Next Article in Journal
Recognizing the Values of Kashan Historic Urban Context for Achieving Appropriate Regeneration (Case Study: Sarpelleh Passageway)
Next Article in Special Issue
Analyzing Near-Surface Regions of Hydrophobic and Long-Term Weathered Natural Stones at Microscopic Scale
Previous Article in Journal
A Usable and People-Friendly Cultural Heritage: MAGNA Project, on the Route from Greece to Magna Graecia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Salt Weathering of 7th Century CE Granite Monument of Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram—Scientific Investigation and Conservation Strategy

Permeability and Surface Hardness Surveying of Stone Damaged by Ballistic Impact

by 1,*,†, 1,*,†, 2,† and 2,†
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, UWE Bristol, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
School of Earth Sciences & Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1369-1389;
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geology and Heritage: From Natural to Built Heritage)
Recent instances of the destruction of cultural assets in conflict zones have demonstrated the need to develop methods which will allow for the assessment of damage to heritage stone in the field. In particular, non-destructive methods would be invaluable when working on sites damaged by contemporary ballistics. Permeability (TinyPerm 3) and surface hardness (Equotip) surveys of stone damaged by 7.62 × 39 mm (AK-47) projectiles were undertaken to determine the ability of these methods to identify the spatial distribution of damage patterns such as shear faces and surface fractures. Results demonstrate the ability of surface hardness surveys to distinguish between non-impacted surfaces of the target stone and surfaces which shattered/sheared upon impact. Whilst spatial distribution analysis (“heat mapping”) of Equotip data did not correlate directly with surface fractures, permeability data heat maps were found to be indicative of surface fracture distribution. The data suggests that compaction of the stone matrix at the impact crater results in a lesser reduction of hardness in this area relative to the wider damaged surface. Surveys of impacted stone using the methods outlined here can identify damage patterns that are not visible to the naked eye, thus aiding in damage identification on fragile sites. View Full-Text
Keywords: heritage; conservation; non-destructive testing; ballistics heritage; conservation; non-destructive testing; ballistics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gilbert, O.; Mol, L.; Campbell, O.; Blenkinsop, T. Permeability and Surface Hardness Surveying of Stone Damaged by Ballistic Impact. Heritage 2019, 2, 1369-1389.

AMA Style

Gilbert O, Mol L, Campbell O, Blenkinsop T. Permeability and Surface Hardness Surveying of Stone Damaged by Ballistic Impact. Heritage. 2019; 2(2):1369-1389.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gilbert, Oscar, Lisa Mol, Oliver Campbell, and Thomas Blenkinsop. 2019. "Permeability and Surface Hardness Surveying of Stone Damaged by Ballistic Impact" Heritage 2, no. 2: 1369-1389.

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop