Topical Collection "Encyclopedia of COVID-19"

A topical collection in Encyclopedia (ISSN 2673-8392). This collection belongs to the section "Biology & Life Sciences".

Editor

Prof. Dr. Stephen Bustin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medical Technology Research Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford CM1 1SQ, UK
Interests: qPCR; RT-qPCR; colorectal cancer; molecular staging; clostridium difficile; MRSA; aspergillus

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Towards the end of 2019, a cluster of severe acute respiratory disease cases emerged in the region of Wuhan, China. Chinese scientists rapidly identified the etiological agent as a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus rapidly spread around the world, infecting, disabling, and killing millions of people, placing immense strains on public health infrastructures, and resulting in untold economic damage. The exceptional threat of a deadly and debilitating new disease led to an extraordinary and unprecedented collaborative effort between the world’s research, medical, publishing, and industrial communities.

Starting with the speedy publication of its genomic sequence in January 2020, this has resulted in the publication of thousands of scientific papers describing the origins and evolution of the virus, its structure, biology and variability and epidemiology. The same is true for recording massive investment in the development of existing as well as new testing methodologies, identification of potential therapeutics, improvements in patient management, and, perhaps most astonishingly of all, the multiple approaches to designing novel vaccines in record time. This is complemented by numerous reports detailing the disease’s devastating potential to impose substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burdens on the human population.

The Scholarly Community Encyclopedia is a user generated content knowledge platform (https://encyclopedia.pub/) that was released by MDPI in April 2018, with the aim of providing a comprehensive and reliable record for science development. Encyclopedia is a new international journal affiliated journal to this platform. Its content will be peer-reviewed and published quarterly using the open access model. It will be supplemented with topical books or collections that summarise current knowledge and contemplate future developments about a range of life science and medical themes. 

The first of these books is dedicated to the topic of COVID-19. It aims to provide a single source of reliable, comprehensive, and easily accessible information to chart this unparalleled progress. Contributions can be opinions and critiques, even controversial ones, as long as they are well argued and accompanied by factual evidence. All submissions will be peer-reviewed. As this is the first book in a new venture, authors will be able to publish their articles free-of-charge. For planned entry papers, we invite interested researchers to contact the publishers with titles and short definitions (about 100 words) to fit that brief.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COVID-19

Part I  SARS-CoV-2 origin and evolution

1.1

Coronaviruses

        1.1.1

        Bat CV

        1.1.2

        Human CV

        1.1.3

        Mutations and lineages

        1.1.4

        Directed evolution

        1.1.5

        Heteroplasmy

1.2

Lessons from SARS

        1.2.1

        Transparency of reporting

        1.2.2

        Role of WHO

        1.2.3

        Monitoring and sequencing

1.3

Politicisation of origins

        1.3.1

        Science vs politics

1.4

Spread

Part II  Symptoms and diagnosis

2.1

Pre- and asymptomatic COVID

2.2

Typical symptoms

2.3

Children

2.4

Molecular Diagnostics (e.g. RT-PCR)

2.5

Serological Diagnostics (e.g. antibody testing)

2.6

Immunological Diagnostics (e.g. antigen testing)

2.7

High Tech Detection (e.g. CT and x-ray tomography)

2.8

Drug treatments and clinical studies

        2.8.1

        Antibacterial/viral drugs

        2.8.2

        Rheumatoid arthritis drugs

        2.8.3

        “Quack” drugs

        2.8.4

        Prescribing issues

2.9

Managing long-term effects

Part III  Virus infection and immunity

3.1

Molecular virology

        3.1.1

        Genome organisation

        3.1.2

        Protein complements

        3.1.3

        Replication/transcription complex

        3.1.4

        Replication fidelity

        3.1.5

        RNA processing

3.2

Pathogenesis

        3.2.1

        Life cycle

        3.2.2

        Viral effects on host

        3.2.3

        Immune antagonism

3.3

Herd immunity (“Great Barrington”)

