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Heritage, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2019) – 67 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) For preservation efforts and stability assessment of historic structures, it is imperative to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Experience of Documentation for the Accessibility of Widespread Cultural Heritage
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 1032-1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010067 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
The will to preserve and enhance cultural heritage imposes reflections on databases as containers of information for the accessibility of dispersed heritage. The aim of the research is to validate methodological approaches in order to create 3D models and information systems. These tools [...] Read more.
The will to preserve and enhance cultural heritage imposes reflections on databases as containers of information for the accessibility of dispersed heritage. The aim of the research is to validate methodological approaches in order to create 3D models and information systems. These tools improve accessibility to the artifact, according to different interconnection channels, in order to overcome the physical limit imposed by location. Tangible and intangible heritage take the form of a metadata network throughout a critical analysis and elaboration of data. These files create a complex database containing 3D models rich in information that describe cultural systems. The digital survey is the starting point for the development of languages, signs and symbols. It transfers complex objects into virtual systems, developing a multidimensional dialogue capable of integrating actions and meanings. The interactivity of complex databases facilitates the accessibility and disclosure of data to a wide audience. It requires the establishment of representation systems based on the development of virtual environments. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Using LIDO for Evolving Object Documentation into CIDOC CRM
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 1023-1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010066 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
Over the last years, many projects and institutions have worked on transforming object documentation from several existing cataloguing systems into a CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC CRM) compliant graph representation, as expressed in RDF. There were also various attempts to provide a generally [...] Read more.
Over the last years, many projects and institutions have worked on transforming object documentation from several existing cataloguing systems into a CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC CRM) compliant graph representation, as expressed in RDF. There were also various attempts to provide a generally valid path for the transfer of data from Lightweight Information Describing Objects (LIDO), CIDOC’s recommended XML Schema for metadata harvesting, into representations that are suitable for the Semantic Web. They all face the challenge that a detailed mapping, which fully exploits the CRM’s expressiveness and requires semantic assumptions that may not always turn out to be valid. Broad mappings, on the other hand, fail to leverage the potential of Semantic Web technologies. In this paper, we propose a method for using LIDO combined with an associated terminology as a means of evolving existing object documentation into CRM-based RDF representations. By clearly distinguishing between controlled vocabulary and ontology, it is possible to transform object data relatively easily into a minimized, though efficient structure using the CIDOC CRM ontology. This structure will open up the whole world of Semantic Web technologies to be used for further semantic refinement and data quality analysis through exploiting the underlying controlled vocabularies Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Historical Materials of the Apollo Pythios Temple in Rhodes and the Evaluation of Potential Restoration Materials
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 988-1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010065 - 22 Mar 2019
Viewed by 847
Abstract
The Temple of Apollo Pythios, built in the Hellenistic era (3rd–1st century BC), is located in the ancient Acropolis of Rhodes. It was excavated during the Italian occupation and reconstructed by the Italians in the period 1937–8. The method of the “scenographic” restoration [...] Read more.
The Temple of Apollo Pythios, built in the Hellenistic era (3rd–1st century BC), is located in the ancient Acropolis of Rhodes. It was excavated during the Italian occupation and reconstructed by the Italians in the period 1937–8. The method of the “scenographic” restoration was the “mixed structure” technique using a core of reinforced concrete in combination with new biocalcarenite stones and the integration of very few ancient architectural members. Its proximity to the sea and the corresponding salt decay phenomena, aggravated by the erroneous reconstruction methodology and materials, have further deteriorated its state of preservation. Today, the four columns, epistyle and entablature of the Italian interventions demand immediate restoration actions to ensure the monument’s sustainability. This can only be achieved through a combined study of the performance of potential restoration materials and assessment of their compatibility with the historical materials. In the present study, the characteristics of the Temple’s historical porous stones are presented along with the characteristics of five quarry stones, aiming to evaluate which quarry stone is the most appropriate for use in the upcoming restoration. Restoration mortars are designed and evaluated in respect to both the historical materials and the quarry stones, aiming to select the optimum restoration mortar, which can achieve the required level of performance and compatibility and ensure sustainability of the structure as a whole. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
D-ark—A Shared Digital Performance Art Archive with a Modular Metadata Schema
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 976-987; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010064 - 21 Mar 2019
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Digital objects and documentation of intangible cultural heritage pose new challenges for most museums, which have a long history in preserving tangible objects. Art museums, however, have been working with digital objects for some decades, as they have been collecting media art. Yet, [...] Read more.
