, which has surpassed the previous two due to causing a pandemic resulting in significant healthcare, social and political consequences. Coronaviruses are likely to have caused pandemics long before, such as the so-called Asian or Russian influenza. Despite being epitheliotropic viruses and predominantly affecting the respiratory system, these entities affect multiple systems and organs, including the kidneys. In the kidneys, they actively replicate in glomerular podocytes and epithelial cells of the tubules, resulting in acute kidney injury, seen in a significant percentage of severe and fatal cases. Furthermore, the endothelial affinity of the viruses, resulting in endotheliitis, increases the likelihood of thrombotic microangiopathy, damaging the kidneys in a two-hit mechanism. As such, recently, COVAN has been a suggested nomenclature change indicating renal involvement in coronavirus infections and its long-lasting consequences. Full article
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12 pages, 2204 KiB  
Entry
SARS-CoV-2 Associated Pulmonary Pathology
by George S. Stoyanov, Hristo Popov, Lilyana Petkova, Dimo Stoyanov, Martin Ivanov and Anton B. Tonchev
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1698-1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040116 - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1878
Definition
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel entry in the betacoronaviridae group of coronaviruses. This is the second member of this group, and the third of the family overall to emerge in the last 20 years, which has caused significant [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel entry in the betacoronaviridae group of coronaviruses. This is the second member of this group, and the third of the family overall to emerge in the last 20 years, which has caused significant health concerns due to the clinical severity and spread of the disease it causes—coronavirus disease identified in 2019 (COVID-19). While initially emerging as a respiratory disease, and while most cases experience symptoms predominantly from this system, SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a multisystem pathogen. From a pathomorphological point of view, the severity of changes in the respiratory system can be summed up as diffuse alveolar damage—desquamation of the alveolar epithelium with exudative and proliferative changes—pulmonary hyaline membranes, Clara cell hyperplasia, squamous cell metaplasia, and fibrosis. The second most prominent way the disease affects the lung is through endotheliitis—damage to the endothelial cells of the pulmonary vasculature, predominantly affecting the medium and large caliber blood vessels that cause the well-established clinical phenomenon of thrombosis/thromboembolism of the pulmonary vasculature. As the spread of the disease continues with the emergence of new variants and the number of cases continues to grow, including a large percentage of recurrent cases, it is essential to remember that the viral effects are not only acute but, due to the proliferative phenomena, can produce chronic sequelae. Therefore, in the background of dwindling publication interest, it is critical to focus on the histopathological aspects of the pulmonary disease, with the goal of better understanding the effects of the virus on the organism and identifying probable future complications after infection. Full article
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10 pages, 265 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 and Peace in Conflict-Affected Areas
by Emmanuel Chiwetalu Ossai
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1678-1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040114 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2621
Definition
The relationship between COVID-19 and peace has been considered from a variety of perspectives. In addition, different empirical studies on the link between the pandemic and peace in conflict-affected areas exist. However, little work has been performed on examining these studies to highlight [...] Read more.
