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AI, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 18 articles

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17 pages, 3548 KiB  
Article
Monitoring of Iron Ore Quality through Ultra-Spectral Data and Machine Learning Methods
by Ana Cristina Pinto Silva, Keyla Thayrinne Zoppi Coimbra, Levi Wellington Rezende Filho, Gustavo Pessin and Rosa Elvira Correa-Pabón
AI 2022, 3(2), 554-570; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020032 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3889
Abstract
Currently, most mining companies conduct chemical analyses by X-ray fluorescence performed in the laboratory to evaluate the quality of Fe ore, where the focus is mainly on the Fe content and the presence of impurities. However, this type of analysis requires the investment [...] Read more.
Currently, most mining companies conduct chemical analyses by X-ray fluorescence performed in the laboratory to evaluate the quality of Fe ore, where the focus is mainly on the Fe content and the presence of impurities. However, this type of analysis requires the investment of time and money, and the results are often available only after the ore has already been sent by the processing plant. Reflectance spectroscopy is an alternative method that can significantly contribute to this type of application as it consists of a nondestructive analysis technique that does not require sample preparation, in addition to making the analyses available in more active ways. Among the challenges of working with reflectance spectroscopy is the large volume of data produced. However, one way to optimize this type of approach is to use machine learning techniques. Thus, the main objective of this study was the calibration and evaluation of models to analyze the quality of Fe from Sinter Feed collected from deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil. To achieve this goal, machine learning models were tested using spectral libraries and X-ray fluorescence data from Sinter Feed samples. The most efficient models for estimating Fe were the Adaboost and support vector machine and our results highlight the possibility of application in the samples without the need for preparation and optimization of the analysis time, providing results in a timely manner to contribute to decision-making in the production chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Intelligence in Remote Sensing)
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16 pages, 1643 KiB  
Article
Robust and Lightweight System for Gait-Based Gender Classification toward Viewing Angle Variations
by Jaychand Upadhyay and Tad Gonsalves
AI 2022, 3(2), 538-553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020031 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
In computer vision applications, gait-based gender classification is a challenging task as a person may walk at various angles with respect to the camera viewpoint. In some of the viewing angles, the person’s limb movement can be occluded from the camera, preventing the [...] Read more.
In computer vision applications, gait-based gender classification is a challenging task as a person may walk at various angles with respect to the camera viewpoint. In some of the viewing angles, the person’s limb movement can be occluded from the camera, preventing the perception of the gait-based features. To solve this problem, this study proposes a robust and lightweight system for gait-based gender classification. It uses a gait energy image (GEI) for representing the gait of an individual. A discrete cosine transform (DCT) is applied on GEI to generate a gait-based feature vector. Further, this DCT feature vector is applied to XGBoost classifier for performing gender classification. To improve the classification results, the XGBoost parameters are tuned. Finally, the results are compared with the other state-of-the-art approaches. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated on the OU-MVLP dataset. The experiment results show a mean CCR (correct classification rate) of 95.33% for the gender classification. The results obtained from various viewpoints of OU-MVLP illustrate the robustness of the proposed system for gait-based gender classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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12 pages, 441 KiB  
Article
Can Interpretable Reinforcement Learning Manage Prosperity Your Way?
by Charl Maree and Christian W. Omlin
AI 2022, 3(2), 526-537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020030 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
Personalisation of products and services is fast becoming the driver of success in banking and commerce. Machine learning holds the promise of gaining a deeper understanding of and tailoring to customers’ needs and preferences. Whereas traditional solutions to financial decision problems frequently rely [...] Read more.