3.4

Vaccine development

        3.4.1

        Conventional vaccines

        3.4.2

        Viral vector vaccines

        3.4.3

        mRNA vaccines

3.5

Regulatory affairs

        3.4.1

        FDA vs CDC vs Chinese CDC vs EMA vs MHRA

3.6

Immunisation strategies

        3.6.1

        UK strategy delaying 2nd dose

        3.6.2

        Indonesia strategy economically active people first

        3.6.3

        Old and vulnerable first

3.7

Anti-vaxxers

Part IV  Epidemiology and public health interventions

4.1

Public Health issues

4.2

Initial responses

        4.2.1

        China, Taiwan, S. Korea, New Zealand, Europe, USA, Brazil, Sweden, Chile, Australia

4.3

Epidemiology

        4.3.1

        Transmission

        4.3.2

        Incubation period

        4.3.3

        Spectrum of disease severity

        4.3.4

        Risk factors for severe illness or death

.

                Ethnicity

                Social status

4.4

Spreaders

4.5

Fatality rates

4.6

Mistakes resulting in deaths

        4.6.1

        Care homes

4.7

Mental issues

4.8

Long COVID

4.9

Prevention/management

        4.9.1

        Social control measures

        4.9.2

        Social distancing

        4.9.3

        Liberty issues

.

                        Apps

                        Vaccine passports

        4.9.4

        Lockdowns

.