The relationship between COVID-19 and peace has been considered from a variety of perspectives. In addition, different empirical studies on the link between the pandemic and peace in conflict-affected areas exist. However, little work has been performed on examining these studies to highlight key findings on the theme of COVID-19 and peace in conflict-affected areas. A conflict-affected area is a country, or part of a country, where widespread violence or armed conflict was present when COVID-19 emerged in December 2019, or that was transitioning from recent armed conflict to peace by the time the disease arose. What do we know, so far, about how peace has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in conflict-affected areas? To address this question, this paper begins by recognizing the multidimensionality of peace and clarifying that the main aspects of peace in conflict-affected areas being considered in the article are relations between conflict parties, peace efforts, and peace processes. Afterwards, the paper discusses existing evidence regarding the impact of COVID-19 and state responses to it on these components of peace in conflict-affected areas. The conflict-affected areas considered include Afghanistan, Colombia, Iraq, Israel-Palestine, Libya, Myanmar, Nigeria, South Sudan, Syria, the Philippines, Yemen, and other zones. The central finding of the article is that the existing studies on COVID-19 and peace in conflict-affected areas present mixed findings. On the one hand, the virus generated opportunities for cooperation between conflict parties in some cases, such as in the West Bank and Gaza Strip of Israel-Palestine. However, on the other hand, it created conditions that enabled conflict and impeded peace efforts and processes in many or most conflict-affected areas. The paper explains that two factors that determined how the disease affected peace in conflict-affected and non-conflict-affected areas are the pre-COVID-19 political and socio-economic conditions in an area, and how state and non-state actors responded to the pandemic. The article closes with a summary of the discussion and identification of its major limitations. Full article
9 pages, 396 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 Pandemic as a Transitional Event: From the Perspective of the Transition Theory
by Eamin Z. Heanoy, Tugba Uzer and Norman R. Brown
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1602-1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030109 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3873
Definition
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every aspect of people’s lives across the globe. It is also unique in the way it changed their lives. In this entry, a framework, the Transition Theory, is outlined, which is used to interpret the transitional properties of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every aspect of people’s lives across the globe. It is also unique in the way it changed their lives. In this entry, a framework, the Transition Theory, is outlined, which is used to interpret the transitional properties of this pandemic, the ways it differs from other transitional events, and how it impacts the lives and well-being of the individuals. The prediction is that people might consider the pandemic as an important life transition event only if there is a little similarity between their pre-pandemic and post-pandemic lives. Individual differences also need to be considered as those whose lives have been directly affected by the pandemic experience a greater COVID-related change (e.g., job loss vs. no job loss). Lastly, the transitional impact of the pandemic might have a strong link with people’s mental outcomes. These notions call for a longitudinal approach to get an accurate understanding of the pandemic experience while this world-changing event unfolds rather than in retrospect. Full article
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14 pages, 2473 KiB  
Entry
Telework: Before and after COVID-19
by Mirela Cătălina Türkeș and Daniela Roxana Vuță
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1370-1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030092 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4454
Definition
Telework is, today, a voluntary form of work organization in which the employee is located outside the employer’s premises, at home or elsewhere, under a telework contract, uses information and communication technologies (ICT) and works according to a predetermined schedule on the basis [...] Read more.
Telework is, today, a voluntary form of work organization in which the employee is located outside the employer’s premises, at home or elsewhere, under a telework contract, uses information and communication technologies (ICT) and works according to a predetermined schedule on the basis of an agreed supervisory mechanism and an online reporting system on the work undertaken. Full article
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15 pages, 324 KiB  
Entry
Culture and COVID-19: Impact of Cross-Cultural Dimensions on Behavioral Responses
by Nisha Nair, Patturaja Selvaraj and Ranjeet Nambudiri
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1210-1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030081 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5796
Definition
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has impacted every sphere of human life across all nations of the world. Countries adapted and responded to the crisis in different ways with varied outcomes and different degrees of success in mitigation efforts. Studies have examined institutional [...] Read more.
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has impacted every sphere of human life across all nations of the world. Countries adapted and responded to the crisis in different ways with varied outcomes and different degrees of success in mitigation efforts. Studies have examined institutional and policy-based responses to the pandemic. However, to gain a holistic understanding of the pandemic response strategy and its effectiveness, it is also important to understand the cultural foundations of a society driving its response behavior. Towards that end, this entry focuses on a few key cultural dimensions of difference across countries and proposes that national culture is related to the protective behavior adopted by societies during COVID-19. The cultural dimensions examined in relation to COVID-19 include the dimensions of individualism vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and femininity, and future orientation. Inferences are drawn from academic research, published data, and discernible indicators of social behavior. The entry provides pointers for each dimension of culture and proposes that cultural awareness be made an important element of policy making while responding to crises such as COVID-19. Full article
10 pages, 284 KiB  
Entry
Otovestibular Symptoms of COVID-19 and Its Vaccines/Treatments
by Marcello Cherchi
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1200-1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030080 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4395
Definition
The rapidly developing literature regarding COVID-19 and its treatments has documented an impressive breadth of pathology across multiple organ systems. In this entry, researchers highlight the audiologic and vestibular manifestations that have been reported in association with COVID-19, its vaccines, and some of [...] Read more.