Digital objects and documentation of intangible cultural heritage pose new challenges for most museums, which have a long history in preserving tangible objects. Art museums, however, have been working with digital objects for some decades, as they have been collecting media art. Yet, performance art as an ephemeral art form has been a challenge for art museums’ collection work. This article presents a method for archiving digital and audiovisual performance documentation. D-ark (digital performance art archive) is based on a joint effort by the artist community T.E.H.D.A.S., which has created the archive, and Pori Art Museum, which is committed to preserving the archive for the future. The aim is to produce sufficient standardized metadata to support this objective. This article addresses the problems of documenting an ephemeral art form and copyright issues pertaining to both the artist and the videographer. The concept of D-ark includes a modular metadata schema that makes a distinction between descriptive, administrative, and technical metadata. The model is designed to be flexible—new modules of objects or technical metadata can be added in the future, if necessary. D-ark metadata schema deploys the FRBRoo, Premis, VideoMD, and AudioMD standards. Administrative and technical metadata modules abide by Finnish digital preservation specifications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Crystallographic Studies in Cultural Heritage: Solid State Behaviour of Inorganic Pigments
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 967-975; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010063 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Most inorganic pigments generally consist of the colouring agents such as hematite (red) or glauconite (green) together with white pigments, including alumosilicates and calcium compounds. This usually leads to a wide colour range dependent on the exact percentage of the colouring agent in [...] Read more.
Most inorganic pigments generally consist of the colouring agents such as hematite (red) or glauconite (green) together with white pigments, including alumosilicates and calcium compounds. This usually leads to a wide colour range dependent on the exact percentage of the colouring agent in the solid mixture. Some inorganic pigments have been in use for thousands of years due to their easy availability and desirable attributes: ochres have been in use since prehistoric times to produce cave and rock paintings, and are still used to this day; terra verde (green earth) first made its appearance in decorations and frescos in the first century B.C. Whether these pigments are used in frescos, cave ornaments or paintings, shortcomings in their particular hue, transparency or fading character very often inspire research towards a better understanding of these physical characteristics. We present a study in which crystal engineering was applied in an attempt to tackle such problems. The solubility of Venetian red ochre and its solid state behaviour at higher temperatures were investigated and compared with similar studies on terra verde. Hot stage microscopy showed that, although the pigment retained its red colour upon heating, some crystallites lost transparency, indicating a phase change. The actual colouring agents hematite and goethite in Venetian red ochre are insoluble in most solvents and solvent mixtures. However, the solvent was found to have a significant effect on the undissolved pigment and other components. The pigment examined in this study was a mixture of microcrystalline powders with smaller quantities of larger crystallites thought to be gypsum. Multi-elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy showed the most abundant elements to be sulphur, calcium, iron, magnesium, silicon and aluminium. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the presence of metal oxides, metal carbonates and alumosilicates. Powder X-ray diffraction experiments helped to identify and quantify the proportions of hematite and goethite in four different pigments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Unburying Hidden Land and Maritime Cultural Potential of Small Islands in the Mediterranean for Tracking Heritage-Led Local Development Paths
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 938-966; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010062 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Small islands in the Mediterranean Sea, although endowed with exquisite land and maritime natural and cultural resources, are in most cases lagging behind areas, mainly due to insularity. Through their long history, many of them are strongly interwoven to events of European or [...] Read more.
Small islands in the Mediterranean Sea, although endowed with exquisite land and maritime natural and cultural resources, are in most cases lagging behind areas, mainly due to insularity. Through their long history, many of them are strongly interwoven to events of European or even global significance, e.g., World War (WW) I and II. Such events have left in their “bodies” important remains, largely conditioning their socio-economic trajectory. Preservation and sustainable management of this Cultural Heritage (CH) is, in this work, perceived as a two-sided coin, serving endurance of European identity, memory, and CH for future generations on the one side; and leveraging future cultural tourism trails of these disadvantaged areas on the other. The goal of this article is to ‘unbury’ land and maritime, tangible and intangible, cultural remains and use them to unveil heritage-led development paths of small Mediterranean islands. This is demonstrated through a specific case study, a distinguishable insular territory and WW II battlefield scenery, Leros Island, Greece; and is accomplished by a participatory spatial planning framework, embedding scenario planning, spatial data management, and e-participation technologies (Web-GIS, social networks) for community engagement. The latter is valued for assessing options available for an integrated, sustainable, and resilient exploitation of land and maritime CH; and raising awareness of local population as to the role of CH as enabler for the transition from past failures to more promising, culturally-driven, and locally-adjusted future development trails. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of 19th and 20th Century Conservation Key Theories in Relation to Contemporary Adaptive Reuse of Heritage Buildings
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 920-937; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010061 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Heritage buildings are important in demonstrating the cultural identities of cities and, consequently, communities throughout the world. In the contemporary era, adaptive reuse has been considered as a strategy for protecting these buildings for both present and future generations. At present, the 19th [...] Read more.