Personalisation of products and services is fast becoming the driver of success in banking and commerce. Machine learning holds the promise of gaining a deeper understanding of and tailoring to customers’ needs and preferences. Whereas traditional solutions to financial decision problems frequently rely on model assumptions, reinforcement learning is able to exploit large amounts of data to improve customer modelling and decision-making in complex financial environments with fewer assumptions. Model explainability and interpretability present challenges from a regulatory perspective which demands transparency for acceptance; they also offer the opportunity for improved insight into and understanding of customers. Post-hoc approaches are typically used for explaining pretrained reinforcement learning models. Based on our previous modeling of customer spending behaviour, we adapt our recent reinforcement learning algorithm that intrinsically characterizes desirable behaviours and we transition to the problem of prosperity management. We train inherently interpretable reinforcement learning agents to give investment advice that is aligned with prototype financial personality traits which are combined to make a final recommendation. We observe that the trained agents’ advice adheres to their intended characteristics, they learn the value of compound growth, and, without any explicit reference, the notion of risk as well as improved policy convergence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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14 pages, 1148 KiB  
Article
Automatic Classification of Melanoma Skin Cancer with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
by Khalil Aljohani and Turki Turki
AI 2022, 3(2), 512-525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020029 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5876
Abstract
Melanoma skin cancer is one of the most dangerous types of skin cancer, which, if not diagnosed early, may lead to death. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is needed to detect melanoma. Traditionally, a dermatologist utilizes a microscope to inspect and then provide a [...] Read more.
Melanoma skin cancer is one of the most dangerous types of skin cancer, which, if not diagnosed early, may lead to death. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is needed to detect melanoma. Traditionally, a dermatologist utilizes a microscope to inspect and then provide a report on a biopsy for diagnosis; however, this diagnosis process is not easy and requires experience. Hence, there is a need to facilitate the diagnosis process while still yielding an accurate diagnosis. For this purpose, artificial intelligence techniques can assist the dermatologist in carrying out diagnosis. In this study, we considered the detection of melanoma through deep learning based on cutaneous image processing. For this purpose, we tested several convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures, including DenseNet201, MobileNetV2, ResNet50V2, ResNet152V2, Xception, VGG16, VGG19, and GoogleNet, and evaluated the associated deep learning models on graphical processing units (GPUs). A dataset consisting of 7146 images was processed using these models, and we compared the obtained results. The experimental results showed that GoogleNet can obtain the highest performance accuracy on both the training and test sets (74.91% and 76.08%, respectively). Full article
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19 pages, 2432 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Potential of Artificial Intelligence Approaches to Forecasting COVID-19 Spreading
by Mohammad Behdad Jamshidi, Sobhan Roshani, Jakub Talla, Ali Lalbakhsh, Zdeněk Peroutka, Saeed Roshani, Fariborz Parandin, Zahra Malek, Fatemeh Daneshfar, Hamid Reza Niazkar, Saeedeh Lotfi, Asal Sabet, Mojgan Dehghani, Farimah Hadjilooei, Maryam S. Sharifi-Atashgah and Pedram Lalbakhsh
AI 2022, 3(2), 493-511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020028 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4530
Abstract
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 can be considered one of the most complicated patterns with a large number of uncertainties and nonlinearities. Therefore, analysis and prediction of the distribution of this virus are one of the most challenging problems, affecting the planning and managing [...] Read more.
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 can be considered one of the most complicated patterns with a large number of uncertainties and nonlinearities. Therefore, analysis and prediction of the distribution of this virus are one of the most challenging problems, affecting the planning and managing of its impacts. Although different vaccines and drugs have been proved, produced, and distributed one after another, several new fast-spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants have been detected. This is why numerous techniques based on artificial intelligence (AI) have been recently designed or redeveloped to forecast these variants more effectively. The focus of such methods is on deep learning (DL) and machine learning (ML), and they can forecast nonlinear trends in epidemiological issues appropriately. This short review aims to summarize and evaluate the trustworthiness and performance of some important AI-empowered approaches used for the prediction of the spread of COVID-19. Sixty-five preprints, peer-reviewed papers, conference proceedings, and book chapters published in 2020 were reviewed. Our criteria to include or exclude references were the performance of these methods reported in the documents. The results revealed that although methods under discussion in this review have suitable potential to predict the spread of COVID-19, there are still weaknesses and drawbacks that fall in the domain of future research and scientific endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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28 pages, 1928 KiB  
Review
Cybernetic Hive Minds: A Review
by Anirban Chowdhury and Rithvik Ramadas
AI 2022, 3(2), 465-492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020027 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 18768
Abstract
Insect swarms and migratory birds are known to exhibit something known as a hive mind, collective consciousness, and herd mentality, among others. This has inspired a whole new stream of robotics known as swarm intelligence, where small-sized robots perform tasks in coordination. The [...] Read more.
