Special Issue "Linking Land and Underwater Cultural Heritage Management to Technology in Smart Cities and Communities"

A special issue of Heritage (ISSN 2571-9408).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Anastasia Stratigea
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geography and Regional Planning, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechneiou Str. - 157 80, Zographos, Greece
Interests: sustainable development; urban and regional planning and policy; spatial planning; participatory planning — methods and models; e-Planning; e-Participation; smart cities and communities; culture and urban/regional development — e-Culture; cultural planning; foresight methodologies; evaluation in spatial planning — methods and models; participatory evaluation; icts and urban / regional development; icts and rural development; tourism and urban/regional development — e-Tourism; renewable energy and urban/regional development; renewable energy and spatial planning
Prof. Vasilike Argyropoulos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Conservation of Antiquities & Works of Art, School of Applied Arts and Culture, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece
Interests: metals conservation; illicit trafficking of antiquities; conservation of underwater cultural heritage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Managing cultural heritage (CH), both land and underwater (UCH), is an issue that is nowadays high on the policy agenda for serving CH preservation objectives and leveraging sustainable local/regional development pathways. The multiple dimensions of the sustainable and resilient management of CH—such as social, economic, historical, cultural, economic etc.—have been so far highly acknowledged in various research and empirical works. Recently, as a result of the revolutionary technological developments and the rising paradigm of the concept of smart cities and communities, emphasis is also placed on the role of technology and its applications in, for example, (U)CH management as part of the smart journey of urban and regional settings. Such a development opens up new, innovative, technology-driven, research streams in support of exploring, documenting, preserving, monitoring and promoting (U)CH artefacts per se and the values they transmit; but also new challenges in the planning discipline for outlining and promoting sustainable, heritage-led development in smart urban and regional contexts.

The scope of the present Special Issue is to link (U)CH management to technology in the evolving smart cities and communities’ paradigm. In this respect, it elaborates on aspects of technology-enabled management but also on emerging concerns with respect to (U)CH as part of policy decisions as to the preservation and handling of these valuable resources in a sustainable and resilient way.

The focus is on the Mediterranean area, the cradle of the Western civilization as many claim, a privileged region in terms of cultural wealth, which is the outcome of its long historical path that is marked by the intense cultural interaction among its populations but also its role as scenery of fatal historical events of European history.

The ultimate goal is to establish an interdisciplinary dialogue for realizing the potential of technology for (U)CH management, but also increasing awareness of the constraints as well as the different perspectives and concerns inherent in managing a largely unexplored field of Mediterranean cultural heritage, UCH. Fulfilling this goal implies leveraging alternative, sustainable and resilient development perspectives for small/medium-sized cities and insular communities that are currently coping with the impacts of the deep recession in the southern part of Europe.

The Special Issue aspires to bring to light original research work that falls into two parts. The first part illuminates the technology-enabled management of tangible and intangible (U)CH in Mediterranean land, coastal and maritime areas. The second part attempts to work out issues related to UCH management in the Mediterranean, opening up discussion of emerging challenges, while presenting work carried out at both the UCH level and the region level. As such, it elaborates on paving heritage-led development perspectives in the Mediterranean that, additionally, link UCH management to blue growth strategy and the recent Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) policy directions of EU for cultural heritage handling in coastal and maritime areas.

Prof. Anastasia Stratigea
Prof. Vasilike Argyropoulos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Heritage is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • (underwater) cultural heritage
  • technology
  • smart cities and communities
  • Mediterranean
  • heritage-led local development
  • planning
  • policy

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Aegean Sea—Challenges and Dilemmas in Management and Planning for Local Development in Fragmented Insular Regions
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 1762-1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030108 - 28 Jun 2019
Abstract
In an age of network organization and the digital revolution, under conditions of intense international competition alongside a multifaceted economic downturn, a new form of economy is developing, shaped by the learning society and knowledge-based economy. Under exceptionally difficult conditions where, despite all [...] Read more.
In an age of network organization and the digital revolution, under conditions of intense international competition alongside a multifaceted economic downturn, a new form of economy is developing, shaped by the learning society and knowledge-based economy. Under exceptionally difficult conditions where, despite all intentions, economic growth remains the main concern, often without terms or criteria, and even at environmental, territorial and socio-economic cost, the issue: Development for whom, where and on what terms remains “open”. In Greece decades-long unquestioning adoption of developmental models in conjunction with a methodically organized diminishment of the territorial dimension has undermined acquis which had been promoted for years as a prerequisite for life, re-introducing to the discussion the issue of how to plan the various levels and categories of territory, protecting the history and physiognomy of place, ensuring local development in terms of social justice and sustainability in an intensely globalised environment. An answer is sought regarding how best to manage human resources and cultural heritage on the basis of territorial/sectoral and social collaborative networks that are supralocal and transnational focusing on the model of “endogenous development”. Based on research experience regarding the Mediterranean and the Aegean, the article aims to underline the absence of a comprehensive island policy in Greece and highlight crucial issues that need to be resolved at the level of developmental and planning choices in order to eliminate instances of downgrading/abandonment of vulnerable remote and insular border regions. The proposals which are formulated are intended to contribute to the debate about a more equal development for islands and insular areas at a critical juncture for Greece. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reconsidering Sustainable Mobility Patterns in Cultural Route Planning: Andreas Syngrou Avenue, Greece
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1702-1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020104 - 16 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Culture is frequently used as a means of promoting sustainable urban development. Indeed, in many areas across Europe, cultural and recreational routes or clusters have so far been utilized in order for urban regeneration and structural reconstruction to be pursued. Such routes have [...] Read more.
Culture is frequently used as a means of promoting sustainable urban development. Indeed, in many areas across Europe, cultural and recreational routes or clusters have so far been utilized in order for urban regeneration and structural reconstruction to be pursued. Such routes have been developed in Greek cities as well, e.g., in the cities of Volos, Thessaloniki, and Athens. In the Greek capital, Athens, a couple of axes are actually recognized as cultural ones. Andreas Syngrou Avenue, initially designed as a six/eight-lane freeway located at the heart of the Athens metropolitan area, is one distinguished example. By focusing on this axis as a cultural route/cluster, the goal of this article is to elaborate on smart and sustainable mobility patterns for strengthening its cultural/recreational identity and increasing its attractiveness. To accomplish this goal, critical problems confining citizens’ mobility and access to various cultural landmarks in this area are identified and are properly dealt with, stressing the importance of sustainable mobility in relevant cultural planning endeavors. Based on the study and an assessment of the current state of this route (land uses, traffic loads, design qualities, and environmental affordances), a sustainable mobility proposal is provided in order for a master plan that enhances and develops the cultural function and identity of this route. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage: The Route from Discovery to Engagement—Open Issues in the Mediterranean
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1588-1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020098 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fatal events taking place in World War (WW) I and II have left behind important historical evidence as an underwater cultural heritage (UCH) (e.g., shipwrecks, submerged aircraft, war artifacts), lying in peace at the bottom of, among others, the Mediterranean Sea. The article [...] Read more.
Fatal events taking place in World War (WW) I and II have left behind important historical evidence as an underwater cultural heritage (UCH) (e.g., shipwrecks, submerged aircraft, war artifacts), lying in peace at the bottom of, among others, the Mediterranean Sea. The article aims at exploring the challenges for UCH protection/preservation and sustainable exploitation with emphasis on this sea. UCH is so far dealt with in a “silo” approach by marine archaeologists or heritage professionals, who often ignore its potential for serving local sustainable development goals. The paper elaborates on the value, but also the complexity, multi- and inter-disciplinary as well as multi-actors’ nature of UCH management and sustainable exploitation, perceiving these as a “wicked” planning problem. It attempts to illuminate various important dimensions of this problem, such as its glocal (global/local) context; the conflicting and, in certain cases, inconsistent UCH legal protection framework, touching upon a variety of spatial scales; the contemporary policy frameworks favoring UCH management; etc. Exploration of these dimensions reveals open issues or gaps that need to be filled, and sets the ground for a more holistic and integrated UCH research and management approach for building up the yet largely untold, Mediterranean WW I and II UCH narrative; and shifting this area from a sea graveyard to a place of memory and cultural enrichment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Condition Surveys of Archaeological Excavations: Training Professionals in Two Minoan Sites on East Crete, Greece
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1423-1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020090 - 16 May 2019
Abstract
Over the past century, monumental architecture has been at the center of attention of heritage professionals, stakeholders, and the public. On the contrary, vernacular architecture, which constitutes the majority of our built heritage, especially at rural sites in the provinces of Greece and [...] Read more.