Heritage buildings are important in demonstrating the cultural identities of cities and, consequently, communities throughout the world. In the contemporary era, adaptive reuse has been considered as a strategy for protecting these buildings for both present and future generations. At present, the 19th and 20th century conservation and restoration theories are the backbone of the contemporary adaptation movement by introducing different forms of adaptive reuse over time. These theories revealed how the prioritization system for protecting heritage buildings has changed from a value base to technological needs and user demands. These theories have become theoretical guidelines and policies under modern development. However, these theories are less considered in the contemporary practice of adaptive reuse, and thus remain as theoretical guidelines and policies that are still being developed periodically in the national and international levels. The main aim of this study is to review and critically analyze principal 19th and 20th century theories of conservation, restoration, and adaptive reuse of heritage buildings in order to provide a holistic view of their application, aspects of which may be incorporated in future research, practice, and discussion on the subject. For this paper, these key theories are critically reviewed, analyzed, and discussed, contributing to the study of contemporary practice of adaptive reuse. A summary of the analysis of all key theories is presented. The analysis of the theories presents the evolution of different approaches to adaptive reuse of heritage buildings over time and shows the role of theories in the establishment of international conservation policies. The analysis further reveals the existing gap between theory and practice in contemporary adaptive reuse practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Qualitative Exploratory Analysis of Ecological Integrity for Safeguarding World Natural Heritage Sites: Case Study of Shiretoko Peninsula, Japan
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 898-919; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010060 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
This article reports the findings of an exploratory study on the complexity and challenges of managing UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites (WNHS). Despite their protected status, the majority of the WNHS currently face severe anthropogenic stress. While several studies have analyzed this scenario [...] Read more.
This article reports the findings of an exploratory study on the complexity and challenges of managing UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites (WNHS). Despite their protected status, the majority of the WNHS currently face severe anthropogenic stress. While several studies have analyzed this scenario with spatial analysis and review of global trends, this research provides a qualitative analysis of ongoing fragmentation and impact in a specific site by employing the Ecological Integrity (EI) concept to the Shiretoko Peninsula WNHS in Japan. Insights from key scientific literature are synthesized with those from research and monitoring of the Blakiston’s Fish Owl (a keystone species). Findings indicate that ecosystems of Shiretoko WNHS have not sufficiently recovered from the intensive anthropogenic disruption in the 20th century and in some cases face novel stressors from tourism development after the inscription. Besides, ongoing construction of roads and facilities affects fine-scale heterogeneity in the surrounding landscape. The findings highlight the urgent need of protecting lower trophic level species, stream and forest restoration, and restricting infrastructure development. This implies that WNHS managers must implement measures to meaningfully offset anthropogenic stress on EI, and WNHS management should be integrated with the management of its surrounding landscapes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Collections in the Expanded Field: Relationality and the Provenance of Artefacts and Archives
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 884-897; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010059 - 14 Mar 2019
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
In 2017 archaeological evidence was published which indicates that modern humans first arrived in Australia around 65,000 years ago. Through the countless generations since, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples built deep connections to the landscape, developed rich material culture infused with story [...] Read more.
In 2017 archaeological evidence was published which indicates that modern humans first arrived in Australia around 65,000 years ago. Through the countless generations since, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples built deep connections to the landscape, developed rich material culture infused with story and myth, and used oral and ceremonial traditions to transmit knowledge over thousands of years. Yet, since European invasion at the end of the eighteenth century, the provenance of ethnographic and institutional collections has largely been documented with reference to white collectors and colonial institutions. Attitudes are starting to change. Recent decades have seen significant moves away from the idea of the authoritative institution toward relational museums and the co-creation of knowledge. But the structure and content of much museum documentation continues to lag behind contemporary attitudes. This paper looks at the documentation of Australian ethnographic and anthropological collections through the lens of changing perspectives on provenance, including archival notions of parallel and societal provenance. When placed in the context of recent developments in material culture theory, these collections help to highlight the limitations of existing documentation. The paper concludes with a call for community involvement and a more relational approach to documentation which better encompasses the complexities of provenance and the entangled institutional, archival, oral, and community perspectives that accumulate around artefacts in museums. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion and Conservation Management of the Submarine HMAS AE2 (1915) in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 868-883; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010058 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 820
Abstract
The wreck site of the Australian First World War submarine HMAS AE2 in the Sea of Marmara had a salinity of 26‰ (parts per thousand) for the first 13 m, which increased to 41‰ at 21 m, after which it remained constant to [...] Read more.
The wreck site of the Australian First World War submarine HMAS AE2 in the Sea of Marmara had a salinity of 26‰ (parts per thousand) for the first 13 m, which increased to 41‰ at 21 m, after which it remained constant to the bottom at 72 m, where the dissolved oxygen was three parts per million. The vessel is protected by a very dense anaerobic concretion and lies half above a silt mound. Cross-sections of a concretion sample revealed the original surface, associated paint films and a series of burial-exposure episodes that reflected periodic changes in the silt levels, which are likely associated with major storms. Core samples of sediment have established the impact of the vessel on the site. Corrosion simulation experiments have established the direct linkage between chloride levels underneath the concretion layer and the pH of the entrapped solution. Following the initial drop camera survey, an ROV (Remote Observation Vehicle) examination of the interior of the boat showed a remarkable degree of preservation. A network of ten-tonnes of zinc anodes were distributed at the stern, amidships and the bow to bring about in-situ conservation of the historic submarine. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Ethical and Legal Considerations for Collection Development, Exhibition and Research at Museums Victoria
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 858-867; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010057 - 13 Mar 2019
Viewed by 736
Abstract
With over 17 million collection items, Museums Victoria is the largest museum in Australia. Museums Victoria recognises the public benefit derived from lending and borrowing between collecting institutions and actively participates in the international loans network in order to complement and enhance the [...] Read more.
