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Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 24 articles

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12 pages, 14086 KiB  
Entry
Greek Honey Authentication: Botanical Approach
by Marinos Xagoraris, Panagiota-Kyriaki Revelou, Eleftherios Alissandrakis, Petros A. Tarantilis and Christos S. Pappas
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1322-1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040099 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3592
Definition
Honey is a functional, honeybee product with a useful role in human nutrition and several health benefits. Greece is a Mediterranean region with several types of monofloral honey. Today, Greek honey has acquired an important position in national and international markets. Due to [...] Read more.
Honey is a functional, honeybee product with a useful role in human nutrition and several health benefits. Greece is a Mediterranean region with several types of monofloral honey. Today, Greek honey has acquired an important position in national and international markets. Due to this increased industrialization and globalization, quality control is a necessity. Mislabeling constitutes one of the most notable types of fraudulence, while most consumers are looking for authentic honey. Moreover, producers and suppliers are searching for rapid and analytical methodologies to secure Greek honey in a competitive environment. In this context, we aimed to describe the classical (melissopalynological, physicochemical) and analytical (chromatographic, spectrometric, and spectroscopic) methods for the standardization of the botanical origin of Greek honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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10 pages, 483 KiB  
Entry
Effects of High-Temperature Milk Processing
by Hilton C. Deeth
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1312-1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040098 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8012
Definition
In this entry, high temperature is defined as 90 to 150 °C. Many dairy processes, including extended shelf-life (ESL) and ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processing, in-container sterilization, yogurt milk heat treatment, pre-heating or forewarming milk for production of sterile concentrated milk and powders, manufacture of [...] Read more.
In this entry, high temperature is defined as 90 to 150 °C. Many dairy processes, including extended shelf-life (ESL) and ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processing, in-container sterilization, yogurt milk heat treatment, pre-heating or forewarming milk for production of sterile concentrated milk and powders, manufacture of co-precipitate and dolce de leche, involve heat treatments in this temperature range. Pasteurization is not included in this entry as it is generally performed at 72–75 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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9 pages, 2187 KiB  
Entry
Joanna I of Anjou (1343–1382)
by Paola Vitolo
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1303-1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040097 - 8 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2677
Definition
Joanna I of Anjou (1325–1382), countess of Provence and the fourth sovereign of the Angevin dynasty in south Italy (since 1343), became the heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Sicily, succeeding her grandfather King Robert “the Wise” (1277–1343). The public and [...] Read more.
Joanna I of Anjou (1325–1382), countess of Provence and the fourth sovereign of the Angevin dynasty in south Italy (since 1343), became the heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Sicily, succeeding her grandfather King Robert “the Wise” (1277–1343). The public and official images of the queen and the “symbolic” representations of her power, commissioned by her or by her entourage, contributed to create a new standard in the cultural references of the Angevin iconographic tradition aiming to assimilate models shared by the European ruling class. In particular, the following works of art and architecture will be analyzed: the queen’s portraits carved on the front slabs of royal sepulchers (namely those of her mother Mary of Valois and of Robert of Anjou) and on the liturgical furnishings in the church of Santa Chiara in Naples; the images painted in numerous illuminated manuscripts, in the chapter house of the friars in the Franciscan convent of Santa Chiara in Naples, in the lunette of the church in the Charterhouse of Capri. The church of the Incoronata in Naples does not show, at the present time, any portrait of the queen or explicit reference to Joanna as a patron. However, it is considered the highest symbolic image of her queenship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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36 pages, 8132 KiB  
Entry
Ecdysteroids
by René Lafont, Christine Balducci and Laurence Dinan
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1267-1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040096 (registering DOI) - 1 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 7282
Definition
Ecdysteroid: member of a class of polyhydroxylated steroids found in invertebrate animals (zooecdysteroids; moulting hormones), plants (phytoecdysteroids) and fungi (mycoecdysteroids). Over 500 structural analogues are currently known. Biosynthetically, they derive from C27-, C28- or C29-sterols. The most [...] Read more.
