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Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 5 articles

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Active Edible Packaging
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 360-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020030 - 13 Apr 2021
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Definition
Active edible packaging is a food packaging made of comestible bioproducts and active compounds that interacts with the food. The bioproducts, usually biopolymers, must be recognized as safe and with characteristics to be consumed by humans—comestible—and not toxic and capable of carrying an [...] Read more.
Active edible packaging is a food packaging made of comestible bioproducts and active compounds that interacts with the food. The bioproducts, usually biopolymers, must be recognized as safe and with characteristics to be consumed by humans—comestible—and not toxic and capable of carrying an active compound, like anti-browning agents, colorants, flavors, nutrients, antimicrobial and/or antioxidant compounds, in order to extend the product shelf-life, reduce contamination and maintain or even enhance the nutritional value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences)
Open AccessEntry
Biofunctional Peptide FNIII14: Therapeutic Potential
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 350-359; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020029 - 08 Apr 2021
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Definition
Biofunctional peptide FNIII14, which is derived from the 14th fibronectin (FN) type III-like (FN-III) repeat of FN molecule, is capable of inhibiting cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). This functional site is usually buried within the molecular structure of FN, but can [...] Read more.
Biofunctional peptide FNIII14, which is derived from the 14th fibronectin (FN) type III-like (FN-III) repeat of FN molecule, is capable of inhibiting cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). This functional site is usually buried within the molecular structure of FN, but can be exposed by conformational changes and proteolytic cleavage. Peptide FNIII14 can induce a conformational change in β1-integrin from the active to the inactive form, causing functional inactivation. Based on this anti-adhesive activity, peptide FNIII14 exhibits therapeutic potential for several diseases such as metabolic diseases, organ fibrosis, and malignant tumors. Peptide FNIII14 blocks integrin-mediated signaling by a mechanism entirely distinct from that of conventional antagonisitic peptides, including Arg-Gly-Asp peptides that competitively inhibit the ECM binding of integrin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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COVID-19 and Coronary Heart Disease
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 340-349; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020028 - 07 Apr 2021
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Definition
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of the main contributions of mortality and morbidity in CHD patients is acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which is the result of abrupt occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery due to a [...] Read more.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of the main contributions of mortality and morbidity in CHD patients is acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which is the result of abrupt occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery due to a sudden rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, causing myocardial ischemia. In the initial stage of myocardial ischemia, lack of oxygen and nutrient supply results in biochemical and metabolic changes within the myocardium. Depletion of oxygen switches the aerobic cellular metabolism to anaerobic metabolism and impairs the oxidative phosphorylation pathway eventually leading to cardiomyocyte death. Several studies suggest an interlink between COVID-19 and ischemic heart disease. An increased ACE2 receptor expression in the myocardium may partly contribute to the myocardial injuries that are observed in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, in conjunction with an aggravated inflammatory response which causes an up-regulation in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, patients with atherosclerosis are observed to be more prone to ischemic attacks when affected by COVID-19, due to hypercoagulation in the blood as well as elevated pro-inflammatory markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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Ionic Liquids in Drug Delivery
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 324-339; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020027 - 01 Apr 2021
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Definition
Ionic liquids (ILs) are molten salts composed of a large organic cation and an organic/inorganic anion. Due to their ionic character, most ILs present advantageous properties over conventional solvents, such as negligible volatility at atmospheric conditions and high thermal and chemical stabilities. The [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids (ILs) are molten salts composed of a large organic cation and an organic/inorganic anion. Due to their ionic character, most ILs present advantageous properties over conventional solvents, such as negligible volatility at atmospheric conditions and high thermal and chemical stabilities. The wide variety of IL anion–cation combinations allows these solvents to be designed to display a strong solvation ability for a myriad of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and (bio)polymers. Given these properties, ILs have been used as solvents and as formulation components in different areas of drug delivery, as well as novel liquid forms of APIs (API-ILs) applied in different stages of development of novel drug delivery systems. Furthermore, their combination with polymers and biopolymers has enabled the design of drug delivery systems for new therapeutic routes of administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Open AccessEntry
Defensible Spaces
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 314-323; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020026 - 30 Mar 2021
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Definition
Defensible space is the concept of creating spaces that include a series of architectural guidelines that are used when designing a new urban residential area to promote both the territorial claim of the residential groups to their surroundings and their ability to conduct [...] Read more.
Defensible space is the concept of creating spaces that include a series of architectural guidelines that are used when designing a new urban residential area to promote both the territorial claim of the residential groups to their surroundings and their ability to conduct natural surveillance of their spaces. Constructing safe environments with safe vocabularies for enhancing well-being is crucial for achieving quality of life in both peace and wartime. Warzone countries that suffer from many changes due to the effect of war (or fourth-generation wars) should be prepared to face those changes with safe spaces as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Arts & Humanities)
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