With over 17 million collection items, Museums Victoria is the largest museum in Australia. Museums Victoria recognises the public benefit derived from lending and borrowing between collecting institutions and actively participates in the international loans network in order to complement and enhance the potential for learning and enjoyment for all audiences. Museums Victoria staff undertook an extensive review of policies and procedures in order to apply for approval for protection under the Australian Government’s Protection of Cultural Objects on Loan Scheme (PCOL Scheme), established to administer the Commonwealth Protection of Cultural Objects on Loan Act 2013 (PCOL Act). The PCOL Scheme provides (with some limits) legal protection—immunity from seizure—for Australian and foreign cultural items on loan from overseas lenders for temporary public exhibition in Australia. The Ministry for the Arts also released the Australian Best Practice Guide to Collecting Cultural Material in 2015. The Guide is not a mandatory code. It recommends principles and standards to apply when acquiring collection items and in part for inward and outward loans. In 2016–2017 Museums Victoria staff used the Act and its Regulation along with the Guide to substantially update and formalise previous formal and informal policies and practices, in order to demonstrate its commitment to due diligence endeavours to verify the accuracy of information before acquiring, deaccessioning, borrowing, or lending items. This paper outlines the steps we took and what we have learned since receiving approval as a registered borrower under the PCOL Scheme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Survey for the Archaeological Analysis and the Enhancement of Gropina Archaeological Site
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 848-857; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010056 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
This paper concerns the path of knowledge that leads to the understanding of the morphology and evolution of the archaeological area discovered in the 1960s below the parish church of Gropina (AR). By dealing with archaeological surveying methods, the attention is focused on [...] Read more.
This paper concerns the path of knowledge that leads to the understanding of the morphology and evolution of the archaeological area discovered in the 1960s below the parish church of Gropina (AR). By dealing with archaeological surveying methods, the attention is focused on the digital survey technologies used, integrating data from laser scanner instruments with photogrammetric ones. The morphological base was necessary for the preparation of stratigraphic analyses, and allowed us to check the previous studies carried out on the building to extract a periodized planimetry. Finally, the digital drawing technologies have allowed us to hypothesize the schematic evolutionary models of the different phases of the building, and to use the digital survey to create a virtual platform through which to interact with the archaeological site, which is now closed to visitors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Archaeometallurgical Investigation on Metal Samples from the Chiaravalle Cross
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 836-847; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010055 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
The production and manufacturing techniques of metals involve expertise, and the study of ancient artifacts relies on interdisciplinary skills. Metalworking processes used in the production of jewelry masterpieces can, for example, give indications on the provenance of an ancient object of an unknown [...] Read more.
The production and manufacturing techniques of metals involve expertise, and the study of ancient artifacts relies on interdisciplinary skills. Metalworking processes used in the production of jewelry masterpieces can, for example, give indications on the provenance of an ancient object of an unknown origin and the techniques used. In this regard, metallic samples from the Chiaravalle Cross (a beautiful processional cross with a complex structure, dating to the 13th century) have been studied, combining bulk and point measurements. Neutron-based experiments (like Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis and neutron diffraction) provide the bulk of the elemental and mineralogical composition, while particle induced X-ray emission analyses evidenced important details on its manufacturing techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
From Tangible to Intangible Heritage inside Italian Historical Opera Houses
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 826-835; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010054 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 675
Abstract
Historical opera houses in Italy have been the place for the development of a relevant part of the National musical tradition and their design is paired with a peculiar acoustical fingerprint. Due to its relevance this can be regarded as an intangible heritage [...] Read more.
Historical opera houses in Italy have been the place for the development of a relevant part of the National musical tradition and their design is paired with a peculiar acoustical fingerprint. Due to its relevance this can be regarded as an intangible heritage embedded in the tangible heritage constituted by the theatre building itself. In particular the presence of fairly deep lateral enclosures opened to the main hall volume, called the “boxes,” is of paramount importance for the implications it had on the listening experience perceived by the public. For instance, the positions in the box recess had a much less favourable sound field compared to the frontal ones located at the box opening towards the hall. In this work the need for the box design is briefly recalled from an historical perspective and then the sound field in the boxes is described as the combination of several sound reflections from specific interior surfaces. It is seen how the related listening experience can vary in a remarkable manner while moving from boxes at different tiers. This characteristic greatly differentiates historical opera houses from modern ones, where one of the most valuable attribute is a limited change in acoustics over large audiences. The acoustical environment of historical halls and inside boxes in particular was important in building up the ear of the Italian opera goers, thus a close consideration of the peculiarities of the intangible heritage is necessary in case of restorations and cannot be overlooked. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Italy and China Sharing Best Practices on the Sustainable Development of Small Underground Settlements
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 813-825; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010053 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Both Southern Italy and Central China feature historic rural settlements characterized by underground constructions with residential and service functions. Many of these areas are currently tackling economic, social and environmental problems, resulting in unemployment, disengagement, depopulation, marginalization or loss of cultural and biological [...] Read more.