Insect swarms and migratory birds are known to exhibit something known as a hive mind, collective consciousness, and herd mentality, among others. This has inspired a whole new stream of robotics known as swarm intelligence, where small-sized robots perform tasks in coordination. The social media and smartphone revolution have helped people collectively work together and organize in their day-to-day jobs or activism. This revolution has also led to the massive spread of disinformation amplified during the COVID-19 pandemic by alt-right Neo Nazi Cults like QAnon and their counterparts from across the globe, causing increases in the spread of infection and deaths. This paper presents the case for a theoretical cybernetic hive mind to explain how existing cults like QAnon weaponize group think and carry out crimes using social media-based alternate reality games. We also showcase a framework on how cybernetic hive minds have come into existence and how the hive mind might evolve in the future. We also discuss the implications of these hive minds for the future of free will and how different malfeasant entities have utilized these technologies to cause problems and inflict harm by various forms of cyber-crimes and predict how these crimes can evolve in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Standards and Ethics in AI)
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31 pages, 4280 KiB  
Article
Navigation Map-Based Artificial Intelligence
by Howard Schneider
AI 2022, 3(2), 434-464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020026 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5305
Abstract
A biologically inspired cognitive architecture is described which uses navigation maps (i.e., spatial locations of objects) as its main data elements. The navigation maps are also used to represent higher-level concepts as well as to direct operations to perform on other navigation maps. [...] Read more.
A biologically inspired cognitive architecture is described which uses navigation maps (i.e., spatial locations of objects) as its main data elements. The navigation maps are also used to represent higher-level concepts as well as to direct operations to perform on other navigation maps. Incoming sensory information is mapped to local sensory navigation maps which then are in turn matched with the closest multisensory maps, and then mapped onto a best-matched multisensory navigation map. Enhancements of the biologically inspired feedback pathways allow the intermediate results of operations performed on the best-matched multisensory navigation map to be fed back, temporarily stored, and re-processed in the next cognitive cycle. This allows the exploration and generation of cause-and-effect behavior. In the re-processing of these intermediate results, navigation maps can, by core analogical mechanisms, lead to other navigation maps which offer an improved solution to many routine problems the architecture is exposed to. Given that the architecture is brain-inspired, analogical processing may also form a key mechanism in the human brain, consistent with psychological evidence. Similarly, for conventional artificial intelligence systems, analogical processing as a core mechanism may possibly allow enhanced performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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18 pages, 1185 KiB  
Review
Hybrid Deep Learning Techniques for Predicting Complex Phenomena: A Review on COVID-19
by Mohammad (Behdad) Jamshidi, Sobhan Roshani, Fatemeh Daneshfar, Ali Lalbakhsh, Saeed Roshani, Fariborz Parandin, Zahra Malek, Jakub Talla, Zdeněk Peroutka, Alireza Jamshidi, Farimah Hadjilooei and Pedram Lalbakhsh
AI 2022, 3(2), 416-433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020025 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4707
Abstract
Complex phenomena have some common characteristics, such as nonlinearity, complexity, and uncertainty. In these phenomena, components typically interact with each other and a part of the system may affect other parts or vice versa. Accordingly, the human brain, the Earth’s global climate, the [...] Read more.
