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Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 17 articles

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Entry
Domestic Environmental Experience Design
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 505-518; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020042 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1245
Definition
The term ‘domestic environmental experience’ was defined as users’ experiences of cognitive perceptions and physical responses to their domestic built environments. Domestic environments can be enriched through the implementation of environmental experience design (EXD) by combining users’ environmental, spatial and contextual factors that [...] Read more.
The term ‘domestic environmental experience’ was defined as users’ experiences of cognitive perceptions and physical responses to their domestic built environments. Domestic environments can be enriched through the implementation of environmental experience design (EXD) by combining users’ environmental, spatial and contextual factors that may accommodate occupants’ needs and demands as well as their health and wellbeing. Here, an EXD theoretical concept has been developed based on the ‘User-Centred Design’ thematical framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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COVID-19 and Dentistry
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 496-504; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020041 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 854
Definition
Dentistry is a healthcare profession requiring close contacts between the dental practitioner and the patient. In particular, many dental procedures generate aerosols and droplets which are proved to be the major transmission route for COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
Entry
The Foundation of Classical Mechanics
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 482-495; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020040 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 605
Definition
Mechanics is the science of the equilibrium and motion of bodies subject to forces. The adjective classical, hence Classical Mechanics, was added in the 20th century to distinguish it from relativistic mechanics which studies motion with speed close to light speed and quantum [...] Read more.
Mechanics is the science of the equilibrium and motion of bodies subject to forces. The adjective classical, hence Classical Mechanics, was added in the 20th century to distinguish it from relativistic mechanics which studies motion with speed close to light speed and quantum mechanics which studies motion at a subatomic level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
Entry
SEM-PLS Approach to Green Building
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 472-481; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020039 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Definition
Green buildings refer to buildings that decrease adverse environmental effects and maintain natural resources. They can diminish energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, the usage of non-renewable materials, water consumption, and waste generation while improving occupants’ health and well-being. As such, several rating tools [...] Read more.
Green buildings refer to buildings that decrease adverse environmental effects and maintain natural resources. They can diminish energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, the usage of non-renewable materials, water consumption, and waste generation while improving occupants’ health and well-being. As such, several rating tools and benchmarks have been developed worldwide to assess green building performance (GBP), including the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) in the United Kingdom, German Sustainable Building Council (DGNB), Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) in the United States and Canada, Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE) in Japan, Green Star in Australia, Green Mark in Singapore, and Green Building Index in Malaysia. Energy management (EM) during building operation could also improve GBP. One of the best approaches to evaluating the impact of EM on GBP is by using structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM is a commanding statistical method to model testing. One of the most used SEM variance-based approaches is partial least squares (PLS), which can be implemented in the SmartPLS application. PLS-SEM uses path coefficients to determine the strength and significance of the hypothesised relationships between the latent constructs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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Vibration-Assisted Ball Burnishing
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 460-471; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020038 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 965
Definition
Vibration-Assisted Ball Burnishing is a finishing processed based on plastic deformation by means of a preloaded ball on a certain surface that rolls over it following a certain trajectory previously programmed while vibrating vertically. The dynamics of the process are based on the [...] Read more.
Vibration-Assisted Ball Burnishing is a finishing processed based on plastic deformation by means of a preloaded ball on a certain surface that rolls over it following a certain trajectory previously programmed while vibrating vertically. The dynamics of the process are based on the activation of the acoustoplastic effect on the material by means of the vibratory signal transmitted through the material lattice as a consequence of the mentioned oscillation of the ball. Materials processed by VABB show a modified surface in terms of topology distribution and scale, superior if compared to the results of the non-assisted process. Subgrain formation one of the main drivers that explain the change in hardness and residual stress resulting from the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Homocysteine Thiolactone: Biology and Chemistry
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 445-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020037 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1624
Definition
Homocysteine thiolactone is a five-membered cyclic thioester of amino acid homocysteine. It is generated from homocysteine as a result of an error-editing reaction, principally, of methionyl-tRNA synthetase. An elevated level of homocysteine thiolactone is associated with cardiovascular diseases, strokes, atherosclerosis, neurological abnormalities, etc., [...] Read more.