Ecdysteroid: member of a class of polyhydroxylated steroids found in invertebrate animals (zooecdysteroids; moulting hormones), plants (phytoecdysteroids) and fungi (mycoecdysteroids). Over 500 structural analogues are currently known. Biosynthetically, they derive from C27-, C28- or C29-sterols. The most frequently encountered analogue (in arthropods and plants) is 20-hydroxyecdysone (2β,3β,14α,20R,22R,25-hexahydroxycholest-7-en-6-one). In arthropods, ecdysteroids occur universally and regulate development by inducing moulting and reproduction, where their action is mediated by high-affinity binding to an intracellular member of the class of nuclear receptor (NR) proteins (ecdysteroid receptor; EcR) dimerised with a second NR (USP/RxR). This receptor complex binds to specific DNA promoter sites and regulates gene expression. In plants, ecdysteroids are a class of secondary compounds, occurring in varying amounts in certain species, but not all in others. Phytoecdysteroids are believed to contribute to the reduction of invertebrate predation by acting as feeding deterrents or endocrine disruptors. Ecdysteroids also possess a wide range of positive pharmacological effects in mammals, where the mode of action involves moderate-affinity binding to plasma-membrane-bound receptors and not interaction with the classical NRs for vertebrate steroid hormones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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10 pages, 433 KiB  
Entry
The Increase in Addiction during COVID-19
by Theodoros Daglis
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1257-1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040095 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7211
Definition
The increase in addiction during COVID-19 is a condition that emerged as an aftermath of COVID-19-related events, for instance, fear of the spread of COVID-19, self-abstention from many activities, and restrictions established by the lockdown measures. This condition includes substance addictions such as [...] Read more.
The increase in addiction during COVID-19 is a condition that emerged as an aftermath of COVID-19-related events, for instance, fear of the spread of COVID-19, self-abstention from many activities, and restrictions established by the lockdown measures. This condition includes substance addictions such as drugs and alcohol but also behavioral addictions such as gambling, gaming, pornography, and smartphone and internet misuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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11 pages, 1140 KiB  
Entry
Ionospheric Remote Sensing with GNSS
by YuXiang Peng and Wayne A. Scales
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1246-1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040094 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 4459
Definition
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a pivotal role in our modern positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) technologies. GNSS satellites fly at altitudes of approximately 20,000 km or higher. This altitude is above an ionized layer of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, the [...] Read more.
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a pivotal role in our modern positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) technologies. GNSS satellites fly at altitudes of approximately 20,000 km or higher. This altitude is above an ionized layer of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, the so called “ionosphere”. Before reaching a typical GNSS receiver on the ground, GNSS satellite signals penetrate through the Earth’s ionosphere. The ionosphere is a plasma medium consisting of free charged particles that can slow down, attenuate, refract, or scatter the GNSS signals. Ionospheric density structures (also known as irregularities) can cause GNSS signal scintillations (phase and intensity fluctuations). These ionospheric impacts on GNSS signals can be utilized to observe and study physical processes in the ionosphere and is referred to ionospheric remote sensing. This entry introduces some fundamentals of ionospheric remote sensing using GNSS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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23 pages, 1863 KiB  
Entry
Main Carotenoids Produced by Microorganisms
by Sonia Martínez-Cámara, Ana Ibañez, Sara Rubio, Carlos Barreiro and José-Luis Barredo
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1223-1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040093 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7894
Definition
Carotenoids are the pigments present in plants, animals, and microorganisms which are responsible for a broad variety of colors found in nature. Their capacity as antioxidants mainly established their marketable success as health, food, and feed supplements, and cosmetics components. Currently, chemical synthesis [...] Read more.
Carotenoids are the pigments present in plants, animals, and microorganisms which are responsible for a broad variety of colors found in nature. Their capacity as antioxidants mainly established their marketable success as health, food, and feed supplements, and cosmetics components. Currently, chemical synthesis dominates the worldwide market; however, due to the high biological value of natural carotenoids, the production scheme is moving towards microbial production as a profitable alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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8 pages, 1201 KiB  
Entry
James I of Aragon (1213–1276)
by Marta Serrano-Coll
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1215-1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040092 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 3733
Definition
James I, King of Aragon (1213–1276). He was the third king of the Crown of Aragon, which had come into existence through the union between Queen Petronila of Aragon (1157–1164) and the Count of Barcelona Ramon Berenguer IV (1137–1162). James I represents a [...] Read more.