Both Southern Italy and Central China feature historic rural settlements characterized by underground constructions with residential and service functions. Many of these areas are currently tackling economic, social and environmental problems, resulting in unemployment, disengagement, depopulation, marginalization or loss of cultural and biological diversity. Both in Europe and in China, policies for rural development address three core areas of intervention: agricultural competitiveness, environmental protection and the promotion of rural amenities through strengthening and diversifying the economic base of rural communities. The challenge is to create innovative pathways for regeneration based on raising awareness to inspire local rural communities to develop alternative actions to reduce poverty while preserving the unique aspects of their local environment and culture. In this view, cultural heritage can be a catalyst for the sustainable growth of the rural community. Through a series of projects on a national and international scale, the authors have addressed some of these problems by exchanging best practices in conservation, sustainable use and the enhancement of the underground heritage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conservation of the Built Heritage: Pilot Site Approach to Design a Sustainable Process
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 797-812; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010052 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
The conservation project of built heritage is a complex process, dealing with an extremely heterogeneous range of elements and different substrates with a large variety of conservation conditions. In recent years, its sustainability has become a relevant issue, due to the general limitation [...] Read more.
The conservation project of built heritage is a complex process, dealing with an extremely heterogeneous range of elements and different substrates with a large variety of conservation conditions. In recent years, its sustainability has become a relevant issue, due to the general limitation of resources and unique features of cultural heritage assets. The conservation project, therefore, requires a thorough knowledge of the specific characteristics of the site, a reliable evaluation of the treatment’s efficacy and durability, and efficient control of procedures and timing of the site during the conservation activities. A suitable approach to design the intervention is the implementation of a pilot site for the knowledge of surfaces and structures, and for the testing of different operative procedures. This approach needs the collaborative work of a multidisciplinary team coordinated by the project manager. This paper reports on the design of the conservation project of the Renaissance façade of the Monza cathedral, with the development of a pilot site as a relevant example of a complex surface. The three-phase process—preliminary knowledge, testing and implementation of the treatment methodologies, and scale-up to the general conservation project—is described and discussed with significant reference to real data from the case study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modern Conservation Principles and Their Application in Mediterranean Historic Centers—The Case of Valletta
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 787-796; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010051 - 28 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Historic urban conservation has, for more than a century, been a major focus of planning, architectural debate and public policy. Today, there is a growing consensus that the historic city should be viewed not only as a unity of architectural monuments and supporting [...] Read more.
Historic urban conservation has, for more than a century, been a major focus of planning, architectural debate and public policy. Today, there is a growing consensus that the historic city should be viewed not only as a unity of architectural monuments and supporting fabric, but also as a complex layering of meanings, connected both to its natural environment and to its geological structure, as well as to its metropolitan hinterland. The current paper will attempt to analyze the principles of modern urban conservation and to evaluate the effectiveness of their application in Mediterranean historic centers. It is structured in two parts. In the first part it examines the changes that diachronically took place in planning for historic urban conservation. It will analyze the principles that were followed until today and the existing strategies, policies and practices of historic urban conservation. The second part will examine the application of these policies in the historic city of Valletta and it will analyze the effectiveness of these principles’ application in the conservation of its historic environment. The evaluation of these policies and practices will be based on basic urban conservation pillars, such as the support of their identity through communication strategies; the promotion of cultural identity and contribution to economic growth; the enhancement of a better quality of life for residents through the strengthening of the use of the dwelling; the increase of the attractiveness of tourists; and the application of regeneration strategies and environmental planning. It is essential to address the issue of urban conservation in ways that reflect the great diversity of cultural traditions, to support new practices, and to define management systems aimed at preserving values within sustainable processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Survey and Photogrammetric Restitution of Monumental Complexes: Issues and Solutions—The Case of the Manfredonic Castle of Mussomeli
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 774-786; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010050 - 28 Feb 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
The latest results obtained through photogrammetric restitution enhanced by GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) survey achieved increased levels of accuracy. These survey solutions are used to rapidly obtain a detailed model with an excellent level of accuracy (centimetric) with cheaper [...] Read more.
The latest results obtained through photogrammetric restitution enhanced by GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) survey achieved increased levels of accuracy. These survey solutions are used to rapidly obtain a detailed model with an excellent level of accuracy (centimetric) with cheaper equipment. However, the contour conditions are not always favorable for obtaining the best results in a simple way. The work presented in this paper shows the survey and the photogrammetric restitution of the Manfredonic Castle of Mussomeli in Sicily, developed as a part of the PON NEPTIS European Project, aimed at the valorization of Cultural Heritage (CH). This case is a typical example of a complex survey carried out in an impervious environment where traditional survey procedures are totally useless or require a longer amount of time and great effort if a high level of accuracy is requested. In this case, considering the natural conditions of the site, the only way to perform the task has been the use of photogrammetric restitution based on UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) technologies and GNSS survey. The precision obtained from the results allowed us to create a geometric 3D reconstruction of the monumental complex of the castle for the valorization of the site, which was the main goal of the whole process. The procedure that is the focus of this work is a test of rapid 3D CH survey and documentation in an impervious environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Archaeological Excavation Report of Rigny: An Example of an Interoperable Logicist Publication
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 761-773; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010049 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
The logicist program, which was initiated in the 1970s by J.C. Gardin, aims to clarify the reasoning processes in the field of archaeology and to explore new forms of publication, in order to overcome the growing imbalance between the flood of publications and [...] Read more.