Complex phenomena have some common characteristics, such as nonlinearity, complexity, and uncertainty. In these phenomena, components typically interact with each other and a part of the system may affect other parts or vice versa. Accordingly, the human brain, the Earth’s global climate, the spreading of viruses, the economic organizations, and some engineering systems such as the transportation systems and power grids can be categorized into these phenomena. Since both analytical approaches and AI methods have some specific characteristics in solving complex problems, a combination of these techniques can lead to new hybrid methods with considerable performance. This is why several types of research have recently been conducted to benefit from these combinations to predict the spreading of COVID-19 and its dynamic behavior. In this review, 80 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, conference proceedings, and preprints with a focus on employing hybrid methods for forecasting the spreading of COVID-19 published in 2020 have been aggregated and reviewed. These documents have been extracted from Google Scholar and many of them have been indexed on the Web of Science. Since there were many publications on this topic, the most relevant and effective techniques, including statistical models and deep learning (DL) or machine learning (ML) approach, have been surveyed in this research. The main aim of this research is to describe, summarize, and categorize these effective techniques considering their restrictions to be used as trustable references for scientists, researchers, and readers to make an intelligent choice to use the best possible method for their academic needs. Nevertheless, considering the fact that many of these techniques have been used for the first time and need more evaluations, we recommend none of them as an ideal way to be used in their project. Our study has shown that these methods can hold the robustness and reliability of statistical methods and the power of computation of DL ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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26 pages, 1240 KiB  
Article
A Particle Swarm Optimization Backtracking Technique Inspired by Science-Fiction Time Travel
by Bob Fedor and Jeremy Straub
AI 2022, 3(2), 390-415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020024 - 1 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2802
Abstract
Artificial intelligence techniques, such as particle swarm optimization, are used to solve problems throughout society. Optimization, in particular, seeks to identify the best possible decision within a search space. Problematically, particle swarm optimization will sometimes have particles that become trapped inside local minima, [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence techniques, such as particle swarm optimization, are used to solve problems throughout society. Optimization, in particular, seeks to identify the best possible decision within a search space. Problematically, particle swarm optimization will sometimes have particles that become trapped inside local minima, preventing them from identifying a global optimal solution. As a solution to this issue, this paper proposes a science-fiction inspired enhancement of particle swarm optimization where an impactful iteration is identified and the algorithm is rerun from this point, with a change made to the swarm. The proposed technique is tested using multiple variations on several different functions representing optimization problems and several standard test functions used to test various particle swarm optimization techniques. Full article
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19 pages, 3902 KiB  
Article
Distributed Big Data Analytics Method for the Early Prediction of the Neonatal 5-Minute Apgar Score before or during Birth and Ranking the Risk Factors from a National Dataset
by Toktam Khatibi, Ali Farahani, Mohammad Mehdi Sepehri and Mohammad Heidarzadeh
AI 2022, 3(2), 371-389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020023 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2835
Abstract
One-minute and five-minute Apgar scores are good measures to assess the health status of newborns. A five-minute Apgar score can predict the risk of some disorders such as asphyxia, encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and ADHD. The early prediction of Apgar score before or during [...] Read more.
One-minute and five-minute Apgar scores are good measures to assess the health status of newborns. A five-minute Apgar score can predict the risk of some disorders such as asphyxia, encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and ADHD. The early prediction of Apgar score before or during birth and ranking the risk factors can be helpful to manage and reduce the probability of birth producing low Apgar scores. Therefore, the main aim of this study is the early prediction of the neonate 5-min Apgar score before or during birth and ranking the risk factors for a big national dataset using big data analytics methods. In this study, a big dataset including 60 features describing birth cases registered in Iranian maternal and neonatal (IMAN) registry from 1 April 2016 to 1 January 2017 is collected. A distributed big data analytics method for the early prediction of neonate Apgar score and a distributed big data feature ranking method for ranking the predictors of neonate Apgar score are proposed in this study. The main aim of this study is to provide the ability to predict birth cases with low Apgar scores by analyzing the features that describe prenatal properties before or during birth. The top 14 features were identified in this study and used for training the classifiers. Our proposed stack ensemble outperforms the compared classifiers with an accuracy of 99.37 ± 1.06, precision of 99.37 ± 1.06, recall of 99.50 ± 0.61 and F-score of 99.41 ± 0.70 (for confidence interval of 95%) to predict low, moderate and high 5-min Apgar scores. Among the top predictors, fetal height around the baby’s head and fetal weight denote fetal growth status. Fetal growth restrictions can lead to low or moderate 5-min Apgar score. Moreover, hospital type and medical science university are healthcare system-related factors that can be managed via improving the quality of healthcare services all over the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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18 pages, 1232 KiB  
Article
The Form in Formal Thought Disorder: A Model of Dyssyntax in Semantic Networking
by Farshad Badie and Luis M. Augusto
AI 2022, 3(2), 353-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020022 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4055
Abstract
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a clinical mental condition that is typically diagnosable by the speech productions of patients. However, this has been a vexing condition for the clinical community, as it is not at all easy to determine what “formal” means in [...] Read more.
