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Heritage, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A seismic data image of the Shotton (in blue), a river that flowed across Doggerland, a prehistoric land in the southern North Sea basin. The area, lost to the sea following global warming and a rise in sea level at the end of the last Ice Age, had been a heartland of human occupation. Now completely inaccessible, the landscape cannot be explored conventionally. Archaeologists and computer scientists are collaborating to map these vanished lands and trace long-lost rivers, lakes, hills, and coastlines. This work is now urgent. Climate change once again threatens these landscapes. The critical development of the world’s coastal shelves for green energy may render them inaccessible once more. The Bradford Submerged Landscapes Research Centre is developing machine learning strategies with which to explore and understand these unique heritage landscapes. View this paper
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31 pages, 18272 KiB  
Article
Seventeenth-Century Barniz de Pasto Objects from the Collection of the Hispanic Society Museum & Library: Materiality and Technology
by Elena Basso, Alicia McGeachy, Maria Goretti Mieites Alonso, Federica Pozzi, Roxanne Radpour and Monica Katz
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2620-2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050125 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
The Hispanic Society Museum & Library (HSML) holds a collection of nine viceregal barniz de Pasto objects, made by Indigenous artisans in the 17th and 18th centuries. Designed to imitate Asian lacquers and intended for European aesthetic tastes, barniz de Pasto is an [...] Read more.
The Hispanic Society Museum & Library (HSML) holds a collection of nine viceregal barniz de Pasto objects, made by Indigenous artisans in the 17th and 18th centuries. Designed to imitate Asian lacquers and intended for European aesthetic tastes, barniz de Pasto is an example of Indigenous technique and knowledge that has survived to the present day. An in-depth analysis of five of these barniz de Pasto objects, dated to the first half and last quarter of the 17th century based on their iconography, was carried out through a combination of non-invasive and micro-invasive techniques, including portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectroscopy to investigate the possible presence of inorganic pigments, and fiber-optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and reflectance imaging spectroscopy (RIS) to provide molecular information on colorants and their distributions across the objects. Dyes and pigments were also identified using Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The nature of the resin was determined by FTIR and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), while the decoration stratigraphy and composition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). This paper confirms the use of mopa mopa, the resin used in the barniz de Pasto technique, in two objects not previously analyzed, and identifies indigo, insect-based red, calomel, lead white, and an unknown flavonol-based yellow dye, and challenges the use of calomel as a temporal marker for these works. Taken together, these results expand our understanding of the material use and explorations undertaken by artists during this time period to create such elaborate and enduring objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lacquer in the Americas)
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34 pages, 22821 KiB  
Article
An Innovative System for Enhancing Archaeological In Situ Excavation through Geospatial Integration
by Asimina Dimara, Sotirios Tsakiridis, Doukas Psarros, Alexios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Varsamis, Christos-Nikolaos Anagnostopoulos and Stelios Krinidis
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2586-2619; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050124 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 684
Abstract
The field of archaeological excavation has seen enormous developments as a result of the quick development of digital technologies. It is critical to acknowledge the long-term benefits of new approaches. In this regard, this study intends to suggest a system that provides archaeologists [...] Read more.
The field of archaeological excavation has seen enormous developments as a result of the quick development of digital technologies. It is critical to acknowledge the long-term benefits of new approaches. In this regard, this study intends to suggest a system that provides archaeologists with digital tools that allow them to fully and effectively document their excavations in real time while in the field, which is specifically designed for classical and Byzantine archaeology. The system not only facilitates traditional documentation practices but also integrates advanced geospatial technologies and augmented reality, enhancing the accuracy and depth of archaeological research and preservation. This dual functionality enables both the efficient recording of excavation data as experienced by excavators on-site and the detailed documentation processed by researchers post-excavation. The objective of the application is to generate a sophisticated system that will enable the excavation data and experience that the excavator gains on the site of work to be recorded in real time, as well as the documentation that is subsequently processed and accomplished by the researcher or by other researchers. The system saves detailed images and 3D models of artifacts and excavation sites. This ensures that every detail is recorded while preserving the data for future analysis and reference. Lastly, the application was tested in realistic use case scenarios and real-world settings, which increased the system’s credibility and demonstrated its capability to enhance the procedures involved in archaeological excavation and documentation. Full article
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17 pages, 2523 KiB  
Article
Towards FAIR Data Management in Heritage Science Research: Updates and Progress on the INFRA-ART Spectral Library
by Ioana Maria Cortea
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2569-2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050123 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 664
Abstract
The heritage science sector is facing a critical need for accessible and comprehensive data resources to facilitate research, preservation efforts, and interdisciplinary collaboration. The concept of FAIR data management involves embracing principles and practices that ensure that data are Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and [...] Read more.
