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Automation, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 3 articles

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Article
Colored 3D Path Extraction Based on Depth-RGB Sensor for Welding Robot Trajectory Generation
Automation 2021, 2(4), 252-265; https://doi.org/10.3390/automation2040016 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
The necessity for intelligent welding robots that meet the demand in real industrial production, according to the objectives of Industry 4.0, has been supported owing to the rapid development of computer vision and the use of new technologies. To improve the efficiency in [...] Read more.
The necessity for intelligent welding robots that meet the demand in real industrial production, according to the objectives of Industry 4.0, has been supported owing to the rapid development of computer vision and the use of new technologies. To improve the efficiency in weld location for industrial robots, this work focuses on trajectory extraction based on color features identification on three-dimensional surfaces acquired with a depth-RGB sensor. The system is planned to be used with a low-cost Intel RealSense D435 sensor for the reconstruction of 3D models based on stereo vision and the built-in color sensor to quickly identify the objective trajectory, since the parts to be welded are previously marked with different colors, indicating the locations of the welding trajectories to be followed. This work focuses on 3D color segmentation with which the points of the target trajectory are segmented by color thresholds in HSV color space and a spline cubic interpolation algorithm is implemented to obtain a smooth trajectory. Experimental results have shown that the RMSE error for V-type butt joint path extraction was under 1.1 mm and below 0.6 mm for a straight butt joint; in addition, the system seems to be suitable for welding beads of various shapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Networked Predictive Control for Complex Systems)
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Communication
Design and Implementation of a Robotic Arm Assistant with Voice Interaction Using Machine Vision
Automation 2021, 2(4), 238-251; https://doi.org/10.3390/automation2040015 - 31 Oct 2021
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Abstract
It is evident that the technological growth of the last few decades has signaled the development of several application domains. One application domain that has expanded massively in recent years is robotics. The usage and spread of robotic systems in commercial and non-commercial [...] Read more.
It is evident that the technological growth of the last few decades has signaled the development of several application domains. One application domain that has expanded massively in recent years is robotics. The usage and spread of robotic systems in commercial and non-commercial environments resulted in increased productivity, efficiency, and higher quality of life. Many researchers have developed systems that improve many aspects of people’s lives, based on robotics. Most of the engineers use high-cost robotic arms, which are usually out of the reach of typical consumers. We fill this gap by presenting a low-cost and high-accuracy project to be used as a robotic assistant for every consumer. Our project aims to further improve people’s quality of life, and more specifically people with physical and mobility impairments. The robotic system is based on the Niryo-One robotic arm, equipped with a USB (Universal Serial Bus) HD (High Definition) camera on the end-effector. To achieve high accuracy, we modified the YOLO algorithm by adding novel features and additional computations to be used in the kinematic model. We evaluated the proposed system by conducting experiments using PhD students of our laboratory and demonstrated its effectiveness. The experimental results indicate that the robotic arm can detect and deliver the requested object in a timely manner with a 96.66% accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Robotics for Automation)
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Article
A New Transformer-Less Structure for a Boost DC-DC Converter with Suitable Voltage Stress
Automation 2021, 2(4), 220-237; https://doi.org/10.3390/automation2040014 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
In this paper, a new structure is proposed for a boost dc–dc converter based on the voltage-lift (VL) technique. The main advantages of the proposed converter are its lack of transformer, simple structure, free and low input current ripple, high voltage gain capability [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new structure is proposed for a boost dc–dc converter based on the voltage-lift (VL) technique. The main advantages of the proposed converter are its lack of transformer, simple structure, free and low input current ripple, high voltage gain capability by using an input source, suitable voltage stress on semiconductors and lower output capacitance. Herein, the analysis of the proposed converter operating and its elements voltage and current relations in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) are presented, and the voltage gain of each operating mode is individually calculated. Additionally, the critical inductance, current stress of switches, calculation of passive components’ values and efficiency are analyzed. In addition, the proposed converter is compared with other studied boost converters in terms of ideal voltage gain in the CCM and the number of active and passive components, maximum voltage stress on semiconductors, and situation of input current ripples. The correctness of the theoretical concepts is examined from the experimental results using the laboratory prototype. Full article
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