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Heritage, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessArticle The Archaeological Excavation Report of Rigny: An Example of an Interoperable Logicist Publication
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 761-773; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010049 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
The logicist program, which was initiated in the 1970s by J.C. Gardin, aims to clarify the reasoning processes in the field of archaeology and to explore new forms of publication, in order to overcome the growing imbalance between the flood of publications and [...] Read more.
The logicist program, which was initiated in the 1970s by J.C. Gardin, aims to clarify the reasoning processes in the field of archaeology and to explore new forms of publication, in order to overcome the growing imbalance between the flood of publications and our capacities of assimilation. The logicist program brings out the cognitive structure of archaeological constructs, which establishes a bridge between empirical facts or descriptive propositions, at one end of the argumentation, and interpretative propositions at the other. This alternative form of publication is designed to highlight the chain of inference and the evidence on which it stands. In the case of the logicist publication of the archaeological excavation in Rigny (Indre-et-Loire, France), our workflow can provide different levels of access to the content, allowing both speed-reading and in-depth consultation. Both the chains of inference and the ArSol database containing the field records that provide evidence for the initial propositions are visualized in a diagram structure. We rely on the International Committee for Documentation Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC CRM) entities for ensuring the semantic interoperability of such publications within the Linked Open Data. Inference chains are mapped to CRMinf and ArSol records are mapped to CRM, CRMSci and CRMArcheo. Moreover, as part of the work carried out by the French Huma-Num MASA Consortium, a project is underway to allow the building of logicist publications starting from a graphical interface for describing the structure and content of propositions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Ecological Impact of Ultramarathon Events in Protected Natural Sites: ‘Le Grand Raid Réunion’
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 749-760; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010048
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
Outdoor sport events evidently have an impact on the environment. If they are taking place in naturally protected areas this impact is even greater. By taking ’Le Grand Raid Réunion’, an international ultramarathon annually organized in the heart of an UNESCO World Natural [...] Read more.
Outdoor sport events evidently have an impact on the environment. If they are taking place in naturally protected areas this impact is even greater. By taking ’Le Grand Raid Réunion’, an international ultramarathon annually organized in the heart of an UNESCO World Natural Heritage site, as a case study, this paper concentrates on assessing the ecological impact of an outdoor sports event in a protected natural site. On the basis of datasets taken from official logistics lists and from a survey conducted among all event participants the analysis embraces ecological and carbon event footprinting. Measuring those two indicators allows identifying the specific event-related ecological impacts, including diverse variables caused by the athletes, the spectators, and the related organizational requirements. The results of the study thereby have the ability to strongly influence the future event policy and to function as a model for the assessment of the ecological impact of other outdoor sports events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vulnerability Assessment of Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Casting Light on 20th-Century Parisian Artistic Bronze: Insights from Compositional Studies of Sculptures Using Hand-Held X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 732-748; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010047
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Paris was home to scores of bronze foundries making it the primary European center for the production of artistic bronzes, or bronzes d’art. These foundries were competitive, employing different casting methods—either lost-wax or sand casting—as well [...] Read more.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Paris was home to scores of bronze foundries making it the primary European center for the production of artistic bronzes, or bronzes d’art. These foundries were competitive, employing different casting methods—either lost-wax or sand casting—as well as closely guarded alloy and patina recipes. Recent studies have demonstrated that accurate measurements of the metal composition of these casts can provide art historians of early 20th-century bronze sculpture with a richer understanding of an object’s biography, and help answer questions about provenance and authenticity. In this paper, data from 171 20th-century bronzes from Parisian foundries are presented revealing diachronic aspects of foundry production, such as varying compositional ranges for sand casting and lost-wax casting. This new detailed knowledge of alloy composition is most illuminating when the interpretation of the data focuses on casts by a single artist and is embedded within a specific historical context. As a case study, compositional analyses were undertaken on a group of 20th-century posthumous bronze casts of painted, unbaked clay caricature portrait busts by Honoré-Victorin Daumier (1808–1879). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Analytical Chemistry in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessReview Protection of Cultural Heritage in Thessaloniki: A Review of Designation Actions
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 717-731; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010046
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents a part of the work of the Department of Traditional Settlements and Listed Buildings (Department of T. S. & L. B.) of the Ministry of Interior (sector of Macedonia and Thrace) (&), which concerns to the specialized legislative policy for [...] Read more.