The rapidly developing literature regarding COVID-19 and its treatments has documented an impressive breadth of pathology across multiple organ systems. In this entry, researchers highlight the audiologic and vestibular manifestations that have been reported in association with COVID-19, its vaccines, and some of its treatments. Full article
9 pages, 253 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19: Gender and Outcomes
by Alfonso Ilardi
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 864-872; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020056 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1751
Definition
The existence of differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection between males and females in both incidence and outcomes is well documented in the scientific literature. These differences, which are still underestimated, may have important implications in terms of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of [...] Read more.
The existence of differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection between males and females in both incidence and outcomes is well documented in the scientific literature. These differences, which are still underestimated, may have important implications in terms of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19, with significant prognostic consequences. The greater severity of the infection observed in males, even more so if they are elderly, would seem, according to current knowledge, to be due to multiple influences: immunological and endocrinological, but also genetic and behavioral. Full article
12 pages, 15935 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 in the Construction Sector
by Ruben Rodríguez Elizalde
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 717-728; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020050 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3205
Definition
This section analyzes the influence of COVID-19 in the construction sector. Construction workers’ high vulnerability to the spread of the virus motivated this entry. The construction sector’s peculiarities and some work procedure characteristics in this sector make telecommuting impossible in most activities. In [...] Read more.
This section analyzes the influence of COVID-19 in the construction sector. Construction workers’ high vulnerability to the spread of the virus motivated this entry. The construction sector’s peculiarities and some work procedure characteristics in this sector make telecommuting impossible in most activities. In addition, most of the states and national governments declared the construction sector essential activity due to its high economic impact. The working conditions in this sector are very special: constant trips to work in groups, work group execution with little interpersonal distance, group travel, stays and accommodations away from home, meals in restaurants or work canteens, lunch in restaurants or work canteens, etc. Due to all of this, the contagion rate was very high during the pandemic months. Even today, it is still considered one of the most dangerous sectors for these purposes. With all this in mind, here we discuss why it is difficult to minimize the spread of the virus for construction workers, summarize how to assess exposure risk grades for construction job tasks, and provide possible protection requirements for the different exposure risk grades. Full article
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11 pages, 2152 KiB  
Review
Simple Formulae, Deep Learning and Elaborate Modelling for the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Athanassios S. Fokas, Nikolaos Dikaios, Sotirios Tsiodras and George A. Kastis
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 679-689; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020047 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
Predictive modelling of infectious diseases is very important in planning public health policies, particularly during outbreaks. This work reviews the forecasting and mechanistic models published earlier. It is emphasized that researchers’ forecasting models exhibit, for large t, algebraic behavior, as opposed to the [...] Read more.
Predictive modelling of infectious diseases is very important in planning public health policies, particularly during outbreaks. This work reviews the forecasting and mechanistic models published earlier. It is emphasized that researchers’ forecasting models exhibit, for large t, algebraic behavior, as opposed to the exponential behavior of the classical logistic-type models used usually in epidemics. Remarkably, a newly introduced mechanistic model also exhibits, for large t, algebraic behavior in contrast to the usual Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) models, which exhibit exponential behavior. The unexpected success of researchers’ simple forecasting models provides a strong support for the validity of this novel mechanistic model. It is also shown that the mathematical tools used for the analysis of the first wave may also be useful for the analysis of subsequent waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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15 pages, 330 KiB  
Entry
Trust in Science and COVID-19
by Marilena Mousoulidou, Andri Christodoulou, Marios Argyrides, Michailina Siakalli and Louiza Constantinou
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 602-616; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010040 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3858
Definition
In this entry, trust in science is defined as the reliance, confidence, and dependence on science to understand scientific information. With the outbreak of, and the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, turning towards science and trusting the specialized knowledge of experts is of [...] Read more.