The logicist program, which was initiated in the 1970s by J.C. Gardin, aims to clarify the reasoning processes in the field of archaeology and to explore new forms of publication, in order to overcome the growing imbalance between the flood of publications and our capacities of assimilation. The logicist program brings out the cognitive structure of archaeological constructs, which establishes a bridge between empirical facts or descriptive propositions, at one end of the argumentation, and interpretative propositions at the other. This alternative form of publication is designed to highlight the chain of inference and the evidence on which it stands. In the case of the logicist publication of the archaeological excavation in Rigny (Indre-et-Loire, France), our workflow can provide different levels of access to the content, allowing both speed-reading and in-depth consultation. Both the chains of inference and the ArSol database containing the field records that provide evidence for the initial propositions are visualized in a diagram structure. We rely on the International Committee for Documentation Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC CRM) entities for ensuring the semantic interoperability of such publications within the Linked Open Data. Inference chains are mapped to CRMinf and ArSol records are mapped to CRM, CRMSci and CRMArcheo. Moreover, as part of the work carried out by the French Huma-Num MASA Consortium, a project is underway to allow the building of logicist publications starting from a graphical interface for describing the structure and content of propositions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Ecological Impact of Ultramarathon Events in Protected Natural Sites: ‘Le Grand Raid Réunion’
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 749-760; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010048 - 21 Feb 2019
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Outdoor sport events evidently have an impact on the environment. If they are taking place in naturally protected areas this impact is even greater. By taking ’Le Grand Raid Réunion’, an international ultramarathon annually organized in the heart of an UNESCO World Natural [...] Read more.
Outdoor sport events evidently have an impact on the environment. If they are taking place in naturally protected areas this impact is even greater. By taking ’Le Grand Raid Réunion’, an international ultramarathon annually organized in the heart of an UNESCO World Natural Heritage site, as a case study, this paper concentrates on assessing the ecological impact of an outdoor sports event in a protected natural site. On the basis of datasets taken from official logistics lists and from a survey conducted among all event participants the analysis embraces ecological and carbon event footprinting. Measuring those two indicators allows identifying the specific event-related ecological impacts, including diverse variables caused by the athletes, the spectators, and the related organizational requirements. The results of the study thereby have the ability to strongly influence the future event policy and to function as a model for the assessment of the ecological impact of other outdoor sports events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vulnerability Assessment of Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Casting Light on 20th-Century Parisian Artistic Bronze: Insights from Compositional Studies of Sculptures Using Hand-Held X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 732-748; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010047 - 21 Feb 2019
Viewed by 816
Abstract
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Paris was home to scores of bronze foundries making it the primary European center for the production of artistic bronzes, or bronzes d’art. These foundries were competitive, employing different casting methods—either lost-wax or sand casting—as well [...] Read more.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Paris was home to scores of bronze foundries making it the primary European center for the production of artistic bronzes, or bronzes d’art. These foundries were competitive, employing different casting methods—either lost-wax or sand casting—as well as closely guarded alloy and patina recipes. Recent studies have demonstrated that accurate measurements of the metal composition of these casts can provide art historians of early 20th-century bronze sculpture with a richer understanding of an object’s biography, and help answer questions about provenance and authenticity. In this paper, data from 171 20th-century bronzes from Parisian foundries are presented revealing diachronic aspects of foundry production, such as varying compositional ranges for sand casting and lost-wax casting. This new detailed knowledge of alloy composition is most illuminating when the interpretation of the data focuses on casts by a single artist and is embedded within a specific historical context. As a case study, compositional analyses were undertaken on a group of 20th-century posthumous bronze casts of painted, unbaked clay caricature portrait busts by Honoré-Victorin Daumier (1808–1879). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Analytical Chemistry in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessReview
Protection of Cultural Heritage in Thessaloniki: A Review of Designation Actions
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 717-731; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010046 - 19 Feb 2019
Viewed by 690
Abstract
This paper presents a part of the work of the Department of Traditional Settlements and Listed Buildings (Department of T. S. & L. B.) of the Ministry of Interior (sector of Macedonia and Thrace) which concerns to the specialized legislative policy for the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a part of the work of the Department of Traditional Settlements and Listed Buildings (Department of T. S. & L. B.) of the Ministry of Interior (sector of Macedonia and Thrace) which concerns to the specialized legislative policy for the protection and designation of architectural culture, giving a brief reference on major designation processes of properties from the region of Macedonia and Thrace. The Department of T. S. & L. B. is responsible, since 1986, for identifying and protecting the architectural heritage of Northern Greece, by preserving buildings and areas or settlements from inappropriate changes or destruction, thus recognizing them as listed buildings or traditional settlements according to specific administrative procedure. Formal designation helps to protect traditional properties as listed buildings from inappropriate changes or destruction; meanwhile, the establishment of specific protection terms and restrictions of construction, the approval of architectural plans for restorations, interventions, uses or additions contribute that all listed buildings survive and prosper as “live shells”, along with other monuments. Additionally, in cases of traditional areas and settlements, other actions, e.g., modification of city plans, establishment of building rules, etc. have created a holistic protection framework preserving the architectural, urban and aesthetic character of significant historical areas of the city. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
The Importance of Knowledge of Provenance for the Provenance of Knowledge: The Case of Traditional Costumes Collections in Greece
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 708-716; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010045 - 19 Feb 2019
Viewed by 662
Abstract
In Greece there are several collections of “traditional costumes”, i.e., garments with a strongly local character, which were in use up to the early 20th century. “Traditional costumes” are directly linked to Modern Greek folk culture: they were formed in its context and [...] Read more.