This paper presents a part of the work of the Department of Traditional Settlements and Listed Buildings (Department of T. S. & L. B.) of the Ministry of Interior (sector of Macedonia and Thrace) (&), which concerns to the specialized legislative policy for the protection and designation of architectural culture, giving a brief reference on major designation processes of properties from the region of Macedonia and Thrace. The Department of T. S. & L. B. is responsible, since 1986, for identifying and protecting the architectural heritage of Northern Greece, by preserving buildings and areas or settlements from inappropriate changes or destruction, thus recognizing them as listed buildings or traditional settlements according to specific administrative procedure. Formal designation helps to protect traditional properties as listed buildings from inappropriate changes or destruction; meanwhile, the establishment of specific protection terms and restrictions of construction, the approval of architectural plans for restorations, interventions, uses or additions contribute that all listed buildings survive and prosper as “live shells”, along with other monuments. Additionally, in cases of traditional areas and settlements, other actions, e.g. modification of city plans, establishment of building rules, etc. have created a holistic protection framework preserving the architectural, urban and aesthetic character of significant historical areas of the city. Full article
Open AccessCase Report The Importance of Knowledge of Provenance for the Provenance of Knowledge: The Case of Traditional Costumes Collections in Greece
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 708-716; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010045
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
In Greece there are several collections of “traditional costumes”, i.e., garments with a strongly local character, which were in use up to the early 20th century. “Traditional costumes” are directly linked to Modern Greek folk culture: they were formed in its context and [...] Read more.
In Greece there are several collections of “traditional costumes”, i.e., garments with a strongly local character, which were in use up to the early 20th century. “Traditional costumes” are directly linked to Modern Greek folk culture: they were formed in its context and they are its most typical and obvious image. They have often been used as a national icon and are popular with people of all ages, who admire them and, on occasions of national celebrations and dance festivals, take pleasure and pride in dressing in replicas of them. Since they have stopped being worn many decades ago, the existing collections are a major source for their study, and they are respectfully referred to by scholars, the public and makers of replicas. The provenance of these collections—the criteria used, the persons involved, the purposes served, etc.—deeply affects the extent and the nature of our knowledge on the objects included in them. Given the inadequate information usually recorded on provenance issues, a thorough search of all potential sources with an aim to put together ‘biographies’ of collections will help to understand the collecting context of the objects and their respective historical and interpretational value. Full article
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Open AccessReview Heritage Preservation Policy of Civil Servants Joint Stock Fund for Historical Buildings in Athens: The Deligiorgi Residence Case
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 681-707; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010044
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
The Civil Servants Joint Stock Fund (C.S.J.S.F.), since its establishment in 1867, has invested part of its funds in acquiring real estate properties during the interwar period in Greece. The real estate selection was a very significant process for the Fund’s administration, investing [...] Read more.
The Civil Servants Joint Stock Fund (C.S.J.S.F.), since its establishment in 1867, has invested part of its funds in acquiring real estate properties during the interwar period in Greece. The real estate selection was a very significant process for the Fund’s administration, investing on buildings situated in the historic center of Athens and designed by well-known architects. The fund also initiated the restoration procedures in order to keep its real estate up to date with respect to their importance as milestones of Greek Culture. This paper presents a part of the Fund’s heritage preservation policy and its extensive protection, conservation, restoration, and rehabilitation program; referring briefly to the historical and architectural description of the five (C.S.J.S.F.) historical buildings, in addition to the conservation and restoration projects for one of them; the Deligiorgi Residence, which was designed by the architect Ernst Ziller. The restoration work underlines the ultimate need for heritage preservation, and the importance of being sensitive to the historical character of the buildings, thereby improving their economic status and contributing to the sustainable preservation of architectural and cultural heritage within historic cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Village and Heritage in China: A Discussion on the Influence and Future of Heritage Work in Rural Areas
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 666-680; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010043
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Over the past few decades, China has gone through a number of changes, and no community has been more impacted by these changes than the rural community. This paper takes a look at how heritage influences rural communities in these turbulent times. The [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, China has gone through a number of changes, and no community has been more impacted by these changes than the rural community. This paper takes a look at how heritage influences rural communities in these turbulent times. The paper focuses on three ways in which heritage is present in rural communities: Ecomuseums, rural tourism and archaeological heritage. While there are differences between all three modes, their similarities are defined by common issues addressed in this paper, such as the persisting top-down approaches, traditions in government systems, and issues native to rural areas that prevent active participation in heritage and sustainable tourism. Full article
Open AccessArticle Semantic Representation and Location Provenance of Cultural Heritage Information: the National Gallery Collection in London
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 648-665; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010042
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper describes a working example of semantically modelling cultural heritage information and data from the National Gallery collection in London. The paper discusses the process of semantically representing and enriching the available cultural heritage data, and reveals the challenges of semantically expressing [...] Read more.