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a clinical mental condition that is typically diagnosable by the speech productions of patients. However, this has been a vexing condition for the clinical community, as it is not at all easy to determine what “formal” means in the plethora of symptoms exhibited. We present a logic-based model for the syntax–semantics interface in semantic networking that can not only explain, but also diagnose, FTD. Our model is based on description logic (DL), which is well known for its adequacy to model terminological knowledge. More specifically, we show how faulty logical form as defined in DL-based Conception Language (CL) impacts the semantic content of linguistic productions that are characteristic of FTD. We accordingly call this the dyssyntax model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conceptualization and Semantic Knowledge)
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22 pages, 780 KiB  
Article
Shifting Perspectives on AI Evaluation: The Increasing Role of Ethics in Cooperation
by Enrico Barbierato and Maria Enrica Zamponi
AI 2022, 3(2), 331-352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020021 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5787
Abstract
Evaluating AI is a challenging task, as it requires an operative definition of intelligence and the metrics to quantify it, including amongst other factors economic drivers, depending on specific domains. From the viewpoint of AI basic research, the ability to play a game [...] Read more.
Evaluating AI is a challenging task, as it requires an operative definition of intelligence and the metrics to quantify it, including amongst other factors economic drivers, depending on specific domains. From the viewpoint of AI basic research, the ability to play a game against a human has historically been adopted as a criterion of evaluation, as competition can be characterized by an algorithmic approach. Starting from the end of the 1990s, the deployment of sophisticated hardware identified a significant improvement in the ability of a machine to play and win popular games. In spite of the spectacular victory of IBM’s Deep Blue over Garry Kasparov, many objections still remain. This is due to the fact that it is not clear how this result can be applied to solve real-world problems or simulate human abilities, e.g., common sense, and also exhibit a form of generalized AI. An evaluation based uniquely on the capacity of playing games, even when enriched by the capability of learning complex rules without any human supervision, is bound to be unsatisfactory. As the internet has dramatically changed the cultural habits and social interaction of users, who continuously exchange information with intelligent agents, it is quite natural to consider cooperation as the next step in AI software evaluation. Although this concept has already been explored in the scientific literature in the fields of economics and mathematics, its consideration in AI is relatively recent and generally covers the study of cooperation between agents. This paper focuses on more complex problems involving heterogeneity (specifically, the cooperation between humans and software agents, or even robots), which are investigated by taking into account ethical issues occurring during attempts to achieve a common goal shared by both parties, with a possible result of either conflict or stalemate. The contribution of this research consists in identifying those factors (trust, autonomy, and cooperative learning) on which to base ethical guidelines in agent software programming, making cooperation a more suitable benchmark for AI applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Standards and Ethics in AI)
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13 pages, 4190 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Deep Neural Network Model for Coherent X-ray Imaging
by Jong Woo Kim, Marc Messerschmidt and William S. Graves
AI 2022, 3(2), 318-330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020020 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4786
Abstract
We present a supervised deep neural network model for phase retrieval of coherent X-ray imaging and evaluate the performance. A supervised deep-learning-based approach requires a large amount of pre-training datasets. In most proposed models, the various experimental uncertainties are not considered when the [...] Read more.