In this entry, trust in science is defined as the reliance, confidence, and dependence on science to understand scientific information. With the outbreak of, and the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, turning towards science and trusting the specialized knowledge of experts is of particular importance during this period. Full article
9 pages, 243 KiB  
Entry
Adverse Events Profile of COVID-19 Preventative Strategies
by Kunal M. Ajmera
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 457-465; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010028 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2763
Definition
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of deaths and has affected most people across the world, either directly or indirectly. Many preventative and therapeutic strategies have been employed since the beginning of the pandemic. With the development of the mRNA vaccine within a [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of deaths and has affected most people across the world, either directly or indirectly. Many preventative and therapeutic strategies have been employed since the beginning of the pandemic. With the development of the mRNA vaccine within a year of the start of the pandemic, we are entering a new era of vaccinology, and the adverse event profile of the COVID-19 vaccine is also becoming more apparent with time. While the benefits of the vaccines and other preventative strategies certainly outweigh the risk of adverse events, prospective clinical trials are urgently needed to determine whether specific populations, including those with a personal or family history of autoimmune disease, are at higher risk of developing certain adverse events, in order to minimize risk further. Full article
16 pages, 353 KiB  
Entry
Domestic Violence against Women and COVID-19
by Constantina Zamba, Marilena Mousoulidou and Andri Christodoulou
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 441-456; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010027 - 6 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7259
Definition
Domestic violence against women is defined as harmful behavior that occurs within a home and it involves aggressive and violent conduct towards women. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and following the restrictions imposed to combat the pandemic (lockdowns, staying at home, [...] Read more.
Domestic violence against women is defined as harmful behavior that occurs within a home and it involves aggressive and violent conduct towards women. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and following the restrictions imposed to combat the pandemic (lockdowns, staying at home, isolation), domestic violence against women has increased worldwide. The current entry presents existing knowledge and discusses issues important for public awareness. Full article
19 pages, 381 KiB  
Entry
Secondary Education and COVID-19
by Michailina Siakalli, Marilena Mousoulidou, Andri Christodoulou, Angela Savvidou and Kyriaki Kouppa
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 409-427; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010025 - 2 Feb 2022
Viewed by 3549
Definition
Secondary education is the second stage of formal education and traditionally begins after primary school, usually about age 11 to 13. The COVID-19 pandemic caused immeasurable changes to the educational system which inevitably greatly impacted secondary education. The current entry describes the changes [...] Read more.
Secondary education is the second stage of formal education and traditionally begins after primary school, usually about age 11 to 13. The COVID-19 pandemic caused immeasurable changes to the educational system which inevitably greatly impacted secondary education. The current entry describes the changes in secondary education imposed by the pandemic and explores the accompanying challenges. Full article
9 pages, 244 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 and Psychological Impact
by Nereida Bueno-Guerra
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 400-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010024 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4001
Definition
The worldwide mental health burden associated to COVID-19. The psychological symptoms associated to COVID-19 can originate from three different sources: lockdowns, pandemic life and virus infection (both COVID-19 and post COVID-19 condition). Within the psychological symptoms it can be found: anxiety, depression, post-traumatic [...] Read more.
The worldwide mental health burden associated to COVID-19. The psychological symptoms associated to COVID-19 can originate from three different sources: lockdowns, pandemic life and virus infection (both COVID-19 and post COVID-19 condition). Within the psychological symptoms it can be found: anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, fatigue and cognitive impairment (i.e., ’brain fog’, mental slowness, deficits in attention, executive functioning, working memory, learning, articulation, and/or psychomotor coordination). Plus, two psychological conditions associated to the COVID-19 pandemic have been coined so far by the World Health Organization: pandemic fatigue and post COVID-19 condition. The increase of psychological symptoms both in the general population and in frontline workers (especially health-care workers) generates an unprecedented number of psychological patients and it challenges national mental health systems. Full article
18 pages, 598 KiB  
Systematic Review
Dental Patients’ Perspective on COVID-19: A Systematic Review
by Stefano Salgarello, Elisabetta Audino, Paolo Bertoletti, Matteo Salvadori and Maria Luisa Garo
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 365-382; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010022 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3400
Abstract
The COVID-19 epidemic has changed patients’ approach to dental treatments. While dentists worldwide have shown an excellent level of adaptability to face the new challenges presented by the unprecedented situation due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, dental patients have witnessed a sudden [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 epidemic has changed patients’ approach to dental treatments. While dentists worldwide have shown an excellent level of adaptability to face the new challenges presented by the unprecedented situation due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, dental patients have witnessed a sudden suspension of elective treatments and a slow resumption of dental care activities after several national lockdowns. In addition, the general climate of anxiety and fear due to the high COVID-19 risk and the high level of mortality has influenced the perception and attitudes of people towards dental activity, inducing many dental patients to avoid appointments to the dentist if not highly urgent. We present an overview of the current state of knowledge about dental patients’ perception, perspective, attitude, and expectations towards a full resumption of regular dental treatments. Full article
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18 pages, 3999 KiB  
Entry
Asymptomatic Patients and Immune Subjects
by Sheila Veronese and Andrea Sbarbati
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 109-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010008 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2109
Definition
An asymptomatic patient is someone who contracts a disease but shows no symptoms. An immune subject is a person who is free from virus infection. Both of these categories of people experience the limitations of government imposed by a pandemic situation, with one [...] Read more.