This paper describes a working example of semantically modelling cultural heritage information and data from the National Gallery collection in London. The paper discusses the process of semantically representing and enriching the available cultural heritage data, and reveals the challenges of semantically expressing interrelations and groupings among the physical items, the venue and the available digital resources. The paper also highlights the challenges in the creation of the conceptual model of the National Gallery as a Venue, which aims to i) describe and understand the correlation between the parts of a building and the whole; ii) to record and express the semantic relationships among the building components with the building as a whole; and iii) to be able to record the accurate location of objects within space and capture their provenance in terms of changes of location. The outcome of this research is the CrossCult venue ontology, a fully International Committee for Documentation Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC-CRM) compliant structure developed in the context of the CrossCult project. The proposed ontology attempts to model the spatial arrangements of the different types of cultural heritage venues considered in the project: from small museums to open air archaeological sites and whole cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Architectural Heritage: A Discussion on Conservation and Safety
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 631-647; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010041
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents a study carried out in the Italian region of Umbria, after the 2016 Central Italy earthquake. The aim is to address the problem of the conservation and protection of architectural heritage in Italy. The application of retrofitting strategies, while improving [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study carried out in the Italian region of Umbria, after the 2016 Central Italy earthquake. The aim is to address the problem of the conservation and protection of architectural heritage in Italy. The application of retrofitting strategies, while improving the seismic performance of historic—and frequently listed by conservation bodies—buildings, will not significantly alter their appearance, will be reversible, and fall within the principle of minimum intervention (minimal (least) intervention (or conservative repair)). These issues were evaluated in the paper by considering the different points of view of structural engineers and conservators. Heavy structural-oriented interventions as well as the underestimation of the importance of the structural safety for masonry monuments has produced, in the past, irreversible damage to important buildings and monuments, and loss of architectural heritage in Italy. The requirement of structural safety, especially for monuments located in seismic-prone areas, is compared with the need for conservation. The Italian building guidelines for interventions of cultural heritage are also discussed, highlighting some limitations and important advancements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vulnerability Assessment of Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessReview Semantic Bridging of Cultural Heritage Disciplines and Tasks
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 611-630; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010040
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
The Cultural Heritage (CH) domain encompasses a wide range of different disciplines, serving the study, interpretation, curation, and preservation of objects, collections, archives, sites, and the dissemination of related knowledge. In this context, stakeholders generate, retrieve, and share a vast amount of diverse [...] Read more.
The Cultural Heritage (CH) domain encompasses a wide range of different disciplines, serving the study, interpretation, curation, and preservation of objects, collections, archives, sites, and the dissemination of related knowledge. In this context, stakeholders generate, retrieve, and share a vast amount of diverse information. Therefore, information interoperability has been considered a crucial task, especially in terms of semantics. In this way, the CIDOC CRM (International Committee for Documentation Conceptual Reference Model) has been widely used as an underlying model that offers interoperability between CH domain metadata standards and ontologies. To the best of our knowledge, an overall review of mapping, merging, and extending this core ontology, as well as an aggregate table which classifies and correlates those ontologies and standards, has not yet been presented. Our study conducts an aggregate review of relevant published efforts and outlines the various associations between them, encapsulating the CIDOC CRM and its specialized models, as well. This work aims to further clarify the field and scope of the different works, identify their methods, and highlight the semantic overlap, or differences, between them. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Interdisciplinary Study of Early Mediaeval Churches in North-Western Spain (Galicia)
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 599-610; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010039
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Over the last five years, the EMCHAHE (Early Medieval Churches: History, Archaeology and Heritage) Project has analysed the architecture, archaeology and history of numerous rural churches of the High Middle Ages in Galicia (NW Spain), through its historical, stratigraphic and chronological study. As [...] Read more.
Over the last five years, the EMCHAHE (Early Medieval Churches: History, Archaeology and Heritage) Project has analysed the architecture, archaeology and history of numerous rural churches of the High Middle Ages in Galicia (NW Spain), through its historical, stratigraphic and chronological study. As a result, the knowledge of this historical period has been broadened and even changed, as well as an interdisciplinary methodology on how to approach this type of study. According to the results obtained, the project has allowed us to reflect on two issues, the potential of a relatively low-cost type of study to understand, assess and disseminate this type of heritage and the special appreciation and ownership that local communities have towards these churches as an engine of sustainable social development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage and Territory)
Open AccessTechnical Note Documenting the Heritage of Nokia—From Discussions to Catalogue
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 587-598; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010038
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
In 2015, the Museum of Technology received a donation of ninety data communication devices from the 1960s to 2010s, collected and arranged by employees of the Nokia Data Communications department. The museum has been organizing (2018–2019) documentation workshops to collect information and connect [...] Read more.