We present a supervised deep neural network model for phase retrieval of coherent X-ray imaging and evaluate the performance. A supervised deep-learning-based approach requires a large amount of pre-training datasets. In most proposed models, the various experimental uncertainties are not considered when the input dataset, corresponding to the diffraction image in reciprocal space, is generated. We explore the performance of the deep neural network model, which is trained with an ideal quality of dataset, when it faces real-like corrupted diffraction images. We focus on three aspects of data qualities such as a detection dynamic range, a degree of coherence and noise level. The investigation shows that the deep neural network model is robust to a limited dynamic range and partially coherent X-ray illumination in comparison to the traditional phase retrieval, although it is more sensitive to the noise than the iteration-based method. This study suggests a baseline capability of the supervised deep neural network model for coherent X-ray imaging in preparation for the deployment to the laboratory where diffraction images are acquired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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15 pages, 5239 KiB  
Article
Detection in Adverse Weather Conditions for Autonomous Vehicles via Deep Learning
by Qasem Abu Al-Haija, Manaf Gharaibeh and Ammar Odeh
AI 2022, 3(2), 303-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020019 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 10516
Abstract
Weather detection systems (WDS) have an indispensable role in supporting the decisions of autonomous vehicles, especially in severe and adverse circumstances. With deep learning techniques, autonomous vehicles can effectively identify outdoor weather conditions and thus make appropriate decisions to easily adapt to new [...] Read more.
Weather detection systems (WDS) have an indispensable role in supporting the decisions of autonomous vehicles, especially in severe and adverse circumstances. With deep learning techniques, autonomous vehicles can effectively identify outdoor weather conditions and thus make appropriate decisions to easily adapt to new conditions and environments. This paper proposes a deep learning (DL)-based detection framework to categorize weather conditions for autonomous vehicles in adverse or normal situations. The proposed framework leverages the power of transfer learning techniques along with the powerful Nvidia GPU to characterize the performance of three deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs): SqueezeNet, ResNet-50, and EfficientNet. The developed models have been evaluated on two up-to-date weather imaging datasets, namely, DAWN2020 and MCWRD2018. The combined dataset has been used to provide six weather classes: cloudy, rainy, snowy, sandy, shine, and sunrise. Experimentally, all models demonstrated superior classification capacity, with the best experimental performance metrics recorded for the weather-detection-based ResNet-50 CNN model scoring 98.48%, 98.51%, and 98.41% for detection accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. In addition to this, a short detection time has been noted for the weather-detection-based ResNet-50 CNN model, involving an average of 5 (ms) for the time-per-inference step using the GPU component. Finally, comparison with other related state-of-art models showed the superiority of our model which improved the classification accuracy for the six weather conditions classifiers by a factor of 0.5–21%. Consequently, the proposed framework can be effectively implemented in real-time environments to provide decisions on demand for autonomous vehicles with quick, precise detection capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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18 pages, 4389 KiB  
Article
A Technology Acceptance Model Survey of the Metaverse Prospects
by AlsharifHasan Mohamad Aburbeian, Amani Yousef Owda and Majdi Owda
AI 2022, 3(2), 285-302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020018 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 25884
Abstract
The technology acceptance model is a widely used model to investigate whether users will accept or refuse a new technology. The Metaverse is a 3D world based on virtual reality simulation to express real life. It can be considered the next generation of [...] Read more.
The technology acceptance model is a widely used model to investigate whether users will accept or refuse a new technology. The Metaverse is a 3D world based on virtual reality simulation to express real life. It can be considered the next generation of using the internet. In this paper, we are going to investigate variables that may affect users’ acceptance of Metaverse technology and the relationships between those variables by applying the extended technology acceptance model to investigate many factors (namely self-efficiency, social norm, perceived curiosity, perceived pleasure, and price). The goal of understanding these factors is to know how Metaverse developers might enhance this technology to meet users’ expectations and let the users interact with this technology better. To this end, a sample of 302 educated participants of different ages was chosen to answer an online Likert scale survey ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The study found that, first, self-efficiency, perceived curiosity, and perceived pleasure positively influence perceived ease of use. Secondly, social norms, perceived pleasure, and perceived ease of use positively influences perceived usefulness. Third, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness positively influence attitude towards Metaverse technology use, which overall will influence behavioral intention. Fourth, the relationship between price and behavioral intention was significant and negative. Finally, the study found that participants with an age of less than 20 years were the most positively accepting of Metaverse technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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11 pages, 3511 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Partially Coherent Diffractive Images Using Generative Adversarial Network
by Jong Woo Kim, Marc Messerschmidt and William S. Graves
AI 2022, 3(2), 274-284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020017 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2768
Abstract
We present a deep learning-based generative model for the enhancement of partially coherent diffractive images. In lensless coherent diffractive imaging, a highly coherent X-ray illumination is required to image an object at high resolution. Non-ideal experimental conditions result in a partially coherent X-ray [...] Read more.