Homocysteine thiolactone is a five-membered cyclic thioester of amino acid homocysteine. It is generated from homocysteine as a result of an error-editing reaction, principally, of methionyl-tRNA synthetase. An elevated level of homocysteine thiolactone is associated with cardiovascular diseases, strokes, atherosclerosis, neurological abnormalities, etc., presumably because it reacts to the side chain of protein lysine causing protein damage and autoimmune responses. It is not only an important metabolite but also a versatile building block for organic and bioorganic synthesis. This entry contains data on the homocysteine thiolactone formation, metabolism, toxicity mechanism in vivo, and the bioorganic chemistry applications as a powerful synthetic tool in polymer science, sustainable materials development, and probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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Pandemic Prevention: Lessons from COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 433-444; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020036 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 1939
Definition
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which appeared in late 2019, generating a pandemic crisis with high numbers of COVID-19-related infected individuals and deaths in manifold countries worldwide. Lessons learned from COVID-19 can [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which appeared in late 2019, generating a pandemic crisis with high numbers of COVID-19-related infected individuals and deaths in manifold countries worldwide. Lessons learned from COVID-19 can be used to prevent pandemic threats by designing strategies to support different policy responses, not limited to the health system, directed to reduce the risks of the emergence of novel viral agents, the diffusion of infectious diseases and negative impact in society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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Pyramidal Systems in Resistance Training
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 423-432; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020035 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 1030
Definition
Pyramidal systems refer to a particular type of resistance training in which sets are performed with increasing (or decreasing) weight, in such a way that the number of repetitions is low when the weight is high (and vice versa). Multiple implementations exist such [...] Read more.
Pyramidal systems refer to a particular type of resistance training in which sets are performed with increasing (or decreasing) weight, in such a way that the number of repetitions is low when the weight is high (and vice versa). Multiple implementations exist such as the light-to-heavy, triangle or asymmetric triangle system. They are similar to traditional training, but with slightly different impact on training volume, endurance or power outcome. Therefore, pyramidal systems are ideal candidates for practitioners willing to tune their training routine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
Entry
Solar Chimney Applications in Buildings
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 409-422; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020034 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1984
Definition
A solar chimney is a renewable energy system used to enhance the natural ventilation in a building based on solar and wind energy. It is one of the most representative solar-assisted passive ventilation systems attached to the building envelope. It performs exceptionally in [...] Read more.
A solar chimney is a renewable energy system used to enhance the natural ventilation in a building based on solar and wind energy. It is one of the most representative solar-assisted passive ventilation systems attached to the building envelope. It performs exceptionally in enhancing natural ventilation and improving thermal comfort under certain climate conditions. The ventilation enhancement of solar chimneys has been widely studied numerically and experimentally. The assessment of solar chimney systems based on buoyancy ventilation relies heavily on the natural environment, experimental environment, and performance prediction methods, bringing great difficulties to quantitative analysis and parameterization research. With the increase in volume and complexity of modern building structures, current studies of solar chimneys have not yet obtained a unified design strategy and corresponding guidance. Meanwhile, combining a solar chimney with other passive ventilation systems has attracted much attention. The solar chimney-based integrated passive-assisted ventilation systems prolong the service life of an independent system and strengthen the ventilation ability for indoor cooling and heating. However, the progress is still slow regarding expanded applications and related research of solar chimneys in large volume and multi-layer buildings, and contradictory conclusions appear due to the inherent complexity of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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Self-Service Restaurants in SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 401-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020033 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1992
Definition
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the self-service restaurant sector, as well as other types of food services, are facing an unprecedented crisis needing to adapt their service to avoid closing their doors. With varied and quick meals, the self-service buffet is one of the [...] Read more.
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the self-service restaurant sector, as well as other types of food services, are facing an unprecedented crisis needing to adapt their service to avoid closing their doors. With varied and quick meals, the self-service buffet is one of the most important types of outside services. However, the type of service where the clients follow a line on the buffet and serve their meals has impaired traditional restaurant operation during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and, perhaps, after it. In this sense, this study presents an overview of the self-service buffet restaurant operational system in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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Porcelain Enamel Coatings
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 388-400; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020032 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1406
Definition
Porcelain enamel is an inorganic-type coating, which is applied to metals or glass for both decorative and functional purposes. This coating is a silica-based solidified glass mass obtained by high-temperature firing (temperature can range between 450 and 1200 °C depending on the substrate). [...] Read more.
Porcelain enamel is an inorganic-type coating, which is applied to metals or glass for both decorative and functional purposes. This coating is a silica-based solidified glass mass obtained by high-temperature firing (temperature can range between 450 and 1200 °C depending on the substrate). Porcelain enamel coatings differ from ceramic coatings mainly by their glass structure and dilatation coefficient, and from organic paints mainly by the inorganic nature of the matrix and the chemical bond that exists between the coating and the substrate. Full article
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Mediterranean Diet
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 371-387; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020031 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1538
Definition
The Mediterranean diet is a food pattern incorporated into a set of lifestyle practices typical of Greece and Southern Italy in the early 1960s, where adult life expectancy was notably high, while rates of diet-related chronic diseases were low. The Mediterranean diet was [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet is a food pattern incorporated into a set of lifestyle practices typical of Greece and Southern Italy in the early 1960s, where adult life expectancy was notably high, while rates of diet-related chronic diseases were low. The Mediterranean diet was described initially by the work of LG Allbaugh, commissioned by the Rockefeller foundation and the Greek government post-WW2 on the Greek island of Crete in 1948. The Mediterranean diet was accepted as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2013. The primary advantages of the Mediterranean diet include health benefits pertinent to cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, and cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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Active Edible Packaging
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 360-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020030 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1505
Definition
Active edible packaging is a food packaging made of comestible bioproducts and active compounds that interacts with the food. The bioproducts, usually biopolymers, must be recognized as safe and with characteristics to be consumed by humans—comestible—and not toxic and capable of carrying an [...] Read more.