In 2015, the Museum of Technology received a donation of ninety data communication devices from the 1960s to 2010s, collected and arranged by employees of the Nokia Data Communications department. The museum has been organizing (2018–2019) documentation workshops to collect information and connect individual objects with larger concepts such as company history, innovations, and technologies. The idea is to gain comprehensive contextual information about the collection by bringing together expertise and experiences of (former) Nokia employees, and documentation and interpretation skills of museum professionals. The method of the documentation workshops is a conversational interview inspired by the objects. Subsequently, workshop discussions were planned to be digested and used in cataloguing individual objects and object groups by museum professionals. Eventually significance assessment was chosen as a tool for summarizing the documentation project. The paper discusses the planning and organizing of the outcomes of the documentation workshops and asks the following questions: What is the optimal relationship between cataloguing information in the collections management system and documentation of workshop discussions preserved in the museum’s collection archive? How should the workshop be documented to trace the provenance of the information? What information should and can be collected on the workshop participants? Full article
Open AccessArticle Recovering Past Reflections: X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of Electrocleaned 19th Century Daguerreotypes
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 568-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010037
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
The first commercially viable photographic image, the daguerreotype, captured images
for a span of approximately 20 years (1839–1860). Deterioration now disfigures many of these
valuable images. One proposed restoration method is an electrochemical process. However, its
safety and effectiveness are still under debate [...] Read more.
The first commercially viable photographic image, the daguerreotype, captured images
for a span of approximately 20 years (1839–1860). Deterioration now disfigures many of these
valuable images. One proposed restoration method is an electrochemical process. However, its
safety and effectiveness are still under debate within the conservation community as the effects of
this treatment, and its physical and chemical impact on the daguerreotype image, have not yet been
analyzed in depth. This study used synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence to map the
elemental distribution pre- and post-electrocleaning on 19th century daguerreotypes using both soft
and hard incident X-rays. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to probe local chemistry before
and after cleaning. Two different electro-treatment methods were compared: the original method
proposed by Barger and a second put forward by Wei. When used correctly, both processes
significantly reduced the S and Cl surface contamination without dulling the surface. However,
both electrochemical methods used in this study resulted in a loss of Hg and Au from the surface.
In all cases, the Hg distribution tracks with image particle density allowing the retrieval of full
portraits from entirely corroded daguerreotypes, suggesting that Hg concentration may be a useful
proxy for the original image. Full article
Open AccessCommunication The Monumental Mistake of Evicting Bats from Archaeological Sites—A Reflection from New Delhi
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 553-567; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010036
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
We highlight the importance of an integrated management policy for archaeological monuments and the insect-eating bats that roost inside them. We refer to India, but the issue is general and of worldwide significance. There is increasing evidence that the ecosystem services provided by [...] Read more.
We highlight the importance of an integrated management policy for archaeological monuments and the insect-eating bats that roost inside them. We refer to India, but the issue is general and of worldwide significance. There is increasing evidence that the ecosystem services provided by insect-eating bats in agricultural fields are of vital economic importance, which is likely to increase as chemical pest-control methods become inefficient due to evolving multi-resistance in insects. We visited five archaeological sites in the city of New Delhi. We found bats at all five locations, and three of them harbored large colonies (many thousands) of mouse-tailed bats and tomb bats. These bats likely disperse over extensive areas to feed, including agricultural fields in the vicinity and beyond. All insect-eating bats should be protected and properly managed as a valuable resource at the archaeological sites where they occur. We firmly believe that “fear” of bats can be turned into curiosity by means of education and that their presence should instead enhance the value of the sites. We suggest some means to protect the bats roosting inside the buildings, while mitigating potential conflicts with archaeological and touristic interests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vulnerability Assessment of Cultural Heritage)
Open AccessArticle The Provenance of Marbles and Alabasters Used in the Monuments of Hierapolis in Phrygia (Turkey): New Information from a Systematic Review and Integration of Archaeological and Archaeometric Data
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 519-552; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010035
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Determining the provenance of the stones used for ancient architectures is very important in order to reconstruct many social and economic questions linked to the life of a city. This paper integrates previous and new archaeometric data about marble and alabaster quarries in [...] Read more.
Determining the provenance of the stones used for ancient architectures is very important in order to reconstruct many social and economic questions linked to the life of a city. This paper integrates previous and new archaeometric data about marble and alabaster quarries in south-western Phrygia (Lykos valley), and offers a review of some results of the research activities carried out between the years 2013–2018 and aimed to reconstruct the building stone procurement strategies adopted in the city of Hierapolis in Phrygia across a broad chronological time span from the Hellenistic age to the Byzantine period. The research activities based on a multidisciplinary approach, integrating the archaeological and art-historian study of the monuments, the topographical investigation of the quarries, and the archaeometric characterisation both of extraction sites and marbles and alabasters used in the building sites of the urban area and in the necropolises. Full article
Open AccessArticle Landscape Analysis and Urban Description of Bethlehem Historical Center: A Methodological Approach for Digital Documentation
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 507-518; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010034
Received: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
Bethlehem’s territory and the architectural heritage present in its historical city center result from the stratification of different cultural activities, religions, and urban policies that have conditioned the actual image of the urban landscape. The city, apparently conformed as a single urban entity, [...] Read more.