                        Severity

                        Length

                        Compliance

        4.9.5

        Individual control measures

4.10

Fringe opinions/conspiracy theories

Prof. Dr. Stephen Bustin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. Accepted papers will be published immediately in the book section of the journal and will be listed together on the collection website. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available here (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/encyclopedia/instructions). Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (30 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Entry
SARS-CoV-2 Associated Pulmonary Pathology
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1698-1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040116 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 85
Definition
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is a novel entry in the betacoronaviridae group of coronaviruses. This is the second member of this group, and the third of the family overall to emerge in the last 20 years, which has caused significant [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is a novel entry in the betacoronaviridae group of coronaviruses. This is the second member of this group, and the third of the family overall to emerge in the last 20 years, which has caused significant health concerns due to the clinical severity and spread of the disease it causes—coronavirus disease identified in 2019 (COVID-19). While initially emerging as a respiratory disease, and while most cases experience symptoms predominantly from this system, SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a multisystem pathogen. From a pathomorphological point of view, the severity of changes in the respiratory system can be summed up as diffuse alveolar damage—desquamation of the alveolar epithelium with exudative and proliferative changes—pulmonary hyaline membranes, Clara cell hyperplasia, squamous cell metaplasia, and fibrosis. The second most prominent way the disease affects the lung is through endotheliitis—damage to the endothelial cells of the pulmonary vasculature, predominantly affecting the medium and large caliber blood vessels that cause the well-established clinical phenomenon of thrombosis/thromboembolism of the pulmonary vasculature. As the spread of the disease continues with the emergence of new variants and the number of cases continues to grow, including a large percentage of recurrent cases, it is essential to remember that the viral effects are not only acute but, due to the proliferative phenomena, can produce chronic sequelae. Therefore, in the background of dwindling publication interest, it is critical to focus on the histopathological aspects of the pulmonary disease, with the goal of better understanding the effects of the virus on the organism and identifying probable future complications after infection. Full article
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Entry
COVID-19 and Peace in Conflict-Affected Areas
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1678-1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040114 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 231
Definition
The relationship between COVID-19 and peace has been considered from a variety of perspectives. In addition, different empirical studies on the link between the pandemic and peace in conflict-affected areas exist. However, little work has been performed on examining these studies to highlight [...] Read more.
The relationship between COVID-19 and peace has been considered from a variety of perspectives. In addition, different empirical studies on the link between the pandemic and peace in conflict-affected areas exist. However, little work has been performed on examining these studies to highlight key findings on the theme of COVID-19 and peace in conflict-affected areas. A conflict-affected area is a country, or part of a country, where widespread violence or armed conflict was present when COVID-19 emerged in December 2019, or that was transitioning from recent armed conflict to peace by the time the disease arose. What do we know, so far, about how peace has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in conflict-affected areas? To address this question, this paper begins by recognizing the multidimensionality of peace and clarifying that the main aspects of peace in conflict-affected areas being considered in the article are relations between conflict parties, peace efforts, and peace processes. Afterwards, the paper discusses existing evidence regarding the impact of COVID-19 and state responses to it on these components of peace in conflict-affected areas. The conflict-affected areas considered include Afghanistan, Colombia, Iraq, Israel-Palestine, Libya, Myanmar, Nigeria, South Sudan, Syria, the Philippines, Yemen, and other zones. The central finding of the article is that the existing studies on COVID-19 and peace in conflict-affected areas present mixed findings. On the one hand, the virus generated opportunities for cooperation between conflict parties in some cases, such as in the West Bank and Gaza Strip of Israel-Palestine. However, on the other hand, it created conditions that enabled conflict and impeded peace efforts and processes in many or most conflict-affected areas. The paper explains that two factors that determined how the disease affected peace in conflict-affected and non-conflict-affected areas are the pre-COVID-19 political and socio-economic conditions in an area, and how state and non-state actors responded to the pandemic. The article closes with a summary of the discussion and identification of its major limitations. Full article
Entry
COVID-19 Pandemic as a Transitional Event: From the Perspective of the Transition Theory
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1602-1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030109 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 259
Definition
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every aspect of people’s lives across the globe. It is also unique in the way it changed their lives. In this entry, a framework, the Transition Theory, is outlined, which is used to interpret the transitional properties of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every aspect of people’s lives across the globe. It is also unique in the way it changed their lives. In this entry, a framework, the Transition Theory, is outlined, which is used to interpret the transitional properties of this pandemic, the ways it differs from other transitional events, and how it impacts the lives and well-being of the individuals. The prediction is that people might consider the pandemic as an important life transition event only if there is a little similarity between their pre-pandemic and post-pandemic lives. Individual differences also need to be considered as those whose lives have been directly affected by the pandemic experience a greater COVID-related change (e.g., job loss vs. no job loss). Lastly, the transitional impact of the pandemic might have a strong link with people’s mental outcomes. These notions call for a longitudinal approach to get an accurate understanding of the pandemic experience while this world-changing event unfolds rather than in retrospect. Full article