An asymptomatic patient is someone who contracts a disease but shows no symptoms. An immune subject is a person who is free from virus infection. Both of these categories of people experience the limitations of government imposed by a pandemic situation, with one important difference. Probably only the first subjects contribute, in spite of themselves, to the spread of the disease and to the contagion of the people most susceptible to the virus. This implies that their detection is essential to limit infections. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of these people and those immune to the virus can be extremely useful in mitigating the effects of the disease and/or defeating it. Full article
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13 pages, 2184 KiB  
Entry
Molecular Aspects of Spike–ACE2 Interaction
by Luigi De Masi, Maria Antonia Argenio, Deborah Giordano and Angelo Facchiano
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 96-108; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010007 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2939
Definition
A new betacoronavirus (CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that began in China at the end of 2019, today known as COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Subsequent studies confirmed the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) as the main [...] Read more.
A new betacoronavirus (CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that began in China at the end of 2019, today known as COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Subsequent studies confirmed the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) as the main cell receptor of spike trimeric glycoprotein, located on the viral envelope, mediating the CoV-2 invasion into the host cells through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike. Computational analysis of the known experimental 3D structures of spike–ACE2 complexes evidenced distinguishing features in the molecular interactions at the RBD-cell receptor binding interface between CoV-2 and previous CoV-1. The spike represents a key target for drug design as well as an optimal antigen for RNA/viral vector vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in order to maximize prevention and therapy of COVID-19. Full article
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2021

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10 pages, 593 KiB  
Entry
Limbic Encephalitis Associated with COVID-19
by Natalia A. Shnayder, Timur K. Sirbiladze, Irina V. Demko, Marina M. Petrova and Regina F. Nasyrova
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 26-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010003 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4731
Definition
Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an inflammatory disease of the brain, in which lesion is anatomically limited in structures of the limbic system. In some cases, LE can start with symptoms of limbic dysfunction with further involvement of other regions of the brain. Classic [...] Read more.
Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an inflammatory disease of the brain, in which lesion is anatomically limited in structures of the limbic system. In some cases, LE can start with symptoms of limbic dysfunction with further involvement of other regions of the brain. Classic LE syndrome includes such symptoms as the development of personality disorders, depression, sleep disorders, epileptic seizures, hallucinations and cognitive disorders (short-term and long-term memory impairment). The information of clinical examination, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid studies (CSF) suggest the diagnosis of LE in most patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Full article
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10 pages, 433 KiB  
Entry
The Increase in Addiction during COVID-19
by Theodoros Daglis
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1257-1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040095 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6986
Definition
The increase in addiction during COVID-19 is a condition that emerged as an aftermath of COVID-19-related events, for instance, fear of the spread of COVID-19, self-abstention from many activities, and restrictions established by the lockdown measures. This condition includes substance addictions such as [...] Read more.
The increase in addiction during COVID-19 is a condition that emerged as an aftermath of COVID-19-related events, for instance, fear of the spread of COVID-19, self-abstention from many activities, and restrictions established by the lockdown measures. This condition includes substance addictions such as drugs and alcohol but also behavioral addictions such as gambling, gaming, pornography, and smartphone and internet misuse. Full article
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15 pages, 460 KiB  
Entry
Misinformation about COVID-19: Psychological Insights
by Elly Anastasiades, Marios Argyrides and Marilena Mousoulidou
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1200-1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040091 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4815
Definition
While the precise conceptualization of the term misinformation remains a subject of debate, the current entry defines misinformation as any type of information which is misleading or false, regardless of intent. The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the rapid and widespread sharing of misinformation [...] Read more.