In Greece there are several collections of “traditional costumes”, i.e., garments with a strongly local character, which were in use up to the early 20th century. “Traditional costumes” are directly linked to Modern Greek folk culture: they were formed in its context and they are its most typical and obvious image. They have often been used as a national icon and are popular with people of all ages, who admire them and, on occasions of national celebrations and dance festivals, take pleasure and pride in dressing in replicas of them. Since they have stopped being worn many decades ago, the existing collections are a major source for their study, and they are respectfully referred to by scholars, the public and makers of replicas. The provenance of these collections—the criteria used, the persons involved, the purposes served, etc.—deeply affects the extent and the nature of our knowledge on the objects included in them. Given the inadequate information usually recorded on provenance issues, a thorough search of all potential sources with an aim to put together ‘biographies’ of collections will help to understand the collecting context of the objects and their respective historical and interpretational value. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Heritage Preservation Policy of Civil Servants Joint Stock Fund for Historical Buildings in Athens: The Deligiorgi Residence Case
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 681-707; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010044 - 19 Feb 2019
Viewed by 637
Abstract
The Civil Servants Joint Stock Fund (C.S.J.S.F.), since its establishment in 1867, has invested part of its funds in acquiring real estate properties during the interwar period in Greece. The real estate selection was a very significant process for the Fund’s administration, investing [...] Read more.
The Civil Servants Joint Stock Fund (C.S.J.S.F.), since its establishment in 1867, has invested part of its funds in acquiring real estate properties during the interwar period in Greece. The real estate selection was a very significant process for the Fund’s administration, investing on buildings situated in the historic center of Athens and designed by well-known architects. The fund also initiated the restoration procedures in order to keep its real estate up to date with respect to their importance as milestones of Greek Culture. This paper presents a part of the Fund’s heritage preservation policy and its extensive protection, conservation, restoration, and rehabilitation program; referring briefly to the historical and architectural description of the five (C.S.J.S.F.) historical buildings, in addition to the conservation and restoration projects for one of them; the Deligiorgi Residence, which was designed by the architect Ernst Ziller. The restoration work underlines the ultimate need for heritage preservation, and the importance of being sensitive to the historical character of the buildings, thereby improving their economic status and contributing to the sustainable preservation of architectural and cultural heritage within historic cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Village and Heritage in China: A Discussion on the Influence and Future of Heritage Work in Rural Areas
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 666-680; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010043 - 18 Feb 2019
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Over the past few decades, China has gone through a number of changes, and no community has been more impacted by these changes than the rural community. This paper takes a look at how heritage influences rural communities in these turbulent times. The [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, China has gone through a number of changes, and no community has been more impacted by these changes than the rural community. This paper takes a look at how heritage influences rural communities in these turbulent times. The paper focuses on three ways in which heritage is present in rural communities: Ecomuseums, rural tourism and archaeological heritage. While there are differences between all three modes, their similarities are defined by common issues addressed in this paper, such as the persisting top-down approaches, traditions in government systems, and issues native to rural areas that prevent active participation in heritage and sustainable tourism. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Semantic Representation and Location Provenance of Cultural Heritage Information: the National Gallery Collection in London
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 648-665; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010042 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
This paper describes a working example of semantically modelling cultural heritage information and data from the National Gallery collection in London. The paper discusses the process of semantically representing and enriching the available cultural heritage data, and reveals the challenges of semantically expressing [...] Read more.