James I, King of Aragon (1213–1276). He was the third king of the Crown of Aragon, which had come into existence through the union between Queen Petronila of Aragon (1157–1164) and the Count of Barcelona Ramon Berenguer IV (1137–1162). James I represents a milestone in the iconography of the Kings of Aragon, although this is due more to his successors’ promotion of him rather than to his own efforts. In order to organise and unify his dominions after the conquests of Mallorca and Valencia, he immersed himself in legal work that consolidated his legislative power whilst still allowing his territories to retain a certain degree of autonomy. He carried out an essential monetary reorganisation in which his coinage retained its obverse but altered its reverse according to the place of issue. He never succeeded in being crowned, although he featured the crown prominently in his stamps and seals and, on some coins, he added the term rex gratia Dei. In addition, he revived the sword as a royal insignia, having proclaimed the right of conquest as the basis of his sovereignty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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15 pages, 460 KiB  
Entry
Misinformation about COVID-19: Psychological Insights
by Elly Anastasiades, Marios Argyrides and Marilena Mousoulidou
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1200-1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040091 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4953
Definition
While the precise conceptualization of the term misinformation remains a subject of debate, the current entry defines misinformation as any type of information which is misleading or false, regardless of intent. The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the rapid and widespread sharing of misinformation [...] Read more.
While the precise conceptualization of the term misinformation remains a subject of debate, the current entry defines misinformation as any type of information which is misleading or false, regardless of intent. The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the rapid and widespread sharing of misinformation on a global scale, which has had detrimental effects on containment efforts and public health. This entry offers psychological insights to better our understanding of what makes people susceptible to believing and sharing misinformation and how this can inform interventions aimed at tackling the issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
8 pages, 496 KiB  
Entry
Interdisciplinary and Integrated STEM
by Premnadh Madhava Kurup, Yunying Yang, Xia Li and Yan Dong
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1192-1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040090 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5013
Definition
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is an approach and movement in innovative educational practices from the primary level internationally. This would provide a platform for an inquiry approach, creativity, and innovation in young children and formulate a path for changes in existing [...] Read more.
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is an approach and movement in innovative educational practices from the primary level internationally. This would provide a platform for an inquiry approach, creativity, and innovation in young children and formulate a path for changes in existing practices. The STEM approach is widely accepted as a key educational practice; however, it is dealt with as a combination of disciplines in actual teaching and learning practice. Coherence in this interdisciplinarity and integration has yet to be evolved as a practice in synthesising and designing instruction and could be harbinger for an effective design for future practice. Integrated and interdisciplinary STEM can only generate powerful knowledge to deal with issues that are affecting the planet and bring abiotic and biotic equilibrium. Interdisciplinary and integrated powerful knowledge (IIPK) can act as a roadmap for innovation that can bring changes in existing practices, produce informed citizens, build capacity for informed decisions, and generate sustainable living practices. Interdisciplinary and integrated STEM could lay foundations for IIPK and generate a mindset, approach, and practice. IIPK could lead to the formation of new paths for energy generation, transport, agricultural practices, medical treatment, and clean environment. Interdisciplinary and integrated STEM is not seen in actual practice anywhere nowadays. For coherence in curriculum, implications in instructions need reform and development by the governments across the world. That could lead to a new policy for interdisciplinary and integrated STEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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10 pages, 2823 KiB  
Entry
Ferdinand II of Aragon (1479–1516)
by Marta Serrano-Coll
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1182-1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040089 - 5 Nov 2021
Viewed by 5334
Definition
Ferdinand II king of Aragon (1479–1516). He was the fourth king of the Trastámara dynasty, which had first come to power after the Compromise of Caspe, reached after Martin I died with no living descendants in 1410. Although in terms of artistic patronage [...] Read more.
Ferdinand II king of Aragon (1479–1516). He was the fourth king of the Trastámara dynasty, which had first come to power after the Compromise of Caspe, reached after Martin I died with no living descendants in 1410. Although in terms of artistic patronage Ferdinand II was not as active as his wife Elisabeth I, he was still aware that the wise use of artistic commissions in reinforcing ideas and concepts favourable to the institution of the monarchy. He is a highly important figure in the history of Spain because, along with Elisabeth, he was one of the Catholic Monarchs and thus represents a new conception of power based on their joint governance, a fact that is reflected in the iconography found in his artistic commissions across all genres. All of the images are evidence of how King Ferdinand, at the end of the Middle Ages, wanted to be recognised by his subjects, who also used his image for legitimising and propagandistic purposes. Nobody else in the history of the Hispanic kingdoms had their image represented so many times and on such diverse occasions as did the Catholic Monarchs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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7 pages, 258 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 and Fake News
by Javier Bustos Díaz and Ruben Nicolas-Sans
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1175-1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040088 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3777
Definition
COVID-19 can be defined as a global pandemic caused by a coronavirus that first surfaced in 2019. Fake news refers to false reports that can be found in digital media. The combination of these two concepts creates an especially mismanaged situation that can [...] Read more.
COVID-19 can be defined as a global pandemic caused by a coronavirus that first surfaced in 2019. Fake news refers to false reports that can be found in digital media. The combination of these two concepts creates an especially mismanaged situation that can result in widespread unease among the population, to whom the news appears continuously and without quality filters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
9 pages, 3061 KiB  
Entry
Alphonse II of Aragon (1164–1196)
by Marta Serrano-Coll
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1166-1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040087 - 4 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2594
Definition
Alphonse II King of Aragon (1164–1196). He was the first king of the Crown of Aragon and son of the Queen Petronila of Aragon (1157–1164) and the count of Barcelona, Ramon Berenguer IV (1137–1162). Aware of the new political reality that he embodied [...] Read more.
Alphonse II King of Aragon (1164–1196). He was the first king of the Crown of Aragon and son of the Queen Petronila of Aragon (1157–1164) and the count of Barcelona, Ramon Berenguer IV (1137–1162). Aware of the new political reality that he embodied as King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona, Alphonse II made significant changes to his iconography. Among the most important of these is the binomial that he incorporated to his pendent seals; that is, a portrayal of Alphonse enthroned as king on the obverse and Alphonse as count and mounted on a horse on the reverse. As a known bibliophile and as a result of his desire to reorganise his chancellery following the union of various political entities, he ordered the compilation of the Liber Feudorum Maior, the folios of which demonstrate his potestas regia through their lavish iconography. He was no less innovative in his coinage, on which he included, for the first time, the image of his head wearing the crown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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11 pages, 2792 KiB  
Entry
Peter IV of Aragon (1336–1387)
by Marta Serrano-Coll
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1155-1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040086 - 2 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2745
Definition
Peter IV king of Aragón (1336–1387). He was the seventh king of the Crown of Aragon, and father of Juan I (1387–1396) and Martín I (1396–1410), the last members of the dynasty to take the throne. When Martín died, the Trastámara branch occupied [...] Read more.
Peter IV king of Aragón (1336–1387). He was the seventh king of the Crown of Aragon, and father of Juan I (1387–1396) and Martín I (1396–1410), the last members of the dynasty to take the throne. When Martín died, the Trastámara branch occupied the throne of the kingdom. Peter IV was dazzling in his ability to use art as a tool of authority and sovereignty. With the aim of exalting the dynasty, he patronised various enterprises, among the most important of which was the abbey of Santa Maria de Poblet, which he intended to be a burial place for himself and his successors, a wish that was fulfilled, without exception, down to Juan II, the predecessor of the Catholic Monarchs. A perfectionist and zealot, he endowed important religious events with profound political significance, and promoted works of great symbolism such as the genealogy of the new saló del tinell, or the ordinacions de la casa i cort, to which he added an appendix establishing how the kings of Aragon were to be crowned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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23 pages, 916 KiB  
Entry
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Agriculture
by Thomas I. Wilkes
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1132-1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040085 - 2 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 9582
Definition
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are biotrophic symbionts forming close relationships with an estimated 80% of terrestrial plants suitable as their host. Via an established AM fungal–host relationship, soil-bound nutrients are made available to the host plant through root cortical arbuscules as the site [...] Read more.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are biotrophic symbionts forming close relationships with an estimated 80% of terrestrial plants suitable as their host. Via an established AM fungal–host relationship, soil-bound nutrients are made available to the host plant through root cortical arbuscules as the site of exchange. At these sites, photosynthetic carbohydrates are provided to the AM fungus—carbohydrates that cannot be produced by the fungus. AM fungal–host symbiosis is very sensitive to soil disturbance, for example, agricultural tillage practices can damage and reduce AM fungal abilities to interact with a host and provide plant growth-promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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31 pages, 5615 KiB  
Entry
Natural Disasters—Origins, Impacts, Management
by Muhammad T. Chaudhary and Awais Piracha
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1101-1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040084 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 68919
Definition
Natural hazards are processes that serve as triggers for natural disasters. Natural hazards can be classified into six categories. Geophysical or geological hazards relate to movement in solid earth. Their examples include earthquakes and volcanic activity. Hydrological hazards relate to the movement of [...] Read more.