While the precise conceptualization of the term misinformation remains a subject of debate, the current entry defines misinformation as any type of information which is misleading or false, regardless of intent. The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the rapid and widespread sharing of misinformation on a global scale, which has had detrimental effects on containment efforts and public health. This entry offers psychological insights to better our understanding of what makes people susceptible to believing and sharing misinformation and how this can inform interventions aimed at tackling the issue. Full article
7 pages, 258 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 and Fake News
by Javier Bustos Díaz and Ruben Nicolas-Sans
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1175-1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040088 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3665
Definition
COVID-19 can be defined as a global pandemic caused by a coronavirus that first surfaced in 2019. Fake news refers to false reports that can be found in digital media. The combination of these two concepts creates an especially mismanaged situation that can [...] Read more.
COVID-19 can be defined as a global pandemic caused by a coronavirus that first surfaced in 2019. Fake news refers to false reports that can be found in digital media. The combination of these two concepts creates an especially mismanaged situation that can result in widespread unease among the population, to whom the news appears continuously and without quality filters. Full article
18 pages, 6468 KiB  
Entry
Sheet Barrier and Intubating Stylet
by Phil B. Tsai and Hsiang-Ning Luk
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1058-1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040081 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3336
Definition
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2, can be transmitted through respiratory droplets and aerosols of droplet nuclei. Aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP) are needed to take care of critically ill patients but place health care providers at risk of infection. [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2, can be transmitted through respiratory droplets and aerosols of droplet nuclei. Aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP) are needed to take care of critically ill patients but place health care providers at risk of infection. With limited supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), barrier systems were developed to help protect health care providers during tracheal intubation. The video intubating stylet shows promise to become the preferred intubation device in conjunction with plastic sheet barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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11 pages, 279 KiB  
Entry
Digital Mental Health Amid COVID-19
by Luke Balcombe and Diego De Leo
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1047-1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040080 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4026
Definition
Digital Mental Health is information and communication technology used in mental health services delivered or boosted through the Internet and related technologies, smartphone and wearable technologies as well as immersive solutions (e.g., Virtual Reality and video games). It is predominantly used as self-help [...] Read more.
Digital Mental Health is information and communication technology used in mental health services delivered or boosted through the Internet and related technologies, smartphone and wearable technologies as well as immersive solutions (e.g., Virtual Reality and video games). It is predominantly used as self-help services or with the assistance of a (para-)professional and/or artificial intelligence for the provision of mental health promotion as well as mental ill-health identification, prevention and intervention. Full article
9 pages, 279 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 and Romantic Relationships
by Octav-Sorin Candel and Mihaela Jitaru
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1038-1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040079 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5812
Definition
Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted most people’s activities and relationships. Romantic relationships are a crucial source of fulfillment and emotional safety for many individuals. However, due to the risk of illness and the social distancing norms, human interaction, [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted most people’s activities and relationships. Romantic relationships are a crucial source of fulfillment and emotional safety for many individuals. However, due to the risk of illness and the social distancing norms, human interaction, even inside one’s couple or family, suffered great changes. Some of these changes have the potential of disrupting people’s relational or psychological well-being, but they can also have positive impacts. On the other hand, one of the most negative consequences is the growing number of intimate partner violence (IPV) incidents. Considering all these aspects, therapy would be beneficial for those affected. Full article
8 pages, 521 KiB  
Entry
Nanotechnology-Enabled COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines
by Yu Gao, Kaiyun Yang, Andrew N. Shelling and Zimei Wu
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 773-780; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030059 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5699
Definition
COVID-19 mRNA vaccines contain synthetic mRNA sequences encoded for the Spike proteins expressed on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, and utilize the host cells to produce specific antigens that stimulate both humoral and cellular immunities. Lipid nanoparticles are essential to facilitate the intracellular delivery [...] Read more.
COVID-19 mRNA vaccines contain synthetic mRNA sequences encoded for the Spike proteins expressed on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, and utilize the host cells to produce specific antigens that stimulate both humoral and cellular immunities. Lipid nanoparticles are essential to facilitate the intracellular delivery of the mRNA to its action site, the ribosome, to fully exert its effect. Full article
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20 pages, 1011 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19: Evidenced Health Disparity
by Ayodeji Iyanda, Kwadwo Boakye and Yongmei Lu
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 744-763; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030057 - 5 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5790
Definition
Health disparity is an unacceptable, unjust, or inequitable difference in health outcomes among different groups of people that affects access to optimal health care, as well as deterring it. Health disparity adversely affects disadvantaged subpopulations due to a higher incidence and prevalence of [...] Read more.