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Entry
Telework: Before and after COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1370-1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030092 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 499
Definition
Telework is, today, a voluntary form of work organization in which the employee is located outside the employer’s premises, at home or elsewhere, under a telework contract, uses information and communication technologies (ICT) and works according to a predetermined schedule on the basis [...] Read more.
Telework is, today, a voluntary form of work organization in which the employee is located outside the employer’s premises, at home or elsewhere, under a telework contract, uses information and communication technologies (ICT) and works according to a predetermined schedule on the basis of an agreed supervisory mechanism and an online reporting system on the work undertaken. Full article
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Entry
Culture and COVID-19: Impact of Cross-Cultural Dimensions on Behavioral Responses
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1210-1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030081 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 564
Definition
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has impacted every sphere of human life across all nations of the world. Countries adapted and responded to the crisis in different ways with varied outcomes and different degrees of success in mitigation efforts. Studies have examined institutional [...] Read more.
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has impacted every sphere of human life across all nations of the world. Countries adapted and responded to the crisis in different ways with varied outcomes and different degrees of success in mitigation efforts. Studies have examined institutional and policy-based responses to the pandemic. However, to gain a holistic understanding of the pandemic response strategy and its effectiveness, it is also important to understand the cultural foundations of a society driving its response behavior. Towards that end, this entry focuses on a few key cultural dimensions of difference across countries and proposes that national culture is related to the protective behavior adopted by societies during COVID-19. The cultural dimensions examined in relation to COVID-19 include the dimensions of individualism vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and femininity, and future orientation. Inferences are drawn from academic research, published data, and discernible indicators of social behavior. The entry provides pointers for each dimension of culture and proposes that cultural awareness be made an important element of policy making while responding to crises such as COVID-19. Full article
Entry
Otovestibular Symptoms of COVID-19 and Its Vaccines/Treatments
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1200-1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030080 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 629
Definition
The rapidly developing literature regarding COVID-19 and its treatments has documented an impressive breadth of pathology across multiple organ systems. In this entry, researchers highlight the audiologic and vestibular manifestations that have been reported in association with COVID-19, its vaccines, and some of [...] Read more.
The rapidly developing literature regarding COVID-19 and its treatments has documented an impressive breadth of pathology across multiple organ systems. In this entry, researchers highlight the audiologic and vestibular manifestations that have been reported in association with COVID-19, its vaccines, and some of its treatments. Full article
Entry
COVID-19: Gender and Outcomes
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 864-872; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020056 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 580
Definition
The existence of differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection between males and females in both incidence and outcomes is well documented in the scientific literature. These differences, which are still underestimated, may have important implications in terms of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of [...] Read more.
The existence of differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection between males and females in both incidence and outcomes is well documented in the scientific literature. These differences, which are still underestimated, may have important implications in terms of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19, with significant prognostic consequences. The greater severity of the infection observed in males, even more so if they are elderly, would seem, according to current knowledge, to be due to multiple influences: immunological and endocrinological, but also genetic and behavioral. Full article
Entry
COVID-19 in the Construction Sector
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 717-728; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020050 - 13 Apr 2022
Viewed by 678
Definition
This section analyzes the influence of COVID-19 in the construction sector. Construction workers’ high vulnerability to the spread of the virus motivated this entry. The construction sector’s peculiarities and some work procedure characteristics in this sector make telecommuting impossible in most activities. In [...] Read more.
This section analyzes the influence of COVID-19 in the construction sector. Construction workers’ high vulnerability to the spread of the virus motivated this entry. The construction sector’s peculiarities and some work procedure characteristics in this sector make telecommuting impossible in most activities. In addition, most of the states and national governments declared the construction sector essential activity due to its high economic impact. The working conditions in this sector are very special: constant trips to work in groups, work group execution with little interpersonal distance, group travel, stays and accommodations away from home, meals in restaurants or work canteens, lunch in restaurants or work canteens, etc. Due to all of this, the contagion rate was very high during the pandemic months. Even today, it is still considered one of the most dangerous sectors for these purposes. With all this in mind, here we discuss why it is difficult to minimize the spread of the virus for construction workers, summarize how to assess exposure risk grades for construction job tasks, and provide possible protection requirements for the different exposure risk grades. Full article