Natural hazards are processes that serve as triggers for natural disasters. Natural hazards can be classified into six categories. Geophysical or geological hazards relate to movement in solid earth. Their examples include earthquakes and volcanic activity. Hydrological hazards relate to the movement of water and include floods, landslides, and wave action. Meteorological hazards are storms, extreme temperatures, and fog. Climatological hazards are increasingly related to climate change and include droughts and wildfires. Biological hazards are caused by exposure to living organisms and/or their toxic substances. The COVID-19 virus is an example of a biological hazard. Extraterrestrial hazards are caused by asteroids, meteoroids, and comets as they pass near earth or strike earth. In addition to local damage, they can change earth inter planetary conditions that can affect the Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. This entry presents an overview of origins, impacts, and management of natural disasters. It describes processes that have potential to cause natural disasters. It outlines a brief history of impacts of natural hazards on the human built environment and the common techniques adopted for natural disaster preparedness. It also lays out challenges in dealing with disasters caused by natural hazards and points to new directions in warding off the adverse impact of such disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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17 pages, 3662 KiB  
Entry
Asexual Epichloë Fungi—Obligate Mutualists
by John R. Caradus, Stuart D. Card, Katrin G. Hewitt, David E. Hume and Linda J. Johnson
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1084-1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040083 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3224
Definition
Asexual Epichloë are obligate fungal mutualists that form symbiosis with many temperate grass species, providing several advantages to the host. These advantages include protection against vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores (i.e., grazing livestock and invertebrate pests, respectively), improved resistance to phytopathogens, increased adaptation to [...] Read more.
Asexual Epichloë are obligate fungal mutualists that form symbiosis with many temperate grass species, providing several advantages to the host. These advantages include protection against vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores (i.e., grazing livestock and invertebrate pests, respectively), improved resistance to phytopathogens, increased adaptation to drought stress, nutrient deficiency, and heavy metal-containing soils. Selected Epichloë strains are utilised in agriculture mainly for their pest resistance traits, which are moderated via the production of Epichloë-derived secondary metabolites. For pastoral agriculture, the use of these endophyte infected grasses requires the balancing of protection against insect pests with reduced impacts on animal health and welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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8 pages, 1514 KiB  
Entry
Silicon Micro-Strip Detectors
by Gregorio Landi and Giovanni E. Landi
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1076-1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040082 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3286
Definition
Silicon micro-strip detectors are fundamental tools for the high energy physics. Each detector is formed by a large set of parallel narrow strips of special surface treatments (diode junctions) on a slab of very high quality silicon crystals. Their development and use required [...] Read more.
Silicon micro-strip detectors are fundamental tools for the high energy physics. Each detector is formed by a large set of parallel narrow strips of special surface treatments (diode junctions) on a slab of very high quality silicon crystals. Their development and use required a large amount of work and research. A very synthetic view is given of these important components and of their applications. Some details are devoted to the basic subject of the track reconstruction in silicon strip trackers. Recent demonstrations substantially modified the usual understanding of this argument. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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18 pages, 6468 KiB  
Entry
Sheet Barrier and Intubating Stylet
by Phil B. Tsai and Hsiang-Ning Luk
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1058-1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040081 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3446
Definition
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2, can be transmitted through respiratory droplets and aerosols of droplet nuclei. Aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP) are needed to take care of critically ill patients but place health care providers at risk of infection. [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2, can be transmitted through respiratory droplets and aerosols of droplet nuclei. Aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP) are needed to take care of critically ill patients but place health care providers at risk of infection. With limited supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), barrier systems were developed to help protect health care providers during tracheal intubation. The video intubating stylet shows promise to become the preferred intubation device in conjunction with plastic sheet barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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11 pages, 279 KiB  
Entry
Digital Mental Health Amid COVID-19
by Luke Balcombe and Diego De Leo
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1047-1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040080 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4169
Definition
Digital Mental Health is information and communication technology used in mental health services delivered or boosted through the Internet and related technologies, smartphone and wearable technologies as well as immersive solutions (e.g., Virtual Reality and video games). It is predominantly used as self-help [...] Read more.