Health disparity is an unacceptable, unjust, or inequitable difference in health outcomes among different groups of people that affects access to optimal health care, as well as deterring it. Health disparity adversely affects disadvantaged subpopulations due to a higher incidence and prevalence of a particular disease or ill health. Existing health disparity determines whether a disease outbreak such as coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), will significantly impact a group or a region. Hence, health disparity assessment has become one of the focuses of many agencies, public health practitioners, and other social scientists. Successful elimination of health disparity at all levels requires pragmatic approaches through an intersectionality framework and robust data science. Full article
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8 pages, 258 KiB  
Entry
Air Quality during Covid-19 Lockdown
by Gabriele Donzelli, Lorenzo Cioni, Mariagrazia Cancellieri, Agustin Llopis-Morales and María Morales-Suárez-Varela
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 519-526; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030043 - 1 Jul 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4712
Definition
Air pollution exposure is one of the greatest risks to health worldwide. It is estimated to be responsible for about 4.2 million deaths around the world every year owing to many serious diseases such as heart disease, stroke, acute and chronic respiratory diseases, [...] Read more.
Air pollution exposure is one of the greatest risks to health worldwide. It is estimated to be responsible for about 4.2 million deaths around the world every year owing to many serious diseases such as heart disease, stroke, acute and chronic respiratory diseases, and lung cancer. The WHO guideline limits are exceeded in several areas around the world, and it is estimated that about 90% of the world’s population is exposed to high air pollution levels, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments to implement severe mobility restriction measures to limit the spread of the virus. This represented a unique opportunity to study the impact of mobility on urban air quality. Several studies which have investigated the relations between the quality of the air and such containment measures have shown the significant reduction of the main pollutants in the urban environment so to encourage the adoption of new approaches for the improvement of the quality of air in the cities. The aims of this entry are both a brief analysis and a discussion of the results presented in several papers to understand the relationships between COVID-19 containment measures and air quality in urban areas. Full article
9 pages, 241 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 and Dentistry
by Hugh Devlin and Parisa Soltani
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 496-504; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020041 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2317
Definition
Dentistry is a healthcare profession requiring close contacts between the dental practitioner and the patient. In particular, many dental procedures generate aerosols and droplets which are proved to be the major transmission route for COVID-19. Full article
12 pages, 751 KiB  
Entry
Pandemic Prevention: Lessons from COVID-19
by Mario Coccia
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 433-444; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020036 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 116 | Viewed by 7827
Definition
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which appeared in late 2019, generating a pandemic crisis with high numbers of COVID-19-related infected individuals and deaths in manifold countries worldwide. Lessons learned from COVID-19 can [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which appeared in late 2019, generating a pandemic crisis with high numbers of COVID-19-related infected individuals and deaths in manifold countries worldwide. Lessons learned from COVID-19 can be used to prevent pandemic threats by designing strategies to support different policy responses, not limited to the health system, directed to reduce the risks of the emergence of novel viral agents, the diffusion of infectious diseases and negative impact in society. Full article
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8 pages, 577 KiB  
Entry
Self-Service Restaurants in SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
by Renata Puppin Zandonadi, Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho, Dayanne da Costa Maynard and Rita de Cassia Coelho de Almeida Akutsu
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 401-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020033 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6076
Definition
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the self-service restaurant sector, as well as other types of food services, are facing an unprecedented crisis needing to adapt their service to avoid closing their doors. With varied and quick meals, the self-service buffet is one of the [...] Read more.
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the self-service restaurant sector, as well as other types of food services, are facing an unprecedented crisis needing to adapt their service to avoid closing their doors. With varied and quick meals, the self-service buffet is one of the most important types of outside services. However, the type of service where the clients follow a line on the buffet and serve their meals has impaired traditional restaurant operation during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and, perhaps, after it. In this sense, this study presents an overview of the self-service buffet restaurant operational system in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Full article
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