Bethlehem’s territory and the architectural heritage present in its historical city center result from the stratification of different cultural activities, religions, and urban policies that have conditioned the actual image of the urban landscape. The city, apparently conformed as a single urban entity, is structured on multiple apparatuses of complexity, and the application of principles of decomposition and cataloging becomes a fundamental method for the analysis of the built system. To better understand the relationship between the original settlement and the historical quarters of the city, and to define a tool for their conservation and development, the present research project, developed since 2018 in synergy with administrations and local authorities, and scientifically coordinated by the University of Pavia, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, seeks to promote a documentation protocol that, starting from a report analysis on landscape and urban context, methodologically defines the development of an integrated digital database, constituted by multiple informative layers, to ensure better management of the city. This contribution illustrates the first step of the survey activities, which represent a preparatory phase for the organization of the digital acquisition campaign, to highlight the structure of current urban development, the divisions in neighborhoods, and the understanding of architectural values, to give guidelines for the enhancement of historical and traditional values of architectural heritage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Norwegian Artist Names Authority List of Artists in Norwegian Art Collections
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 490-506; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010033
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
How can one best transform a paper-based publication into a living online resource? This is the theme of a project at The National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design in Norway, supported by the Arts Council Norway. The National Museum aims to create, [...] Read more.
How can one best transform a paper-based publication into a living online resource? This is the theme of a project at The National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design in Norway, supported by the Arts Council Norway. The National Museum aims to create, publish and maintain an authority list of Norwegian artists, architects, designers and craftsmen. The objective is to ease the digitisation process for other museums, scholars and the public in general and contribute to better data quality in Norwegian online collections. The list will in part be based on the Norsk Kunstnerleksikon (Encyclopaedia of Norwegian Artists in English), published in 1982–1986 and subsequently digitised in 2013. With the help of other public collections in Norway, the purpose is to make the new resource as complete as possible and available in both human- and machine-readable formats. Although the original paper publication contains biographical texts as well as lists of exhibitions, education, travels, publications and more, the data in the new authority list will be constrained to a set of core biographical data. It will however carry references to online biographical resources such as Norsk Kunstnerleksikon (NKL), Wikidata, Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) and Virtual International Authority File (VIAF). This article discusses the process of defining the scope of and setting constraints for the list, how to enrich and reconcile existing data, as well as strategies to ensure that other institutions contribute both as content publishers and end users. It will also shed light on issues concerning keeping such a resource updated and maintained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Origin and Circulation of Calcarenite Artifacts in the Area of Montescaglioso between 6th and 3rd Century BC: An Interdisciplinary Approach
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 467-489; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010032
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
The study of stone artifacts and their provenance is an important proxy for understanding the entangled relationship between humans and geological resources. In this paper, we explore the potentialities of an interdisciplinary approach combining in situ documentation of tool marks and characterization of [...] Read more.
The study of stone artifacts and their provenance is an important proxy for understanding the entangled relationship between humans and geological resources. In this paper, we explore the potentialities of an interdisciplinary approach combining in situ documentation of tool marks and characterization of stone types using a near infrared (NIR) portable probe. We argue that this protocol is useful for collecting screening data on objects that cannot be moved or sampled. NIR spectra describe textural and molecular features of the materials and can be used to achieve a preliminary characterization of raw materials. We present a case study from the territory of Montescaglioso (Basilicata, near Matera, Italy), where we combined the analysis of a calcarenite (limestone) quarry, in Masseria D’Alessio, which was exploited since the 6th century BC, as well as artifacts of the same chronology from surveys and excavations in the surroundings. The aim was to collect preliminary data about the distribution of the particular calcarenite extracted from the quarry and identify exploitation and trade patterns. The data were processed using multivariate statistics to highlight the relevant spectral information and perform supervised classification of spectral features. Documentation of tool marks and the process of stone working were combined with the spectral signature of the artifacts to link the stone types to the description of their extraction/carving methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Studies on the Wooden Box Containing the “Marco Polo” Bible
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 452-466; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010031
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to present the results of research undertaken on a wooden box that holds an important historical book: a hand Bible handwritten in the thirteenth century. Tradition connects this Bible to the name of Marco Polo (Venice, 1254–1324), [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to present the results of research undertaken on a wooden box that holds an important historical book: a hand Bible handwritten in the thirteenth century. Tradition connects this Bible to the name of Marco Polo (Venice, 1254–1324), who was supposedly the owner—the book possibly accompanied him on his travels (1262 and 1271) to China. The Bible is of fine workmanship and written on thin parchment, and its container—along with a yellow silk cloth—are preserved in the ancient and prestigious Laurentian Library in Florence. The manuscript was in very poor condition and was being restored during the period of study (2011). Surveys were carried out to determine the place and period of manufacture of the box, and to determine if it was contemporary to or later than the manuscript it contained or whether it was made in China or Europe. An additional aim of the work was to demonstrate that a fast and inexpensive in situ survey under imperfect time and space conditions was possible using in-depth observation and simple tools as well as a portable microscope, all performed without sampling. During the restoration process, a team of experts used instruments helpful in determining the chemical composition of the paper and related ink. Other specialists studied the paleography of the text. The results indicate that the Bible is definitely from the same period as Marco Polo. Nothing excludes the possibility that Marco Polo may have seen it or lived not too far from this manuscript, which traveled in a small wooden box, wrapped in a precious yellow silk cloth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Railroad Buildings of Eskişehir: Challenges and Opportunities for Industrial Heritage
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 435-451; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010030
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
While railways are considered as a sign of development for countries, the railway structures are part of the industrial heritage of cities and comprise some of the most important urban public places. In Turkey, the Eskişehir railway buildings, constructed between 1886 and 1894, [...] Read more.