We present a deep learning-based generative model for the enhancement of partially coherent diffractive images. In lensless coherent diffractive imaging, a highly coherent X-ray illumination is required to image an object at high resolution. Non-ideal experimental conditions result in a partially coherent X-ray illumination, lead to imperfections of coherent diffractive images recorded on a detector, and ultimately limit the capability of lensless coherent diffractive imaging. The previous approaches, relying on the coherence property of illumination, require preliminary experiments or expensive computations. In this article, we propose a generative adversarial network (GAN) model to enhance the visibility of fringes in partially coherent diffractive images. Unlike previous approaches, the model is trained to restore the latent sharp features from blurred input images without finding coherence properties of illumination. We demonstrate that the GAN model performs well with both coherent diffractive imaging and ptychography. It can be applied to a wide range of imaging techniques relying on phase retrieval of coherent diffraction patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for AI)
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14 pages, 2651 KiB  
Article
Distinguishing Malicious Drones Using Vision Transformer
by Sonain Jamil, Muhammad Sohail Abbas and Arunabha M. Roy
AI 2022, 3(2), 260-273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020016 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4434
Abstract
Drones are commonly used in numerous applications, such as surveillance, navigation, spraying pesticides in autonomous agricultural systems, various military services, etc., due to their variable sizes and workloads. However, malicious drones that carry harmful objects are often adversely used to intrude restricted areas [...] Read more.
Drones are commonly used in numerous applications, such as surveillance, navigation, spraying pesticides in autonomous agricultural systems, various military services, etc., due to their variable sizes and workloads. However, malicious drones that carry harmful objects are often adversely used to intrude restricted areas and attack critical public places. Thus, the timely detection of malicious drones can prevent potential harm. This article proposes a vision transformer (ViT) based framework to distinguish between drones and malicious drones. In the proposed ViT based model, drone images are split into fixed-size patches; then, linearly embeddings and position embeddings are applied, and the resulting sequence of vectors is finally fed to a standard ViT encoder. During classification, an additional learnable classification token associated to the sequence is used. The proposed framework is compared with several handcrafted and deep convolutional neural networks (D-CNN), which reveal that the proposed model has achieved an accuracy of 98.3%, outperforming various handcrafted and D-CNNs models. Additionally, the superiority of the proposed model is illustrated by comparing it with the existing state-of-the-art drone-detection methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends of Deep Learning in AI: Challenges and Methodologies)
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10 pages, 348 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement Learning Your Way: Agent Characterization through Policy Regularization
by Charl Maree and Christian Omlin
AI 2022, 3(2), 250-259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai3020015 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2965
Abstract
The increased complexity of state-of-the-art reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms has resulted in an opacity that inhibits explainability and understanding. This has led to the development of several post hoc explainability methods that aim to extract information from learned policies, thus aiding explainability. These [...] Read more.
The increased complexity of state-of-the-art reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms has resulted in an opacity that inhibits explainability and understanding. This has led to the development of several post hoc explainability methods that aim to extract information from learned policies, thus aiding explainability. These methods rely on empirical observations of the policy, and thus aim to generalize a characterization of agents’ behaviour. In this study, we have instead developed a method to imbue agents’ policies with a characteristic behaviour through regularization of their objective functions. Our method guides the agents’ behaviour during learning, which results in an intrinsic characterization; it connects the learning process with model explanation. We provide a formal argument and empirical evidence for the viability of our method. In future work, we intend to employ it to develop agents that optimize individual financial customers’ investment portfolios based on their spending personalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section AI Systems: Theory and Applications)
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