The heritage science sector is facing a critical need for accessible and comprehensive data resources to facilitate research, preservation efforts, and interdisciplinary collaboration. The concept of FAIR data management involves embracing principles and practices that ensure that data are Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. This work presents an overview of the latest updates on the INFRA-ART Spectral Library, an open access spectral database of cultural-heritage-related materials that was designed as a digital support tool for heritage research specialists that work with (portable) non- or minimally invasive spectroscopic techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF), attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, or Raman spectroscopy, among others. The database is an ongoing compilation of high-quality curated data that currently incorporates primary ATR-FTIR and XRF spectra and a preliminary dataset of Raman and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance spectra on over 900 different materials typically found in painted works of art. For increased and sustainable accessibility, the database follows the European Commission’s recommendations on access to scientific information, as well as the FAIR guiding principles on research data that result from publicly funded research. The INFRA-ART Spectral Library is registered as a resource within the Open Science Cloud (EOSC) Portal and is among the services offered by the Romanian hub within E-RIHS (European Research Infrastructure for Heritage Science) DIGILAB. Full article
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17 pages, 16811 KiB  
Article
Curved Linear Diode Array Imaging of a Historic Anchor Recovered from East Anglia ONE Offshore Wind Farm
by Brandon Mason, James Finch, Sarah Paynter, Heather Anderson and Lauren Nagler
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2552-2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050122 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 655
Abstract
The Industrial Metrology Business Unit of Nikon Corporation, on behalf of ScottishPower Renewables and Maritime Archaeology (MA), Southampton, UK, has employed X-ray CT (computed tomography) to visualise the internal structure of an anchor found in the North Sea. The non-destructive method of internal [...] Read more.
The Industrial Metrology Business Unit of Nikon Corporation, on behalf of ScottishPower Renewables and Maritime Archaeology (MA), Southampton, UK, has employed X-ray CT (computed tomography) to visualise the internal structure of an anchor found in the North Sea. The non-destructive method of internal inspection and measurement has helped to determine approximately when it was made. The results indicate that the artefact, initially thought to be potentially Roman, is probably more recent, likely dating to between the late 16th and early 17th centuries CE. This paper presents the discovery, recovery, analysis and interpretation of a significant find from a UK offshore wind farm and underscores the valuable role that non-destructive X-ray CT played in the investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Technologies Applied in Cultural Heritage)
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14 pages, 6863 KiB  
Article
Metal Fragments of Roman Pipes from Pompeii: Investigations on Copper-Based Alloys, Corrosion Products, and Surface Treatments
by Sofia Schiattone, Carla Martini, Marco Malagodi, Giacomo Fiocco, Eleonora Rocconi, Maria Morisco and Cristina Chiavari
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2538-2551; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050121 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 539
Abstract
This work reports the study of metal fragments from Roman pipes excavated from the archaeological site of Pompeii and currently preserved in the deposits of the National Archaeological Museum of Naples (MANN). The Roman pipe, called the tibia, is a reed wind [...] Read more.