While railways are considered as a sign of development for countries, the railway structures are part of the industrial heritage of cities and comprise some of the most important urban public places. In Turkey, the Eskişehir railway buildings, constructed between 1886 and 1894, are at the west of the main railroad between the Enveriye and Eskişehir stations. They are also public places having strong resonance in the collective memory. Because of the fast development in technology, they face the threat of losing their function. Conservation of former industrial structures requires, first and foremost, identifying and documenting the distinctive features that makes them cultural heritage sites. It is a shared responsibility between public institutions and sectors to identify and protect the distinguishing features of industrial heritage sites. With this awareness, at the Anadolu University Architecture Department, integrated student work focused on the Railroad Roundhouse—built in 1896—and Staff Housing Quarters—built in the early 20th century—which are part of this district and embody a series of urban problems, was carried out over four academic semesters. This study focuses on historic railway buildings in the Eskişehir railway district that is known for its urban problems. An exhibition combining these student works was opened at the Railcar Repair Facility on 16 November 2017. This exhibition showcased the student involvement in history of Eskişehir and increased public awareness of cultural heritage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Damage to Archaeological Heritage in Criminal and Administrative Proceedings
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 408-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010029
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
The economic assessment of damage to movable and immovable objects considered part of archaeological heritage is a matter of increasing interest, both at the legal level and in terms of government management. The primary reason for this interest is the urgent need to [...] Read more.
The economic assessment of damage to movable and immovable objects considered part of archaeological heritage is a matter of increasing interest, both at the legal level and in terms of government management. The primary reason for this interest is the urgent need to agree on a sound and reliable approach to economically quantifying not so much the cultural value of the damage caused as the civil liability for having caused it in those cases in which it was produced by a harmful human act. Assessment methods require a broad consensus to be considered reliable. The lack of consideration given to this matter has only made the absence of such a consensus more acute. This paper offers a mainly Spanish case-based analysis of the most common valuation methods for both movable and immovable archaeological objects. With regard to movable objects, it examines the problems involved in both the exclusive use of an object’s market price as its cultural value and the lack of justification for the chosen valuation system, concluding that current methods are insufficient. This insufficiency, also perceived by the authors of the expert reports used in the analyzed proceedings, has been dealt with arbitrarily. With regard to immovable object, it concludes that the systems currently used to assess the damage to sites are likewise insufficient, despite having been legally acknowledged in some cases. This paper will thus examine the methods used in environmental assessments—whose parallels with archaeological heritage are clear—and proposes that they be adapted for this purpose. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Negative Muons as a Probe for Depth Profiling Silver Roman Coinage
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 400-407; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010028
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
Debasement of silver Roman coins is a well-known phenomenon and understanding the quality of ancient silver coinages can provide an idea about the underlying fiscal condition of the issuing states. These coins are made from a silver-copper alloy, the surfaces of which were [...] Read more.