This paper describes a working example of semantically modelling cultural heritage information and data from the National Gallery collection in London. The paper discusses the process of semantically representing and enriching the available cultural heritage data, and reveals the challenges of semantically expressing interrelations and groupings among the physical items, the venue and the available digital resources. The paper also highlights the challenges in the creation of the conceptual model of the National Gallery as a Venue, which aims to i) describe and understand the correlation between the parts of a building and the whole; ii) to record and express the semantic relationships among the building components with the building as a whole; and iii) to be able to record the accurate location of objects within space and capture their provenance in terms of changes of location. The outcome of this research is the CrossCult venue ontology, a fully International Committee for Documentation Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC-CRM) compliant structure developed in the context of the CrossCult project. The proposed ontology attempts to model the spatial arrangements of the different types of cultural heritage venues considered in the project: from small museums to open air archaeological sites and whole cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Architectural Heritage: A Discussion on Conservation and Safety
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 631-647; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010041 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
This paper presents a study carried out in the Italian region of Umbria, after the 2016 Central Italy earthquake. The aim is to address the problem of the conservation and protection of architectural heritage in Italy. The application of retrofitting strategies, while improving [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study carried out in the Italian region of Umbria, after the 2016 Central Italy earthquake. The aim is to address the problem of the conservation and protection of architectural heritage in Italy. The application of retrofitting strategies, while improving the seismic performance of historic—and frequently listed by conservation bodies—buildings, will not significantly alter their appearance, will be reversible, and fall within the principle of minimum intervention (minimal (least) intervention (or conservative repair)). These issues were evaluated in the paper by considering the different points of view of structural engineers and conservators. Heavy structural-oriented interventions as well as the underestimation of the importance of the structural safety for masonry monuments has produced, in the past, irreversible damage to important buildings and monuments, and loss of architectural heritage in Italy. The requirement of structural safety, especially for monuments located in seismic-prone areas, is compared with the need for conservation. The Italian building guidelines for interventions of cultural heritage are also discussed, highlighting some limitations and important advancements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vulnerability Assessment of Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessReview
Semantic Bridging of Cultural Heritage Disciplines and Tasks
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 611-630; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010040 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
The Cultural Heritage (CH) domain encompasses a wide range of different disciplines, serving the study, interpretation, curation, and preservation of objects, collections, archives, sites, and the dissemination of related knowledge. In this context, stakeholders generate, retrieve, and share a vast amount of diverse [...] Read more.
The Cultural Heritage (CH) domain encompasses a wide range of different disciplines, serving the study, interpretation, curation, and preservation of objects, collections, archives, sites, and the dissemination of related knowledge. In this context, stakeholders generate, retrieve, and share a vast amount of diverse information. Therefore, information interoperability has been considered a crucial task, especially in terms of semantics. In this way, the CIDOC CRM (International Committee for Documentation Conceptual Reference Model) has been widely used as an underlying model that offers interoperability between CH domain metadata standards and ontologies. To the best of our knowledge, an overall review of mapping, merging, and extending this core ontology, as well as an aggregate table which classifies and correlates those ontologies and standards, has not yet been presented. Our study conducts an aggregate review of relevant published efforts and outlines the various associations between them, encapsulating the CIDOC CRM and its specialized models, as well. This work aims to further clarify the field and scope of the different works, identify their methods, and highlight the semantic overlap, or differences, between them. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Interdisciplinary Study of Early Mediaeval Churches in North-Western Spain (Galicia)
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 599-610; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010039 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 593
Abstract
Over the last five years, the EMCHAHE (Early Medieval Churches: History, Archaeology and Heritage) Project has analysed the architecture, archaeology and history of numerous rural churches of the High Middle Ages in Galicia (NW Spain), through its historical, stratigraphic and chronological study. As [...] Read more.
Over the last five years, the EMCHAHE (Early Medieval Churches: History, Archaeology and Heritage) Project has analysed the architecture, archaeology and history of numerous rural churches of the High Middle Ages in Galicia (NW Spain), through its historical, stratigraphic and chronological study. As a result, the knowledge of this historical period has been broadened and even changed, as well as an interdisciplinary methodology on how to approach this type of study. According to the results obtained, the project has allowed us to reflect on two issues, the potential of a relatively low-cost type of study to understand, assess and disseminate this type of heritage and the special appreciation and ownership that local communities have towards these churches as an engine of sustainable social development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage and Territory)
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Documenting the Heritage of Nokia—From Discussions to Catalogue
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 587-598; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010038 - 12 Feb 2019
Viewed by 519
Abstract
In 2015, the Museum of Technology received a donation of ninety data communication devices from the 1960s to 2010s, collected and arranged by employees of the Nokia Data Communications department. The museum has been organizing (2018–2019) documentation workshops to collect information and connect [...] Read more.
In 2015, the Museum of Technology received a donation of ninety data communication devices from the 1960s to 2010s, collected and arranged by employees of the Nokia Data Communications department. The museum has been organizing (2018–2019) documentation workshops to collect information and connect individual objects with larger concepts such as company history, innovations, and technologies. The idea is to gain comprehensive contextual information about the collection by bringing together expertise and experiences of (former) Nokia employees, and documentation and interpretation skills of museum professionals. The method of the documentation workshops is a conversational interview inspired by the objects. Subsequently, workshop discussions were planned to be digested and used in cataloguing individual objects and object groups by museum professionals. Eventually significance assessment was chosen as a tool for summarizing the documentation project. The paper discusses the planning and organizing of the outcomes of the documentation workshops and asks the following questions: What is the optimal relationship between cataloguing information in the collections management system and documentation of workshop discussions preserved in the museum’s collection archive? How should the workshop be documented to trace the provenance of the information? What information should and can be collected on the workshop participants? Full article
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