This work reports the study of metal fragments from Roman pipes excavated from the archaeological site of Pompeii and currently preserved in the deposits of the National Archaeological Museum of Naples (MANN). The Roman pipe, called the tibia, is a reed wind musical instrument similar to the Greek aulos. It can be made of wood, bone, and/or metal. Materials consisting of metal Cu-based alloys were excavated from archaeological burial environments. This research aims to identify the composition of the alloys, characterize the corrosion patinas, and identify any ancient surface treatments on the fragments. Non-invasive and micro-invasive techniques were used to achieve this aim, i.e., optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the materials and manufacturing techniques used for these instruments, as well as the degradation processes occurring over the centuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation and Restoration of Metal Artifacts)
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31 pages, 2572 KiB  
Article
Counter-Mapping in Geographic Education: A Novel Approach to Understanding Urban and Cultural Dynamics in Cities
by Seila Soler and Pablo Rosser
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2507-2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050120 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 861
Abstract
This study assessed the impact of counter-mapping on university students’ perception and knowledge of their cities, focusing on cultural diversity, urban dynamics, and social challenges. Using a quasi-experimental design with pretests and posttests in the province of Alicante, Spain, changes in the understanding [...] Read more.
This study assessed the impact of counter-mapping on university students’ perception and knowledge of their cities, focusing on cultural diversity, urban dynamics, and social challenges. Using a quasi-experimental design with pretests and posttests in the province of Alicante, Spain, changes in the understanding of urban geography, everyday life, and cultural diversity were analyzed among 54 Geography Didactics students. Likert scale surveys and open-ended questions were employed, complemented by statistical and qualitative analyses, to measure knowledge and perceptions before and after the counter-mapping project. The results indicate that although quantitative correlations did not show statistically significant significance, qualitative analysis revealed significant and profound learning. Participants uncovered the hidden layers of their urban environments and gained a better understanding of the complexities and challenges of their cities. The project promoted the development of critical skills such as analytical thinking, active research, and effective communication, proving to be a valuable pedagogical tool that surpasses the limitations of traditional teaching methods and encourages active and committed citizenship. This inclusive and multidimensional approach enriches the diversity of experiences and knowledge, significantly contributing to the teaching of urban subjects, community engagement, and social responsibility and laying the groundwork for the proper tourist, cultural, social, or urban planning of city spaces. Full article
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16 pages, 14921 KiB  
Article
Artificial Interpretation: An Investigation into the Feasibility of Archaeologically Focused Seismic Interpretation via Machine Learning
by Andrew Iain Fraser, Jürgen Landauer, Vincent Gaffney and Elizabeth Zieschang
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2491-2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050119 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 537
Abstract
The value of artificial intelligence and machine learning applications for use in heritage research is increasingly appreciated. In specific areas, notably remote sensing, datasets have increased in extent and resolution to the point that manual interpretation is problematic and the availability of skilled [...] Read more.
The value of artificial intelligence and machine learning applications for use in heritage research is increasingly appreciated. In specific areas, notably remote sensing, datasets have increased in extent and resolution to the point that manual interpretation is problematic and the availability of skilled interpreters to undertake such work is limited. Interpretation of the geophysical datasets associated with prehistoric submerged landscapes is particularly challenging. Following the Last Glacial Maximum, sea levels rose by 120 m globally, and vast, habitable landscapes were lost to the sea. These landscapes were inaccessible until extensive remote sensing datasets were provided by the offshore energy sector. In this paper, we provide the results of a research programme centred on AI applications using data from the southern North Sea. Here, an area of c. 188,000 km2 of habitable terrestrial land was inundated between c. 20,000 BP and 7000 BP, along with the cultural heritage it contained. As part of this project, machine learning tools were applied to detect and interpret features with potential archaeological significance from shallow seismic data. The output provides a proof-of-concept model demonstrating verifiable results and the potential for a further, more complex, leveraging of AI interpretation for the study of submarine palaeolandscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XR and Artificial Intelligence for Heritage)
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14 pages, 7395 KiB  
Article
User Experience of Virtual Heritage Tours with 360° Photos: A Study of the Chapel of Dolores in Icod de los Vinos
by Cecile Meier, Jose Luis Saorín, Silvia Díaz Parrilla, Alejandro Bonnet de León and Dámari Melián Díaz
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2477-2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050118 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Virtual tours with 360 photos present a quick, easy and accessible way to create immersive experiences. The visualization on diverse devices provides a user experience that can be different. A virtual tour with 360 photos of the Chapel of Dolores (Tenerife) has been [...] Read more.