Debasement of silver Roman coins is a well-known phenomenon and understanding the quality of ancient silver coinages can provide an idea about the underlying fiscal condition of the issuing states. These coins are made from a silver-copper alloy, the surfaces of which were deliberately enhanced at the mints by a process of surface-enrichment to give them the appearance of being made of pure silver. Therefore, any surface analysis would provide a composition of the silver-copper alloy that would not be representative of the original alloy from which the coin blank was made; the result would be too high in silver. However, the bulk of the sample, the interior, should provide a composition that is true to the original alloy. Elemental analysis using negative muons has been used to provide a depth dependent compositional, completely non-destructive analysis of a silver-copper alloy denarius of the empress Julia Domna datable to 211–217 CE. The composition of the coin, beyond the surface enrichment layer, is 51 ± 1.8 % copper and 49 ± 1.9% silver, taken at a muon depth of 402 ± 61 µm. The surface enrichment layer is approximately 190 µm thick. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Documentation: A Security Tool for the Identification and Repatriation of Illicitly Trafficked Objects from Museums with Particular Reference to the National Gallery of Zimbabwe
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 390-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010027
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to ascertain how documentation assisted in the recovery of stolen and illicitly trafficked objects at the National Gallery of Zimbabwe. The research objectives were to: Assess the adequacy of the gallery’s documentation system; appraise the documentation elements [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to ascertain how documentation assisted in the recovery of stolen and illicitly trafficked objects at the National Gallery of Zimbabwe. The research objectives were to: Assess the adequacy of the gallery’s documentation system; appraise the documentation elements that were key in the tracking and repatriation of stolen objects to the gallery; analyze the gallery’s networks on the documentation and safeguarding of objects against theft; and ascertain challenges faced by the gallery in documenting its objects. Research results indicated that the gallery’s documentation system encompassed both manual and electronic documentation, which addressed vital aspects that have been prescribed by Object ID Standards for the identification and recovery of stolen objects. These include photographs, provenance, and name of objects. This, coupled with networks with key institutions involved in the fight against theft and illicit trafficking of objects, has enabled the gallery to recover its stolen objects from Poland. However, lack of state-of-the-art cameras has led to the production of poor photographs, which compromised the gallery’s claim to its stolen objects. Additionally, lack of ideal software for the gallery’s database is hampering effective documentation efforts. The research recommends that the gallery should acquire appropriate cameras for quality documentation of its objects and purchase database software with backup support for software upgrades to prevent loss of information on its objects. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Matera in Many Dimensions
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 380-389; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010026
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the city of Matera is described from a mathematical point of view. Previous papers on this subject have concentrated on seeing Matera as a fractal city. Here, this analysis is also dealt with as an extension of Euclidean dimensions. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, the city of Matera is described from a mathematical point of view. Previous papers on this subject have concentrated on seeing Matera as a fractal city. Here, this analysis is also dealt with as an extension of Euclidean dimensions. The idea is to create a double presentation narrative which is useful for the promotion of cultural heritage and also for the popularizing of mathematics. Those who like geometrical vision will discover some aspects of one of the most ancient cities in Italy. Those who like travelling will have new words to describe the wonders of this country. We reach this objective by using a combinatoric puzzle and suitable story telling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use and Protection of Archaeological Sites in Greece: Policies and Practices 1975–2018
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 366-379; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010025
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
The use of archaeological sites in Greece today is a controversial subject, often stirring public discussion and dispute. This paper, which presents some results of the author’s PhD research, focuses on the use of archaeological sites for artistic and creative purposes. More specifically, [...] Read more.
The use of archaeological sites in Greece today is a controversial subject, often stirring public discussion and dispute. This paper, which presents some results of the author’s PhD research, focuses on the use of archaeological sites for artistic and creative purposes. More specifically, it examines the use of ancient theaters and the use of archaeological sites for filming through the study of the relevant legislation, the policies and practices adopted by the Greek state administration, as well as relevant examples. Furthermore, it aims to identify shifts in ideological perceptions and policies, which have possibly taken place within the time scope of the research, covering the period from 1975 to 2018. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mexico’s Tradition and Culture Entering the Digital Age: The Mexican Cultural Heritage Repository Project
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 356-365; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010024
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
Mexico is a country with a vast and extraordinary cultural heritage, which is the result of a rich history of cultural exchange, syncretism and transculturation. This rich culture has been materialized through the consolidation of a long and prestigious museum tradition, which at [...] Read more.
Mexico is a country with a vast and extraordinary cultural heritage, which is the result of a rich history of cultural exchange, syncretism and transculturation. This rich culture has been materialized through the consolidation of a long and prestigious museum tradition, which at the same time is sadly characterized by an endemic lack of technological resources rather than professional skills. As a result, we have found that Mexican museums produce very heterogeneous forms of documentation, which are often not even managed using information technologies. Furthermore, most museums deploy ad hoc solutions that directly limit the usefulness and value of the documentation process itself. In response, the recently founded Mexican Ministry of Culture is undertaking the development of the Mexican cultural heritage data model (Modelo de Datos México), which is aimed at contributing to the cultural heritage domain of our country through the correct characterization and documentation of its cultural objects. It is the first documented experience in Mexico of a large-scale data model inspired by CIDOC-CRM, which is complemented by a set of terminological tools that attempt to capture the singularities and idiosyncrasies of the Mexican cultural sector. In the present paper, we will describe the motivations and decisions made so far to optimize the data model to the Mexican reality and the development of the project that will define a set of local terminologies built on the expertise of linguists, information architects, developers and especially, museum professionals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison between the Face of the Veil of Manoppello and the Face of the Shroud of Turin
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 339-355; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010023
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Recently we have studied the unusual optical properties of the Veil of Manoppello, a canvas representing the face of Jesus Christ, and restored digitally the face, by eliminating the distortions of the anatomic details due the yielding of the very fine structure of [...] Read more.
