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Clocks & Sleep, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Circadian Entrainment in Mice and Its Utility under Human Shiftwork Schedules
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(3), 394-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1030032 - 26 Aug 2019
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The circadian system is generally considered to be incapable of adjusting to rapid changes in sleep/work demands. In shiftworkers this leads to chronic circadian disruption and sleep loss, which together predict underperformance at work and negative health consequences. Two distinct experimental protocols have [...] Read more.
The circadian system is generally considered to be incapable of adjusting to rapid changes in sleep/work demands. In shiftworkers this leads to chronic circadian disruption and sleep loss, which together predict underperformance at work and negative health consequences. Two distinct experimental protocols have been proposed to increase circadian flexibility in rodents using dim light at night: rhythm bifurcation and T-cycle (i.e., day length) entrainment. Successful translation of such protocols to human shiftworkers could facilitate alignment of internal time with external demands. To assess entrainment flexibility following bifurcation and exposure to T-cycles, mice in Study 1 were repeatedly phase-shifted. Mice from experimental conditions rapidly phase-shifted their activity, while control mice showed expected transient misalignment. In Study 2 and 3, mice followed a several weeks-long intervention designed to model a modified DuPont or Continental shiftwork schedule, respectively. For both schedules, bifurcation and nocturnal dim lighting reduced circadian misalignment. Together, these studies demonstrate proof of concept that mammalian circadian systems can be rendered sufficiently flexible to adapt to multiple, rapidly changing shiftwork schedules. Flexible adaptation to exotic light-dark cycles likely relies on entrainment mechanisms that are distinct from traditional entrainment. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
A Pilot Study on Circadian Activity Rhythm in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(3), 385-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1030031 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 365
Abstract
A recent study has applied a novel statistical framework (functional linear modeling: FLM) to the study of circadian activity rhythm (CAR) in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), pointing out the absence of the physiological post-lunch dip. The aim of the present study was [...] Read more.
A recent study has applied a novel statistical framework (functional linear modeling: FLM) to the study of circadian activity rhythm (CAR) in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), pointing out the absence of the physiological post-lunch dip. The aim of the present study was to apply FLM to explore the features of CAR in pediatric ADHD. To this end, a secondary analysis of previously collected data was carried out. Twenty-four ADHD children (four females, mean age 8.67 ± 1.74) and 107 controls (C, 60 females, mean age 10.25 ± 0.48) were examined. The actigraph model Actiwatch AW64 was used to objectively monitor sleep/wake behavior and CAR. In the original study each participant wore the actigraph on the non-dominant wrist for one week. FLM was applied to examine the differences between groups in CAR. Compared with C, the CAR of ADHD children was distinguished by a higher motor activity during the whole of the daytime and within a reduced time window during the nighttime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Napping Behaviors and Extracurricular Club Activities in Japanese High School Students: Associations with Daytime Sleep Problems
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(3), 367-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1030030 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Although engaging in evening naps and extracurricular activities are popular among Japanese high school students, the associations between these behaviors and daytime sleep problems were unclear. A questionnaire on daily life and sleeping habits was administered to 1314 high school students, aged between [...] Read more.
Although engaging in evening naps and extracurricular activities are popular among Japanese high school students, the associations between these behaviors and daytime sleep problems were unclear. A questionnaire on daily life and sleeping habits was administered to 1314 high school students, aged between 15–17 years. The respondents were categorized by their after-school napping habits (did not nap, napped 1–2 days/week, napped ≥3 days/week), and their extracurricular activities (no activity, cultural club, athletic club). The mean nocturnal sleep duration on weekdays (± standard deviation (SD)) was 390 ± 56 min. This was significantly shorter in those students with a higher number of days/week spent napping (p < 0.001), and slightly longer for those in the athletic club (p < 0.001). Sleep problems—including subjective insufficient sleep, excessive sleepiness during class ≥3 days/week, and falling asleep during class ≥3 days/week—were reported by 64%, 55%, and 33% of respondents, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed significantly higher risks for excessive sleepiness among students taking naps ≥3 days/week, and who belonged to athletic clubs. In addition to those factors, students in cultural clubs revealed significantly higher risks for falling asleep during classes. Future studies are required to decrease daytime sleep problems associated with evening naps and extracurricular activities among high school students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Society)
Open AccessArticle
Chronotype-Dependent Changes in Sleep Habits Associated with Dim Light Melatonin Onset in the Antarctic Summer
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(3), 352-366; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1030029 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is the most reliable measure of human central circadian timing. Its modulation by light exposure and chronotype has been scarcely approached. We evaluated the impact of light changes on the interaction between melatonin, sleep, and chronotype in university [...] Read more.
Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is the most reliable measure of human central circadian timing. Its modulation by light exposure and chronotype has been scarcely approached. We evaluated the impact of light changes on the interaction between melatonin, sleep, and chronotype in university students (n = 12) between the Antarctic summer (10 days) and the autumn equinox in Montevideo, Uruguay (10 days). Circadian preferences were tested by validated questionnaires. A Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire average value (47 ± 8.01) was used to separate late and early participants. Daylight exposure (measured by actimetry) was significantly higher in Antarctica versus Montevideo in both sensitive time windows (the morning phase-advancing and the evening phase-delaying). Melatonin was measured in hourly saliva samples (18–24 h) collected in dim light conditions (<30 lx) during the last night of each study period. Early and late participants were exposed to similar amounts of light in both sites and time windows, but only early participants were significantly more exposed during the late evening in Antarctica. Late participants advanced their DLMO with no changes in sleep onset time in Antarctica, while early participants delayed their DLMO and sleep onset time. This different susceptibility to respond to light may be explained by a subtle difference in evening light exposure between chronotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Zeitgebers (Light))
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Sleep and Age on Prospective Memory Consolidation: A Walk in a Virtual Museum
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(3), 332-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1030028 - 17 Jul 2019
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Prospective memory (PM) refers to our ability to perform actions at the appropriate moment, either when a predetermined event occurs (event-based, EB) or after a predetermined amount of time (time-based, TB). Sleep favors the consolidation of both EB and TB intentions, but whether [...] Read more.
Prospective memory (PM) refers to our ability to perform actions at the appropriate moment, either when a predetermined event occurs (event-based, EB) or after a predetermined amount of time (time-based, TB). Sleep favors the consolidation of both EB and TB intentions, but whether this benefit is preserved during ageing is still subject to debate. PM was assessed in 28 young and 27 older healthy volunteers using a virtual environment. Participants had to learn and execute intentions after intervals filled with either daytime wakefulness or nighttime sleep. Intentions consisted of four TB, four EB with a strong link between the cue triggering retrieval and the action to be performed (EB-link) and four with no link (EB-nolink). PM was not affected by age, whatever the type of intention and the nature of the retention interval. While sleep reinforced all types of intentions in young participants, this benefit was only observed for TB and EB-link intentions in older adults. Sleep also reinforced the intrinsic PM components in both groups. Thus, when assessed using complex realistic situations, PM is not impaired in ageing. Results are discussed in the light of memory schema theory and the possible impact of cognitive reserve on sleep and memory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep in Human Basic Research)
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Open AccessReview
How Does Light Regulate Mood and Behavioral State?
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(3), 319-331; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1030027 - 12 Jul 2019
Viewed by 577
Abstract
The idea that light affects mood and behavioral state is not new. However, not much is known about the particular mechanisms and circuits involved. To fully understand these, we need to know what properties of light are important for mediating changes in mood [...] Read more.
The idea that light affects mood and behavioral state is not new. However, not much is known about the particular mechanisms and circuits involved. To fully understand these, we need to know what properties of light are important for mediating changes in mood as well as what photoreceptors and pathways are responsible. Increasing evidence from both human and animal studies imply that a specialized class of retinal ganglion cells, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), plays an important role in the light-regulated effects on mood and behavioral state, which is in line with their well-established roles in other non-visual responses (pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment). This paper reviews our current understanding on the mechanisms and paths by which the light information modulates behavioral state and mood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep in Human Basic Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Social Jet-Lag in Tertiary Students Following a Modern Curriculum with Few Time-Tabled Contact Hours: A Pilot Study
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(3), 306-318; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1030026 - 08 Jul 2019
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Social jet-lag (SJL) impairs academic performance, specifically for late chronotypes faced with early start times. Most modern tertiary educational systems have fewer time-tabled contact hours and consequently fewer early starts, which may limit SJL. We performed a pilot study of SJL in a [...] Read more.