Virtual tours with 360 photos present a quick, easy and accessible way to create immersive experiences. The visualization on diverse devices provides a user experience that can be different. A virtual tour with 360 photos of the Chapel of Dolores (Tenerife) has been created. Access is limited to specific days, so the creation of a virtual tour allows you to visit it at any time; in addition, a pilot test has been carried out with students of the degree of restoration and conservation of cultural heritage in order to measure the user experience of the virtual tour, depending on the device used. The participants took a virtual tour of the Dolores Chapel, first with a cell phone and then with the virtual reality headset, and then completed a user experience questionnaire. The results obtained comparing both visualization technologies are detailed, highlighting the fact that when using the virtual reality headset no better results are obtained on the immersion subscale; in addition, the visualization on a smartphone is more comfortable and obtains better results for consequences such as dizziness and vertigo. Therefore, it may be an interesting strategy to have simple versions that work quickly on cell phones. Full article
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0 pages, 11765 KiB  
Article
An Unknown 18th-Century Flemish Dyers Manuscript from Antwerp (1778–1802)
by Emile Lupatini and Natalia Ortega Saez
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2458-2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050117 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 634
Abstract
This paper presents a historical analysis of a rare dyer’s manuscript, preserved within the Museum of Industry in Ghent, Belgium. The manuscript, originating from a dyer in late 18th-century Antwerp, includes an extensive collection of recipes. The study will enable researchers to better [...] Read more.
This paper presents a historical analysis of a rare dyer’s manuscript, preserved within the Museum of Industry in Ghent, Belgium. The manuscript, originating from a dyer in late 18th-century Antwerp, includes an extensive collection of recipes. The study will enable researchers to better grasp the practices of traditional dyeing techniques and materials in the region during that time. The manuscript focuses primarily on the dyeing of woolen fabrics. Approximately 90 of the 132 recipes utilize red dyes. Recipes for dying orange, brown, black, blue, and green colors are also described. The document mentions the use of madder, brazilwood, redwood, and cochineal. To create a variety of red shades, the dyer describes how fabrics were treated with different mordanting compounds, with alum and tin as the main ingredients, and how the dyeing solutions were prepared. The resulting colors include ‘madder red’, ‘formal red’, ‘crimson’, ‘scarlet’, ‘Turkish red’, ‘fire color’ and ‘flesh color’. In addition to the dyeing recipes, the manuscript contains various accounting documents and correspondences between the dyer, customers, and suppliers. Lastly, over 100 original, colored samples are attached to the described recipes. In this paper, the artifact’s contents will be disclosed, comprising recipes with attached samples and correspondence. Findings resulting from archive research will be included, contextualizing and placing the dyer in their urban and social context. The paper concludes by discussing its potential limitations and provides avenues for possible future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 42)
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14 pages, 19093 KiB  
Article
Integrated Approach of Historical Landscape Characterisation Techniques and Remote Sensing for the Definition of Predictive Models and Scenario Analysis in the Planning of Archaeological Areas
by Giuliana Quattrone
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2444-2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050116 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 583
Abstract
This study explores the synergistic integration of remote sensing (RS) and Historical Landscape Characterisation (HLC) methodology as an innovative, multi-scalar and holistic approach to enhance archaeological planning. The goal is to maximize the effectiveness of the investigations, optimizing data collection and improving the [...] Read more.
This study explores the synergistic integration of remote sensing (RS) and Historical Landscape Characterisation (HLC) methodology as an innovative, multi-scalar and holistic approach to enhance archaeological planning. The goal is to maximize the effectiveness of the investigations, optimizing data collection and improving the contextual understanding of the sites. In fact, these methodologies can significantly contribute to the documentation, conservation, planning and valorisation of archaeological areas. By integrating RS data with features detected by HLC, a complete picture is obtained that facilitates a deeper understanding of the landscape and historical dynamics. This article will explain the combined approach of RS and HLC, presenting some methodologies key to improving the precision and effectiveness of archaeological planning. This integration facilitates the sustainable preservation of archaeological resources and contributes to the conscious management of cultural heritage in the context of contemporary development. The paper demonstrates, through a case study, how the application of the two methodologies (RS and HLC) in an integrated form can provide an exhaustive interpretation of the territory in which the archaeological area is located, which can represent an exhaustive knowledge base on which to set up effective processes for the strategic territorial planning of archaeological areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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18 pages, 6421 KiB  
Article
Cadmium Yellow Pigments in Oil Paintings: Optical Degradation Studies Utilizing 3D Fluorescence Mapping Supported by Raman Spectroscopy and Colorimetry
by Francesca A. Pisu, Carlo Maria Carbonaro, Pier Carlo Ricci, Stefania Porcu and Daniele Chiriu
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2426-2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050115 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 718
Abstract
The degradation of cadmium yellow in paintings is influenced by various factors, primarily environmental conditions and light exposure. Applying a thin protective layer of linseed oil on the surface could help mitigate these processes. Linseed oil, being a natural material, acts as a [...] Read more.