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Review
Simple Formulae, Deep Learning and Elaborate Modelling for the COVID-19 Pandemic
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 679-689; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020047 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Predictive modelling of infectious diseases is very important in planning public health policies, particularly during outbreaks. This work reviews the forecasting and mechanistic models published earlier. It is emphasized that researchers’ forecasting models exhibit, for large t, algebraic behavior, as opposed to the [...] Read more.
Predictive modelling of infectious diseases is very important in planning public health policies, particularly during outbreaks. This work reviews the forecasting and mechanistic models published earlier. It is emphasized that researchers’ forecasting models exhibit, for large t, algebraic behavior, as opposed to the exponential behavior of the classical logistic-type models used usually in epidemics. Remarkably, a newly introduced mechanistic model also exhibits, for large t, algebraic behavior in contrast to the usual Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) models, which exhibit exponential behavior. The unexpected success of researchers’ simple forecasting models provides a strong support for the validity of this novel mechanistic model. It is also shown that the mathematical tools used for the analysis of the first wave may also be useful for the analysis of subsequent waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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Entry
Trust in Science and COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 602-616; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010040 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 861
Definition
In this entry, trust in science is defined as the reliance, confidence, and dependence on science to understand scientific information. With the outbreak of, and the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, turning towards science and trusting the specialized knowledge of experts is of [...] Read more.
In this entry, trust in science is defined as the reliance, confidence, and dependence on science to understand scientific information. With the outbreak of, and the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, turning towards science and trusting the specialized knowledge of experts is of particular importance during this period. Full article
Entry
Adverse Events Profile of COVID-19 Preventative Strategies
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 457-465; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010028 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1087
Definition
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of deaths and has affected most people across the world, either directly or indirectly. Many preventative and therapeutic strategies have been employed since the beginning of the pandemic. With the development of the mRNA vaccine within a [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of deaths and has affected most people across the world, either directly or indirectly. Many preventative and therapeutic strategies have been employed since the beginning of the pandemic. With the development of the mRNA vaccine within a year of the start of the pandemic, we are entering a new era of vaccinology, and the adverse event profile of the COVID-19 vaccine is also becoming more apparent with time. While the benefits of the vaccines and other preventative strategies certainly outweigh the risk of adverse events, prospective clinical trials are urgently needed to determine whether specific populations, including those with a personal or family history of autoimmune disease, are at higher risk of developing certain adverse events, in order to minimize risk further. Full article
Entry
Domestic Violence against Women and COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 441-456; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010027 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1076
Definition
Domestic violence against women is defined as harmful behavior that occurs within a home and it involves aggressive and violent conduct towards women. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and following the restrictions imposed to combat the pandemic (lockdowns, staying at home, [...] Read more.
Domestic violence against women is defined as harmful behavior that occurs within a home and it involves aggressive and violent conduct towards women. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and following the restrictions imposed to combat the pandemic (lockdowns, staying at home, isolation), domestic violence against women has increased worldwide. The current entry presents existing knowledge and discusses issues important for public awareness. Full article
Entry
Secondary Education and COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 409-427; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010025 - 02 Feb 2022
Viewed by 819
Definition
Secondary education is the second stage of formal education and traditionally begins after primary school, usually about age 11 to 13. The COVID-19 pandemic caused immeasurable changes to the educational system which inevitably greatly impacted secondary education. The current entry describes the changes [...] Read more.
Secondary education is the second stage of formal education and traditionally begins after primary school, usually about age 11 to 13. The COVID-19 pandemic caused immeasurable changes to the educational system which inevitably greatly impacted secondary education. The current entry describes the changes in secondary education imposed by the pandemic and explores the accompanying challenges. Full article
Entry
COVID-19 and Psychological Impact
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 400-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010024 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 976
Definition
The worldwide mental health burden associated to COVID-19. The psychological symptoms associated to COVID-19 can originate from three different sources: lockdowns, pandemic life and virus infection (both COVID-19 and post COVID-19 condition). Within the psychological symptoms it can be found: anxiety, depression, post-traumatic [...] Read more.