Recently we have studied the unusual optical properties of the Veil of Manoppello, a canvas representing the face of Jesus Christ, and restored digitally the face, by eliminating the distortions of the anatomic details due the yielding of the very fine structure of the fabric. The aim of the present paper is to compare the restored face of the Veil with that visible on the Turin Shroud. In particular, the paper focuses on assessing whether the two images can be superimposed, i.e., whether they are different images of the same face. Indeed, some scholars have suggested that the Veil of Manoppello and the Turin Shroud show different images of the same face. We demonstrate that the face of the Turin Shroud, after a logarithmic transformation of the intensity and the correction of the background noise, shows cheeks’ profiles, not visible before the digital processing, which overlap very well with those of the restored face of the Veil of Manoppello. These correlations between the two images of the face of Jesus raise the question of their historical relationship. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Roman Wine in Barbaricum. Preliminary Studies on Ancient Wine Recreation
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 331-338; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010022
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Ancient Roman wine is found outside of the borders of the Roman world as a result of the Roman influence, trade and political relations. In our project, we decided to extensively research and recreate the ancient method of wine making in order to [...] Read more.
Ancient Roman wine is found outside of the borders of the Roman world as a result of the Roman influence, trade and political relations. In our project, we decided to extensively research and recreate the ancient method of wine making in order to understand ancient viticulture and viniculture as it could have been if implemented outside of the borders. The objective was to recreate roman wine using ancient methods based on ancient texts (such as Columella, Pliny the Elder, Cicero, Cato the Elder, Galenus and Mago). The wine was made using modern grapes grown on lands considered by the Romans as barbaric (i.e., outside the Roman Limes), in modern Poland. The aim of the project—except for the wine making itself—was to measure the level of alcohol created through fermentation process. Ethanol levels in samples were obtained using gas chromatography (GC). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure of the Granitic Pegmatite Field of the Northern Coast of Portugal—Inner Pegmatite Structures and Mineralogical Fabrics
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 315-330; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010021
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
On the coastline of Northern Portugal, metamorphic formations and pegmatites were the subject of structural analysis with the main goal of understanding Variscan kinematics and related pegmatite intrusion. This study also aims to discriminate, select and characterize relevant aspects of the structure and [...] Read more.
On the coastline of Northern Portugal, metamorphic formations and pegmatites were the subject of structural analysis with the main goal of understanding Variscan kinematics and related pegmatite intrusion. This study also aims to discriminate, select and characterize relevant aspects of the structure and the paragenesis of pegmatites, well exposed as a result of coastal erosion, justifying its inclusion in the geological heritage of the Northern coast of Portugal. The pegmatite bodies show distinctive internal and external structures that are attributable to different modes of emplacement and subsequent deformation. The pegmatitic implantation in the areas of Moledo and Afife occurs in an intragneissic and perigranitic environment, for the first area, and perigneissic and perigranitic environment, for the second. In Pedras Ruivas predominates the implantation into an exo-gneissic to exo-granitic domain. The Moledo veins show evidence of multiphase open/filling, revealing positions, shapes, attitudes, sizes and internal structures that change as a function of the host lithology and host structure, but mainly due to the dilation and the cycles number of local telescoping. The structural analysis of the pegmatite bodies allows the deduction of a local fulcrum of expansion that hypothetically overlaps a hidden stock of parental granite. In Afife and Pedras Ruivas, some pegmatitic lenses are specialized and mineralized in Li, Cs and Ta, with spodumene and tantalite ± cassiterite. Spodumene occurs as giant crystals, centimetric to pluri-decimetric in length, which mark very clearly the structures of in situ or in flow crystallization inside the pegmatites (primary structures) and also the secondary structures resulting from deformation. The geometric analysis of fabrics helps the individualization of well-defined stages of progressive evolution of the deformation of the pegmatites, allowing its correlation with major D2–D3 episodes of regional Variscan deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage and Territory)
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Open AccessArticle Dissemination Strategies for Cultural Heritage: The Case of the Tomb of Zechariah in Jerusalem, Israel
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 306-314; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010020
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper reports the research carried out using Structure from Motion survey techniques, which were developed on the basis of previous surveys and their subsequent representation through two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) drawings of the tomb, comparing them with drawings and watercolors by [...] Read more.
This paper reports the research carried out using Structure from Motion survey techniques, which were developed on the basis of previous surveys and their subsequent representation through two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) drawings of the tomb, comparing them with drawings and watercolors by several painters of the past. This survey technique enables the reconstruction of three-dimensional models through photographs. The aim of this work is to define a procedural process which allows accurate and reliable three-dimensional reconstructions to be performed for the acquisition of knowledge and the dissemination of cultural heritage, taking advantage of representation and visualization techniques that have been developed in the last decade and that are based on historical references. The variety of digital products which can be produced (video games, 3D models, prints, websites, and augmented reality applications) allows a different approach to the representation to be taken, thereby re-evaluating limits, aims, and expressive potential. The virtual representative systems, enriched with cultural content, scientific information, and data, enhance the participation and awareness of knowledge of the final users of the products and are able to increase the interaction between the user and the information. Full article
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