The degradation of cadmium yellow in paintings is influenced by various factors, primarily environmental conditions and light exposure. Applying a thin protective layer of linseed oil on the surface could help mitigate these processes. Linseed oil, being a natural material, acts as a barrier against harmful atmospheric agents like moisture and oxygen, which contribute to the degradation of pigments including cadmium yellow. Additionally, linseed oil reduces direct light exposure, thereby lowering the risk of fading and color alteration. In this study, we explored the degradation of cadmium pigments mixed with oil and applied on canvas. We elucidated how the use of a binder prevents the direct oxidation of the pigment, inducing artificial degradation by irradiating samples with UVA (365 nm) and UVC (250 nm) sources. By employing various spectroscopic techniques such as three-dimensional fluorescence mapping (PLE) and Raman, along with colorimetric analysis, we gained a comprehensive understanding of the degradation process, particularly when linseed oil serves as a protective layer. Full article
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27 pages, 6459 KiB  
Review
Cultural Routes as Cultural Tourism Products for Heritage Conservation and Regional Development: A Systematic Review
by Xinyue Lin, Zhenjiang Shen, Xiao Teng and Qizhi Mao
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2399-2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050114 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Cultural routes are a composite set of heritage sites that refer to historical routes of human communication. As key products of cultural tourism, they provide visitors with rich cultural experiences across regions. We systematically review reports and studies related to the tourism development [...] Read more.
Cultural routes are a composite set of heritage sites that refer to historical routes of human communication. As key products of cultural tourism, they provide visitors with rich cultural experiences across regions. We systematically review reports and studies related to the tourism development of 38 cultural route cases worldwide, with a special focus on their distribution, typology, planning patterns, and tools for cultural tourism. We summarized eight tools and found some differences in how often these eight tools are used by the different types of routes and different planning patterns for route tourism. This study also developed an evaluation system based on the conservation principles of cultural routes to determine how different tourism tools affect the conservation and development of historical regions. Although tourism decision-makers have made numerous efforts to protect and develop cultural routes, there are still many problems and challenges in the process of tourism development along cultural routes. We conclude the paper by making recommendations for decision-makers and researchers concerning future route tourism planning and study. Full article
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14 pages, 8285 KiB  
Article
Neverovsky Palaeoreef and Associated Deep-Marine Facies: High-Value Late Devonian Geoheritage from the Rudny Altai
by Jaroslav M. Gutak and Dmitry A. Ruban
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2385-2398; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050113 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
The Rudny Altai is a western segment of the Altai orogenic belt. Its geological richness makes its geoheritage exploration an urgent matter. Investigations in the Loktevsky District (Altai Region, Russian Federation) have led to the finding of three notable localities, which are proposed [...] Read more.