The worldwide mental health burden associated to COVID-19. The psychological symptoms associated to COVID-19 can originate from three different sources: lockdowns, pandemic life and virus infection (both COVID-19 and post COVID-19 condition). Within the psychological symptoms it can be found: anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, fatigue and cognitive impairment (i.e., ’brain fog’, mental slowness, deficits in attention, executive functioning, working memory, learning, articulation, and/or psychomotor coordination). Plus, two psychological conditions associated to the COVID-19 pandemic have been coined so far by the World Health Organization: pandemic fatigue and post COVID-19 condition. The increase of psychological symptoms both in the general population and in frontline workers (especially health-care workers) generates an unprecedented number of psychological patients and it challenges national mental health systems. Full article
Systematic Review
Dental Patients’ Perspective on COVID-19: A Systematic Review
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 365-382; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010022 - 01 Feb 2022
Viewed by 922
Abstract
The COVID-19 epidemic has changed patients’ approach to dental treatments. While dentists worldwide have shown an excellent level of adaptability to face the new challenges presented by the unprecedented situation due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, dental patients have witnessed a sudden [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 epidemic has changed patients’ approach to dental treatments. While dentists worldwide have shown an excellent level of adaptability to face the new challenges presented by the unprecedented situation due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, dental patients have witnessed a sudden suspension of elective treatments and a slow resumption of dental care activities after several national lockdowns. In addition, the general climate of anxiety and fear due to the high COVID-19 risk and the high level of mortality has influenced the perception and attitudes of people towards dental activity, inducing many dental patients to avoid appointments to the dentist if not highly urgent. We present an overview of the current state of knowledge about dental patients’ perception, perspective, attitude, and expectations towards a full resumption of regular dental treatments. Full article
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Entry
Asymptomatic Patients and Immune Subjects
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 109-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010008 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 627
Definition
An asymptomatic patient is someone who contracts a disease but shows no symptoms. An immune subject is a person who is free from virus infection. Both of these categories of people experience the limitations of government imposed by a pandemic situation, with one [...] Read more.
An asymptomatic patient is someone who contracts a disease but shows no symptoms. An immune subject is a person who is free from virus infection. Both of these categories of people experience the limitations of government imposed by a pandemic situation, with one important difference. Probably only the first subjects contribute, in spite of themselves, to the spread of the disease and to the contagion of the people most susceptible to the virus. This implies that their detection is essential to limit infections. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of these people and those immune to the virus can be extremely useful in mitigating the effects of the disease and/or defeating it. Full article
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Entry
Molecular Aspects of Spike–ACE2 Interaction
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 96-108; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010007 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 957
Definition
A new betacoronavirus (CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that began in China at the end of 2019, today known as COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Subsequent studies confirmed the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) as the main [...] Read more.
A new betacoronavirus (CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that began in China at the end of 2019, today known as COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Subsequent studies confirmed the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) as the main cell receptor of spike trimeric glycoprotein, located on the viral envelope, mediating the CoV-2 invasion into the host cells through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike. Computational analysis of the known experimental 3D structures of spike–ACE2 complexes evidenced distinguishing features in the molecular interactions at the RBD-cell receptor binding interface between CoV-2 and previous CoV-1. The spike represents a key target for drug design as well as an optimal antigen for RNA/viral vector vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in order to maximize prevention and therapy of COVID-19. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Entry
Limbic Encephalitis Associated with COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 26-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010003 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1322
Definition
Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an inflammatory disease of the brain, in which lesion is anatomically limited in structures of the limbic system. In some cases, LE can start with symptoms of limbic dysfunction with further involvement of other regions of the brain. Classic [...] Read more.
Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an inflammatory disease of the brain, in which lesion is anatomically limited in structures of the limbic system. In some cases, LE can start with symptoms of limbic dysfunction with further involvement of other regions of the brain. Classic LE syndrome includes such symptoms as the development of personality disorders, depression, sleep disorders, epileptic seizures, hallucinations and cognitive disorders (short-term and long-term memory impairment). The information of clinical examination, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid studies (CSF) suggest the diagnosis of LE in most patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Full article
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Entry
The Increase in Addiction during COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1257-1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040095 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1177