Digital Mental Health is information and communication technology used in mental health services delivered or boosted through the Internet and related technologies, smartphone and wearable technologies as well as immersive solutions (e.g., Virtual Reality and video games). It is predominantly used as self-help services or with the assistance of a (para-)professional and/or artificial intelligence for the provision of mental health promotion as well as mental ill-health identification, prevention and intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
9 pages, 279 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 and Romantic Relationships
by Octav-Sorin Candel and Mihaela Jitaru
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1038-1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040079 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6053
Definition
Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted most people’s activities and relationships. Romantic relationships are a crucial source of fulfillment and emotional safety for many individuals. However, due to the risk of illness and the social distancing norms, human interaction, [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted most people’s activities and relationships. Romantic relationships are a crucial source of fulfillment and emotional safety for many individuals. However, due to the risk of illness and the social distancing norms, human interaction, even inside one’s couple or family, suffered great changes. Some of these changes have the potential of disrupting people’s relational or psychological well-being, but they can also have positive impacts. On the other hand, one of the most negative consequences is the growing number of intimate partner violence (IPV) incidents. Considering all these aspects, therapy would be beneficial for those affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
12 pages, 788 KiB  
Entry
Inward FDI: Characterizations and Evaluation
by Aneta Bobenič Hintošová
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1026-1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040078 - 8 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7060
Definition
Foreign direct investment can be defined as an investment made by an entity (usually a company) incorporated in a home country in the business interests of a host country, in the form of either establishing new business operations or acquiring controlling interest in [...] Read more.
Foreign direct investment can be defined as an investment made by an entity (usually a company) incorporated in a home country in the business interests of a host country, in the form of either establishing new business operations or acquiring controlling interest in existing business assets. Foreign direct investment is expected to meet the following characteristics: (1) the capital movement is typically accompanied by further technological, material, information, financial or personnel flows; (2) the foreign direct investor effectively controls facilities abroad; and (3) the investor has a long-term interest in the host country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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16 pages, 7469 KiB  
Entry
Spatial Hurst–Kolmogorov Clustering
by Panayiotis Dimitriadis, Theano Iliopoulou, G.-Fivos Sargentis and Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1010-1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040077 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3089
Definition
The stochastic analysis in the scale domain (instead of the traditional lag or frequency domains) is introduced as a robust means to identify, model and simulate the Hurst–Kolmogorov (HK) dynamics, ranging from small (fractal) to large scales exhibiting the clustering behavior (else known [...] Read more.
The stochastic analysis in the scale domain (instead of the traditional lag or frequency domains) is introduced as a robust means to identify, model and simulate the Hurst–Kolmogorov (HK) dynamics, ranging from small (fractal) to large scales exhibiting the clustering behavior (else known as the Hurst phenomenon or long-range dependence). The HK clustering is an attribute of a multidimensional (1D, 2D, etc.) spatio-temporal stationary stochastic process with an arbitrary marginal distribution function, and a fractal behavior on small spatio-temporal scales of the dependence structure and a power-type on large scales, yielding a high probability of low- or high-magnitude events to group together in space and time. This behavior is preferably analyzed through the second-order statistics, and in the scale domain, by the stochastic metric of the climacogram, i.e., the variance of the averaged spatio-temporal process vs. spatio-temporal scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences)
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Green Building Rating Systems (GBRSs)
by Lia Marchi, Ernesto Antonini and Stefano Politi
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 998-1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040076 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 10752
Definition
Green Building Rating Systems (GBRSs) are typically third-party, voluntary, and market driven standards that measure buildings’ sustainability level by multi-criteria assessment, and encourage the adoption of environmentally, socially and economically sustainable practices in design, construction and operation of buildings (or neighborhoods). GBRSs aim [...] Read more.
Green Building Rating Systems (GBRSs) are typically third-party, voluntary, and market driven standards that measure buildings’ sustainability level by multi-criteria assessment, and encourage the adoption of environmentally, socially and economically sustainable practices in design, construction and operation of buildings (or neighborhoods). GBRSs aim at guiding and assessing the project throughout all its life cycle, thus limiting the negative impact on the environment, as well as on the building occupants’ health and well-being, and even reducing operational costs. Hundreds of GBRSs are now available worldwide, varying in approaches, application processes, and evaluation metrics. BREEAM, CASBEE, Green Star and LEED are among the most applied worldwide. Despite some differences, they all adhere to the same general evaluation structure: project performances ares measured using a set of relevant indicators, grouped per topics such as water management, energy use, materials, site qualities. Each assessed requirement is assigned a score/judgment, the total of which determines the level of sustainability achieved. In addition to regular updates, a current trend is to improve the effectiveness of protocols, making them more comprehensive and accurate, while keeping them easy to use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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