The Rudny Altai is a western segment of the Altai orogenic belt. Its geological richness makes its geoheritage exploration an urgent matter. Investigations in the Loktevsky District (Altai Region, Russian Federation) have led to the finding of three notable localities, which are proposed as geosites. Field investigations and both qualitative and semi-quantitative (scoring by criteria) studies were carried out to characterize and value the geoheritage properties of these localities. The Neverovsky palaeoreef is a relatively large geosite, representing a Frasnian reef developed on a volcanic edifice. The Zolotukha section and the Razdolnoe section are smaller geosites representing deep-marine facies of the Giventian–Frasnian transition and the late Frasnian, respectively. Seven geoheritage types are established in the Neverovsky palaeoreef, and four geoheritage types are established in the other two geosites. Examination of rarity, accessibility, vulnerability, and other properties allows the ranking of the Neverovsky palaeoreef globally and the other two geosites regionally. The three proposed geosites need special geoconservation measures (especially regarding their rich fossil content). The palaeoreef can be used for the promotion of local tourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geoheritage and Geo-Conservation)
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15 pages, 2031 KiB  
Article
Unraveling a Historical Mystery: Identification of a Lichen Dye Source in a Fifteenth Century Medieval Tapestry
by Rachel M. Lackner, Solenn Ferron, Joël Boustie, Françoise Le Devehat, H. Thorsten Lumbsch and Nobuko Shibayama
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2370-2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050112 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 993
Abstract
As part of a long-term campaign to document, study, and conserve the Heroes tapestries from The Cloisters collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, organic colorant analysis of Julius Caesar (accession number 47.101.3) was performed. Analysis with liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-qToF-MS) [...] Read more.
As part of a long-term campaign to document, study, and conserve the Heroes tapestries from The Cloisters collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, organic colorant analysis of Julius Caesar (accession number 47.101.3) was performed. Analysis with liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-qToF-MS) revealed the presence of several multiply chlorinated xanthones produced only by certain species of lichen. Various lichen dye sources have been documented in the literature for centuries and are classified as either ammonia fermentation method (AFM) or boiling water method (BWM) dyes based on their method of production. However, none of these known sources produce the distinctive metabolites present in the tapestry. LC-qToF-MS was also used to compare the chemical composition of the dyes in the tapestry with that of several species of crustose lichen. Lichen metabolites, including thiophanic acid and arthothelin, were definitively identified in the tapestry based on comparison with lichen xanthone standards and a reference of Lecanora sulphurata, confirming the presence of a lichen source. This finding marks the first time that lichen xanthones have been identified in a historic object and the first evidence that BWM lichen dyes may have been used prior to the eighteenth century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 42)
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22 pages, 11648 KiB  
Article
A Townscape in Evolution: Caño Roto Modern Heritage, 1957–2023
by Angel Cordero Ampuero, Manuela Gil Manso and Marta Muñoz
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2348-2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050111 - 1 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
Caño Roto (Madrid) is one of the most relevant Spanish post-war architectures. Its typological contributions have already been studied within the framework of the so-called “Led Settlements”. This paper proposes a systematic analysis of the evolution of the neighborhood townscape, its most singular [...] Read more.
Caño Roto (Madrid) is one of the most relevant Spanish post-war architectures. Its typological contributions have already been studied within the framework of the so-called “Led Settlements”. This paper proposes a systematic analysis of the evolution of the neighborhood townscape, its most singular characteristic as a critical approach to the CIAM city project. It starts with the photographic documentation, studied through the methodology established by Gordon Cullen and developed, in a systematic way, by Nigel Taylor. The comparative study includes the original published photographs, a sample of photographs from the 2010s, and the shots taken in a new exhaustive documentation campaign. The comparison yields relevant results on the evolution of urban space definers: building volumes, facade composition, pavements or vegetation, and the presence of people in public areas. Several paths are studied to allow an understanding of the overall landscape structure. As a result, the key elements of the townscape of the settlement are identified and valued. The aim of this paper is to provide tools for the preservation of both the architectural and landscape heritage of Caño Roto. In short, thorough knowledge will help residents to become aware of the heritage value of their neighborhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes as Cultural Heritage: Contemporary Perspectives)
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35 pages, 58259 KiB  
Article
New Perceptions of Ancient Commerce Driven by Underwater Ancient Site Investigations: A Case Study of Xinfeng River Basin
by Song Zhang, Ming He, Guoliang Dong and Xianying Wang
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2313-2347; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050110 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 552
Abstract
In the 1950s and 1960s, to address the flooding issues and power shortage that hindered national construction, the Xinfeng River hydropower plant was planned and built to prevent floods, store water, and generate electricity. Consequently, many ancient ruins in the study area were [...] Read more.