Active edible packaging is a food packaging made of comestible bioproducts and active compounds that interacts with the food. The bioproducts, usually biopolymers, must be recognized as safe and with characteristics to be consumed by humans—comestible—and not toxic and capable of carrying an active compound, like anti-browning agents, colorants, flavors, nutrients, antimicrobial and/or antioxidant compounds, in order to extend the product shelf-life, reduce contamination and maintain or even enhance the nutritional value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences)
Entry
Biofunctional Peptide FNIII14: Therapeutic Potential
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 350-359; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020029 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 931
Definition
Biofunctional peptide FNIII14, which is derived from the 14th fibronectin (FN) type III-like (FN-III) repeat of FN molecule, is capable of inhibiting cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). This functional site is usually buried within the molecular structure of FN, but can [...] Read more.
Biofunctional peptide FNIII14, which is derived from the 14th fibronectin (FN) type III-like (FN-III) repeat of FN molecule, is capable of inhibiting cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). This functional site is usually buried within the molecular structure of FN, but can be exposed by conformational changes and proteolytic cleavage. Peptide FNIII14 can induce a conformational change in β1-integrin from the active to the inactive form, causing functional inactivation. Based on this anti-adhesive activity, peptide FNIII14 exhibits therapeutic potential for several diseases such as metabolic diseases, organ fibrosis, and malignant tumors. Peptide FNIII14 blocks integrin-mediated signaling by a mechanism entirely distinct from that of conventional antagonisitic peptides, including Arg-Gly-Asp peptides that competitively inhibit the ECM binding of integrin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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COVID-19 and Coronary Heart Disease
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 340-349; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020028 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1276
Definition
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of the main contributions of mortality and morbidity in CHD patients is acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which is the result of abrupt occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery due to a [...] Read more.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of the main contributions of mortality and morbidity in CHD patients is acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which is the result of abrupt occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery due to a sudden rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, causing myocardial ischemia. In the initial stage of myocardial ischemia, lack of oxygen and nutrient supply results in biochemical and metabolic changes within the myocardium. Depletion of oxygen switches the aerobic cellular metabolism to anaerobic metabolism and impairs the oxidative phosphorylation pathway eventually leading to cardiomyocyte death. Several studies suggest an interlink between COVID-19 and ischemic heart disease. An increased ACE2 receptor expression in the myocardium may partly contribute to the myocardial injuries that are observed in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, in conjunction with an aggravated inflammatory response which causes an up-regulation in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, patients with atherosclerosis are observed to be more prone to ischemic attacks when affected by COVID-19, due to hypercoagulation in the blood as well as elevated pro-inflammatory markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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Ionic Liquids in Drug Delivery
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 324-339; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020027 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1556
Definition
Ionic liquids (ILs) are molten salts composed of a large organic cation and an organic/inorganic anion. Due to their ionic character, most ILs present advantageous properties over conventional solvents, such as negligible volatility at atmospheric conditions and high thermal and chemical stabilities. The [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids (ILs) are molten salts composed of a large organic cation and an organic/inorganic anion. Due to their ionic character, most ILs present advantageous properties over conventional solvents, such as negligible volatility at atmospheric conditions and high thermal and chemical stabilities. The wide variety of IL anion–cation combinations allows these solvents to be designed to display a strong solvation ability for a myriad of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and (bio)polymers. Given these properties, ILs have been used as solvents and as formulation components in different areas of drug delivery, as well as novel liquid forms of APIs (API-ILs) applied in different stages of development of novel drug delivery systems. Furthermore, their combination with polymers and biopolymers has enabled the design of drug delivery systems for new therapeutic routes of administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Defensible Spaces
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 314-323; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020026 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 941
Definition
Defensible space is the concept of creating spaces that include a series of architectural guidelines that are used when designing a new urban residential area to promote both the territorial claim of the residential groups to their surroundings and their ability to conduct [...] Read more.
Defensible space is the concept of creating spaces that include a series of architectural guidelines that are used when designing a new urban residential area to promote both the territorial claim of the residential groups to their surroundings and their ability to conduct natural surveillance of their spaces. Constructing safe environments with safe vocabularies for enhancing well-being is crucial for achieving quality of life in both peace and wartime. Warzone countries that suffer from many changes due to the effect of war (or fourth-generation wars) should be prepared to face those changes with safe spaces as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Arts & Humanities)
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