Social jet-lag (SJL) impairs academic performance, specifically for late chronotypes faced with early start times. Most modern tertiary educational systems have fewer time-tabled contact hours and consequently fewer early starts, which may limit SJL. We performed a pilot study of SJL in a convenience sample of students from Maastricht University, where problem-based learning (PBL) is implemented throughout the curricula. PBL is a modern curriculum, with only few contact hours and student-driven learning, comprising substantial amounts of self-study. Fifty-two students kept a detailed sleep diary for one week, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants were divided into early and late sleepers based on a ranking of their reported sleeping times, combined with a single question on their self-reported chronotype. Late sleepers (for brevity: “Owls”; n = 22) had later midpoint-sleep (5:14 ± 0:11 on weekdays; 5:50 ± 0:07 on weekend days) than early sleepers (for brevity: “Larks”; n = 11, 3:21 ± 0:05 on weekdays; 3:41 ± 0:06 on weekend days, F = 10.8, p = 0.003). The difference between the midpoint of sleep on weekdays and weekend days was comparable for Larks and Owls (F = 1.5; p = 0.22). SJL (0:53 ± 0:06, T = 1.4; p = 0.16), total sleep duration (7:58 ± 0:08; p = 0.07), and PSQI score (4.7 ± 0.3, U = 137; p = 0.56) were comparable for Larks and Owls. Average ESS score was higher in Larks (10.7 ± 0.96) than in Owls (7.0 ± 0.72; U = 52; p = 0.007). Within this pilot study of students engaged in a problem-based learning curriculum, Owls have no selective disadvantage compared to Larks concerning sleep. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photoperiodic Requirements for Induction and Maintenance of Rhythm Bifurcation and Extraordinary Entrainment in Male Mice
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(3), 290-305; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1030025 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 429
Abstract
Exposure of mice to a 24 h light:dark:light:dark (LDLD) cycle with dimly illuminated nights induces the circadian timing system to program two intervals of activity and two intervals of rest per 24 h cycle and subsequently allows entrainment to a variety of extraordinary [...] Read more.
Exposure of mice to a 24 h light:dark:light:dark (LDLD) cycle with dimly illuminated nights induces the circadian timing system to program two intervals of activity and two intervals of rest per 24 h cycle and subsequently allows entrainment to a variety of extraordinary light regimens including 30 h LDLD cycles. Little is known about critical lighting requirements to induce and maintain this non-standard entrainment pattern, termed “bifurcation,” and to enhance the range of apparent entrainment. The current study determined the necessary duration of the photophase for animals to bifurcate and assessed whether requirements for maintenance differed from those for induction. An objective index of bifurcated entrainment varied with length of the photophase over 4–10 h durations, with highest values at 8 h. To assess photic requirements for the maintenance of bifurcation, mice from each group were subsequently exposed to the LDLD cycle with 4 h photophases. While insufficient to induce bifurcation, this photoperiod maintained bifurcation in mice transferred from inductive LDLD cycles. Entrainment to 30 h LDLD cycles also varied with photoperiod duration. These studies characterize non-invasive tools that reveal latent flexibility in the circadian control of rest/activity cycles with important translational potential for addressing needs of human shift-workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Zeitgebers (Light))
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Open AccessTutorial
How to Report Light Exposure in Human Chronobiology and Sleep Research Experiments
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(3), 280-289; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1030024 - 26 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Exposure to light has short- and long-term impacts on non-visual responses in humans. While many aspects related to non-visual light sensitivity have been characterised (such as the action spectrum for melatonin suppression), much remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide a set of [...] Read more.
Exposure to light has short- and long-term impacts on non-visual responses in humans. While many aspects related to non-visual light sensitivity have been characterised (such as the action spectrum for melatonin suppression), much remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide a set of minimum reporting guidelines for reporting the stimulus conditions involving light as an intervention in chronobiology, sleep research and environmental psychology experiments. Corresponding to the current state-of-the-art knowledge (June 2019), these are (i) measure and report the spectral power distribution of the acute stimulus from the observer’s point of view; (ii) measure and report the spectral power distribution of the background light environment from the observer’s point of view; (iii), make spectra available in tabulated form, (iv) report α-opic (ir)radiances and illuminance; (v) describe the timing properties of stimulus (duration and pattern); (vi) describe the spatial properties of stimulus (spatial arrangement and extent), and (vii) report measurement conditions and equipment. We supplement the minimum reporting guidelines with optional reporting suggestions and discuss limitations of the reporting scheme. Full article
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