Definition
The increase in addiction during COVID-19 is a condition that emerged as an aftermath of COVID-19-related events, for instance, fear of the spread of COVID-19, self-abstention from many activities, and restrictions established by the lockdown measures. This condition includes substance addictions such as [...] Read more.
The increase in addiction during COVID-19 is a condition that emerged as an aftermath of COVID-19-related events, for instance, fear of the spread of COVID-19, self-abstention from many activities, and restrictions established by the lockdown measures. This condition includes substance addictions such as drugs and alcohol but also behavioral addictions such as gambling, gaming, pornography, and smartphone and internet misuse. Full article
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Entry
Misinformation about COVID-19: Psychological Insights
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1200-1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040091 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1464
Definition
While the precise conceptualization of the term misinformation remains a subject of debate, the current entry defines misinformation as any type of information which is misleading or false, regardless of intent. The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the rapid and widespread sharing of misinformation [...] Read more.
While the precise conceptualization of the term misinformation remains a subject of debate, the current entry defines misinformation as any type of information which is misleading or false, regardless of intent. The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the rapid and widespread sharing of misinformation on a global scale, which has had detrimental effects on containment efforts and public health. This entry offers psychological insights to better our understanding of what makes people susceptible to believing and sharing misinformation and how this can inform interventions aimed at tackling the issue. Full article
Entry
COVID-19 and Fake News
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1175-1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040088 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1429
Definition
COVID-19 can be defined as a global pandemic caused by a coronavirus that first surfaced in 2019. Fake news refers to false reports that can be found in digital media. The combination of these two concepts creates an especially mismanaged situation that can [...] Read more.
COVID-19 can be defined as a global pandemic caused by a coronavirus that first surfaced in 2019. Fake news refers to false reports that can be found in digital media. The combination of these two concepts creates an especially mismanaged situation that can result in widespread unease among the population, to whom the news appears continuously and without quality filters. Full article
Entry
Sheet Barrier and Intubating Stylet
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1058-1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040081 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 896
Definition
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2, can be transmitted through respiratory droplets and aerosols of droplet nuclei. Aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP) are needed to take care of critically ill patients but place health care providers at risk of infection. [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2, can be transmitted through respiratory droplets and aerosols of droplet nuclei. Aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP) are needed to take care of critically ill patients but place health care providers at risk of infection. With limited supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), barrier systems were developed to help protect health care providers during tracheal intubation. The video intubating stylet shows promise to become the preferred intubation device in conjunction with plastic sheet barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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Digital Mental Health Amid COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1047-1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040080 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1378
Definition
Digital Mental Health is information and communication technology used in mental health services delivered or boosted through the Internet and related technologies, smartphone and wearable technologies as well as immersive solutions (e.g., Virtual Reality and video games). It is predominantly used as self-help [...] Read more.
Digital Mental Health is information and communication technology used in mental health services delivered or boosted through the Internet and related technologies, smartphone and wearable technologies as well as immersive solutions (e.g., Virtual Reality and video games). It is predominantly used as self-help services or with the assistance of a (para-)professional and/or artificial intelligence for the provision of mental health promotion as well as mental ill-health identification, prevention and intervention. Full article
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COVID-19 and Romantic Relationships
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1038-1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040079 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1832
Definition
Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted most people’s activities and relationships. Romantic relationships are a crucial source of fulfillment and emotional safety for many individuals. However, due to the risk of illness and the social distancing norms, human interaction, [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted most people’s activities and relationships. Romantic relationships are a crucial source of fulfillment and emotional safety for many individuals. However, due to the risk of illness and the social distancing norms, human interaction, even inside one’s couple or family, suffered great changes. Some of these changes have the potential of disrupting people’s relational or psychological well-being, but they can also have positive impacts. On the other hand, one of the most negative consequences is the growing number of intimate partner violence (IPV) incidents. Considering all these aspects, therapy would be beneficial for those affected. Full article
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Nanotechnology-Enabled COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 773-780; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030059 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1435
Definition