In the 1950s and 1960s, to address the flooding issues and power shortage that hindered national construction, the Xinfeng River hydropower plant was planned and built to prevent floods, store water, and generate electricity. Consequently, many ancient ruins in the study area were drowned, including ancient post roads, channels, villages, towns, bridges, and other relic sites. By checking historical data and adopting integrated underwater acoustic detection, we conducted a comprehensive cultural-relics survey on the flooded area under Wanlv Lake in the Xinfeng River Basin. A side-scan sonar detection of the underwater relics within the flooded area confirmed the spatial distribution of cultural relics in the Xinfeng River Basin. It portrayed ancient people’s production and life scenarios, outlined the migration and trade history within the region and beyond, and contributed to the enrichment of the literature and understanding of ancient shipping and trade in the basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Archaeology and Anthropology of the Ancient World)
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17 pages, 6019 KiB  
Article
Digital Guardianship: Innovative Strategies in Preserving Armenian’s Epigraphic Legacy
by Hamest Tamrazyan and Gayane Hovhannisyan
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2296-2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050109 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 597
Abstract
In the face of geopolitical threats in Artsakh, the preservation of Armenia’s epigraphic heritage has become a mission of both historical and cultural urgency. This project delves deep into Armenian inscriptions, employing advanced digital tools and strategies like the Oxygen text editor and [...] Read more.
In the face of geopolitical threats in Artsakh, the preservation of Armenia’s epigraphic heritage has become a mission of both historical and cultural urgency. This project delves deep into Armenian inscriptions, employing advanced digital tools and strategies like the Oxygen text editor and EpiDoc guidelines to efficiently catalogue, analyze, and present these historical treasures. Amidst the adversities posed by Azerbaijan’s stance towards Armenian heritage in Artsakh, the digital documentation and preservation of these inscriptions have become a beacon of cultural resilience. The XML-based database ensures consistent data, promoting scholarly research and broadening accessibility. Integrating the Grabar Armenian dictionary addressed linguistic challenges, enhancing data accuracy. This initiative goes beyond merely preserving stone and text; it is a testament to the stories, hopes, and enduring spirit of the Armenian people in the face of external threats. Through a harmonious blend of technology and traditional knowledge, the project stands as a vanguard in the fight to ensure that Armenia’s rich epigraphic legacy, and the narratives they enshrine remain undiminished for future generations. Full article
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20 pages, 4871 KiB  
Article
Recent Applications of Unilateral NMR to Objects of Cultural Heritage
by Valeria Di Tullio and Noemi Proietti
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2277-2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050108 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is recognized as a powerful tool in many areas of research, among the investigative techniques used in the field of cultural heritage its application is still largely unknown. One of the reasons for this is that artifacts are [...] Read more.
Although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is recognized as a powerful tool in many areas of research, among the investigative techniques used in the field of cultural heritage its application is still largely unknown. One of the reasons for this is that artifacts are complex heterogeneous systems whose analysis requires a multi-disciplinary approach. In addition, major drawbacks in the analysis of objects belonging to cultural heritage are their limited quantity, number of samples collected from the artifact, and their immovability. Consequently, a methodological approach where non-destructive, and possibly non-invasive techniques are used, is advisable. In recent years, thanks to the development of portable instruments, there has been an increasing use of the NMR methodology in the cultural heritage field. The use of portable NMR has allowed us to study several materials in the cultural heritage, such as frescoes, stones, wood, paper, and paintings, to address the challenges in monitoring dampness in historical masonries, to evaluate the penetration depth of a hydrophobic treatment into a porous material, and to study of the effect of cleaning procedures on artifacts. In this paper, recent studies illustrating the potential of NMR portable methodologies in this field of research are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Technologies Applied in Cultural Heritage)
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12 pages, 7217 KiB  
Commentary
The Stone Skeleton: A Reappraisal
by Thomas E. Boothby and Dario Coronelli
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2265-2276; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050107 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Jacques Heyman’s 1966 article “The Stone Skeleton” has been influential in the assessment of masonry arches in general, including masonry bridges and gothic architecture. Heyman’s article relies on limiting assumptions about arch behavior, and concludes that an arch can be declared stable based [...] Read more.