Over the past century, monumental architecture has been at the center of attention of heritage professionals, stakeholders, and the public. On the contrary, vernacular architecture, which constitutes the majority of our built heritage, especially at rural sites in the provinces of Greece and other Mediterranean countries, has been mostly neglected and often has fallen into disarray. As a result, we now witness the severe degradation of several important settlements, which are threatened due to long exposure to the elements and lack of conservation, maintenance, and management plans. Since 2015, the Architectural Conservation Laboratory, University of West Attica, organizes a field-training program at the Minoan sites of Mochlos and Pseira on East Crete, aimed at addressing the challenges of vernacular architecture and raising awareness. The program provides on-the-job training opportunities to heritage professionals in surveying, assessing, and documenting the condition of architectural remains and finally establishing the conservation priorities. This paper discusses the approaches and the goals of the program, as well as the potential for the integration of cost-effective digital documentation techniques, such as photogrammetry, into the systematic monitoring of archaeological sites under threat. The preliminary results of the condition survey of Pseira and the challenges in the application of image-based 3D modeling on site are also reported. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Cultural Heritage in Coastal Areas with UAS: The Case Study of Lesvos Island
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1404-1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020089 - 12 May 2019
Abstract
Dynamic processes in coastal zones and human activities in the coastal environment produce pressure on cultural heritage, especially in touristic places. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are used as an additional tool for monitoring cultural heritage sites in sensitive coastal areas. UASs provide low-cost [...] Read more.
Dynamic processes in coastal zones and human activities in the coastal environment produce pressure on cultural heritage, especially in touristic places. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are used as an additional tool for monitoring cultural heritage sites in sensitive coastal areas. UASs provide low-cost accurate spatial data and high-resolution imagery products in various spatial and temporal scales. The use of UAS for mapping cultural heritage sites in the coastal zone is of increasing interest among scientists and archaeologists in terms of monitoring, documentation, mapping, and restoration. This study outlines the integration of UAS data acquisition and structure from motion (SfM) pipeline for the visualization of selected cultural heritage areas (ancient harbors) in the coastal zone. The UAS-SfM methodology produces very detailed orthophoto maps for mapping and detecting cultural heritage sites. Additionally, a metadata cataloging system has been developed in order to facilitate online searching operations for all products of the data acquisition, SfM pipeline, and cartographic processes. For this reason, a specific metadata profile was implemented, based on the European INSPIRE framework. As a result, datasets reusability and catalogs interoperability are promoted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Unburying Hidden Land and Maritime Cultural Potential of Small Islands in the Mediterranean for Tracking Heritage-Led Local Development Paths
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 938-966; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010062 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Small islands in the Mediterranean Sea, although endowed with exquisite land and maritime natural and cultural resources, are in most cases lagging behind areas, mainly due to insularity. Through their long history, many of them are strongly interwoven to events of European or [...] Read more.
Small islands in the Mediterranean Sea, although endowed with exquisite land and maritime natural and cultural resources, are in most cases lagging behind areas, mainly due to insularity. Through their long history, many of them are strongly interwoven to events of European or even global significance, e.g., World War (WW) I and II. Such events have left in their “bodies” important remains, largely conditioning their socio-economic trajectory. Preservation and sustainable management of this Cultural Heritage (CH) is, in this work, perceived as a two-sided coin, serving endurance of European identity, memory, and CH for future generations on the one side; and leveraging future cultural tourism trails of these disadvantaged areas on the other. The goal of this article is to ‘unbury’ land and maritime, tangible and intangible, cultural remains and use them to unveil heritage-led development paths of small Mediterranean islands. This is demonstrated through a specific case study, a distinguishable insular territory and WW II battlefield scenery, Leros Island, Greece; and is accomplished by a participatory spatial planning framework, embedding scenario planning, spatial data management, and e-participation technologies (Web-GIS, social networks) for community engagement. The latter is valued for assessing options available for an integrated, sustainable, and resilient exploitation of land and maritime CH; and raising awareness of local population as to the role of CH as enabler for the transition from past failures to more promising, culturally-driven, and locally-adjusted future development trails. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion and Conservation Management of the Submarine HMAS AE2 (1915) in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 868-883; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010058 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The wreck site of the Australian First World War submarine HMAS AE2 in the Sea of Marmara had a salinity of 26‰ (parts per thousand) for the first 13 m, which increased to 41‰ at 21 m, after which it remained constant to [...] Read more.
The wreck site of the Australian First World War submarine HMAS AE2 in the Sea of Marmara had a salinity of 26‰ (parts per thousand) for the first 13 m, which increased to 41‰ at 21 m, after which it remained constant to the bottom at 72 m, where the dissolved oxygen was three parts per million. The vessel is protected by a very dense anaerobic concretion and lies half above a silt mound. Cross-sections of a concretion sample revealed the original surface, associated paint films and a series of burial-exposure episodes that reflected periodic changes in the silt levels, which are likely associated with major storms. Core samples of sediment have established the impact of the vessel on the site. Corrosion simulation experiments have established the direct linkage between chloride levels underneath the concretion layer and the pH of the entrapped solution. Following the initial drop camera survey, an ROV (Remote Observation Vehicle) examination of the interior of the boat showed a remarkable degree of preservation. A network of ten-tonnes of zinc anodes were distributed at the stern, amidships and the bow to bring about in-situ conservation of the historic submarine. Full article
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