COVID-19 mRNA vaccines contain synthetic mRNA sequences encoded for the Spike proteins expressed on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, and utilize the host cells to produce specific antigens that stimulate both humoral and cellular immunities. Lipid nanoparticles are essential to facilitate the intracellular delivery [...] Read more.
COVID-19 mRNA vaccines contain synthetic mRNA sequences encoded for the Spike proteins expressed on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, and utilize the host cells to produce specific antigens that stimulate both humoral and cellular immunities. Lipid nanoparticles are essential to facilitate the intracellular delivery of the mRNA to its action site, the ribosome, to fully exert its effect. Full article
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COVID-19: Evidenced Health Disparity
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 744-763; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030057 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1578
Definition
Health disparity is an unacceptable, unjust, or inequitable difference in health outcomes among different groups of people that affects access to optimal health care, as well as deterring it. Health disparity adversely affects disadvantaged subpopulations due to a higher incidence and prevalence of [...] Read more.
Health disparity is an unacceptable, unjust, or inequitable difference in health outcomes among different groups of people that affects access to optimal health care, as well as deterring it. Health disparity adversely affects disadvantaged subpopulations due to a higher incidence and prevalence of a particular disease or ill health. Existing health disparity determines whether a disease outbreak such as coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), will significantly impact a group or a region. Hence, health disparity assessment has become one of the focuses of many agencies, public health practitioners, and other social scientists. Successful elimination of health disparity at all levels requires pragmatic approaches through an intersectionality framework and robust data science. Full article
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Air Quality during Covid-19 Lockdown
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 519-526; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030043 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1163
Definition
Air pollution exposure is one of the greatest risks to health worldwide. It is estimated to be responsible for about 4.2 million deaths around the world every year owing to many serious diseases such as heart disease, stroke, acute and chronic respiratory diseases, [...] Read more.
Air pollution exposure is one of the greatest risks to health worldwide. It is estimated to be responsible for about 4.2 million deaths around the world every year owing to many serious diseases such as heart disease, stroke, acute and chronic respiratory diseases, and lung cancer. The WHO guideline limits are exceeded in several areas around the world, and it is estimated that about 90% of the world’s population is exposed to high air pollution levels, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments to implement severe mobility restriction measures to limit the spread of the virus. This represented a unique opportunity to study the impact of mobility on urban air quality. Several studies which have investigated the relations between the quality of the air and such containment measures have shown the significant reduction of the main pollutants in the urban environment so to encourage the adoption of new approaches for the improvement of the quality of air in the cities. The aims of this entry are both a brief analysis and a discussion of the results presented in several papers to understand the relationships between COVID-19 containment measures and air quality in urban areas. Full article
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COVID-19 and Dentistry
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 496-504; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020041 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 886
Definition
Dentistry is a healthcare profession requiring close contacts between the dental practitioner and the patient. In particular, many dental procedures generate aerosols and droplets which are proved to be the major transmission route for COVID-19. Full article
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Pandemic Prevention: Lessons from COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 433-444; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020036 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 2159
Definition
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which appeared in late 2019, generating a pandemic crisis with high numbers of COVID-19-related infected individuals and deaths in manifold countries worldwide. Lessons learned from COVID-19 can [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which appeared in late 2019, generating a pandemic crisis with high numbers of COVID-19-related infected individuals and deaths in manifold countries worldwide. Lessons learned from COVID-19 can be used to prevent pandemic threats by designing strategies to support different policy responses, not limited to the health system, directed to reduce the risks of the emergence of novel viral agents, the diffusion of infectious diseases and negative impact in society. Full article
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Self-Service Restaurants in SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 401-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020033 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2066
Definition
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the self-service restaurant sector, as well as other types of food services, are facing an unprecedented crisis needing to adapt their service to avoid closing their doors. With varied and quick meals, the self-service buffet is one of the [...] Read more.
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the self-service restaurant sector, as well as other types of food services, are facing an unprecedented crisis needing to adapt their service to avoid closing their doors. With varied and quick meals, the self-service buffet is one of the most important types of outside services. However, the type of service where the clients follow a line on the buffet and serve their meals has impaired traditional restaurant operation during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and, perhaps, after it. In this sense, this study presents an overview of the self-service buffet restaurant operational system in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Full article
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