Jacques Heyman’s 1966 article “The Stone Skeleton” has been influential in the assessment of masonry arches in general, including masonry bridges and gothic architecture. Heyman’s article relies on limiting assumptions about arch behavior, and concludes that an arch can be declared stable based on the location of a statically admissible thrust line within the arch. In the following commentary, we assess the validity of the assumptions made by Heyman and the uses that have been made of his application of the lower bound theorem of plasticity. We conclude that Heyman’s methods have enduring value, but that the user needs to recognize the limitations of the assumptions made and the limits on the validity of conclusions imposed by these assumptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Heritage)
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26 pages, 44646 KiB  
Article
Conservation and In Situ Enhancement of Earthen Architecture in Archaeological Sites: Social and Anthropic Risks in the Case Studies of the Iberian Peninsula
by Sergio Manzano-Fernández, Camilla Mileto, Fernando Vegas López-Manzanares and Valentina Cristini
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2239-2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050106 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Archaeological sites constitute one of the main tourist attractions in the heritage offerings of most populations. Their ability to convey the ways of life and construction techniques of past societies through physical remains positions them as a culturally significant alternative for visitors. However, [...] Read more.
Archaeological sites constitute one of the main tourist attractions in the heritage offerings of most populations. Their ability to convey the ways of life and construction techniques of past societies through physical remains positions them as a culturally significant alternative for visitors. However, their physical conservation, essential for efficiently ensuring information with precision, poses a serious challenge for the various professionals involved, as numerous social and anthropic risks threaten long-term preservation for the enjoyment of future generations. Of all traditional building materials, earth is undoubtedly one of the most fragile and sensitive to loss in the absence of the original protection systems, so that a precise assessment of its threats is essential to minimizing the destruction of these non-renewable assets. The objective of this study is to evaluate the most determining human risk factors within the territorial scope of the Iberian Peninsula, including aspects such as its musealization, suitable interpretation, visit planning, agricultural land use, vandalism and rural depopulation. This is achieved through a literature review and on-site data collection from 85 archaeological sites, as well as the development of an analysis tool to assess the degree of vulnerability, aiming to develop prevention measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Tourism and Sustainable City Dynamics)
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22 pages, 12590 KiB  
Article
An Archaeometric Study of Lead-Glazed Medieval Ceramics (13th–14th Century) from Santarém, Portugal
by L. F. Vieira Ferreira, T. M. Casimiro, C. Boavida, M. F. Costa Pereira and I. Ferreira Machado
Heritage 2024, 7(5), 2217-2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7050105 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Ceramic sherds from approximately 20 samples of lead-glazed tableware, recovered from diverse archaeological sites, including three repurposed storage pits transformed into dumpsters within the medieval city of Santarém (13th–14th century), underwent a meticulous examination. This investigation utilised techniques such as micro-Raman, ground-state diffuse [...] Read more.
Ceramic sherds from approximately 20 samples of lead-glazed tableware, recovered from diverse archaeological sites, including three repurposed storage pits transformed into dumpsters within the medieval city of Santarém (13th–14th century), underwent a meticulous examination. This investigation utilised techniques such as micro-Raman, ground-state diffuse reflectance absorption, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies, in addition to X-ray diffraction and stereomicroscopy. A parallel study was conducted on contemporaneous European ceramics (glazed sherds) sourced from archaeological sites dating back to the 13th–15th centuries in Saintonge (France), Ardenne, Zomergem, and Bruges (Belgium), as well as Surrey–Hampshire, Kingston, and Cheam (England). The first premise for comparing the Santarem samples with European production locations was their frequent commercial relations with Portugal and the frequency of these productions being found in Portugal. The colour of the ceramic bodies is predominantly white or whitish, with a few exhibiting a vivid red hue. Analyses of the fabric, mineralogical, and elemental composition of the sherds suggest that the majority of Santarém’s glazed ceramics were locally or regionally produced, potentially derived from a Pliocene kaolin-rich sand formation. However, this conclusion is not supported by the absence of discovered lead glaze kilns or workshops in Santarém for the late Middle Ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Technologies Applied in Cultural Heritage)
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