Special Issue "Geology and Heritage: From Natural to Built Heritage"

A special issue of Heritage (ISSN 2571-9408).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Miguel Gomez-Heras
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Geología y Geoquímica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: stone decay; rock weathering; built heritage; geoheritage; non-destructive testing; thermography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Monica Alvarez de Buergo
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Geosciences Institute IGEO, Spanish Research Council CSIC and Complutense University of Madrid UCM, Calle del Doctor Severo Ochoa 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: heritage science; stone decay; conservation techniques assessment; petrophysical properties; non-destructive techniques; geomaterials; built cultural heritage; geomonumental routes; protective patinas; historical quarries

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Heritage aims to gather high-quality original research articles and technical notes on the study of geological materials and their properties in the context of Natural and Built Heritage. Material properties characterisation and decay assessment are crucial issues for the conservation of both built heritage and geosites of which relevance may lie upon the preservation of localised features, as it is the case of ichnites, mushroom rocks and pinnacles. The last few years have witnessed large improvements in relation to the characterization of materials and their decay in a heritage context, particularly due to the advancement of non-destructive techniques and data representation and visualisation. This Special Issue aims to gather current developments of measurement techniques and data representation in the context of geoheritage and stone-built heritage. In addition, a combined approach of rock decay assessment in geosites and stone-built heritage is useful to understand processes and plan conservation in the frame of protected areas, such as UNESCO’s Global Geoparks, which foster the use of geological heritage in connection with all other aspects of the area’s natural and cultural heritage. The Special Issue welcomes case studies in which good practices on risk and decay assessment led to successful planning of conservation interventions. The editors would like to invite submissions on experimental research or case studies in following topics:

  • Laboratory studies on rock weathering.
  • Use of non-destructive-techniques for assessing decay processes.
  • Case studies of geosites and/or stone-built heritage decay and conservation.
  • Comparative studies of rock decay in natural environments and man-made constructions.
  • Identification, characterization, and management of geoheritage.

We would appreciate receiving from potential authors a short abstract outlining the purpose of the research and the principal results obtained, in order to verify if intended contribution fit in the aims of this Special Issue.

Dr. Miguel Gomez-Heras
Dr. Monica Alvarez de Buergo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Heritage is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Analyzing Near-Surface Regions of Hydrophobic and Long-Term Weathered Natural Stones at Microscopic Scale
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 457-473; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020027 - 12 Jun 2020
Viewed by 721
Abstract
The visual appearance of building structures is an important attribute which reflects the character and identity of a region. Due to the influence of weathering, the surfaces of building stones alter, leading to aesthetic changes of the material surface such as discoloration or [...] Read more.
The visual appearance of building structures is an important attribute which reflects the character and identity of a region. Due to the influence of weathering, the surfaces of building stones alter, leading to aesthetic changes of the material surface such as discoloration or darkening. In this study, near-surface regions of weathered Baumberger (BST), Schleeriether (SST), and Obernkirchener Sandstones (OKS) have been analyzed at the microscopic scale in order to investigate the intensity and the extent of visual as well as structural changes and how both can be affected due to the presence of surface treatments with hydrophobing agents. It could be detected that aesthetic changes appeared already after 2 years of outdoor exposure, with the slightest variations on BST surfaces, followed by SST and OKS. The use of hydrophobing agents leads to a reduction in surface darkening in the short term. After long-term weathering, no significant changes are visible, as similar values in total color difference (ΔE*) were measured. Biogenic growth and the formation of black weathering crusts are the main reasons for color alterations in the case of the examined stones. The surface damages occur especially on calcareous (BST) followed by clayey (SST) and quartzitic (OKS) stone surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geology and Heritage: From Natural to Built Heritage)
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Article
Permeability and Surface Hardness Surveying of Stone Damaged by Ballistic Impact
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1369-1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020087 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Recent instances of the destruction of cultural assets in conflict zones have demonstrated the need to develop methods which will allow for the assessment of damage to heritage stone in the field. In particular, non-destructive methods would be invaluable when working on sites [...] Read more.
Recent instances of the destruction of cultural assets in conflict zones have demonstrated the need to develop methods which will allow for the assessment of damage to heritage stone in the field. In particular, non-destructive methods would be invaluable when working on sites damaged by contemporary ballistics. Permeability (TinyPerm 3) and surface hardness (Equotip) surveys of stone damaged by 7.62 × 39 mm (AK-47) projectiles were undertaken to determine the ability of these methods to identify the spatial distribution of damage patterns such as shear faces and surface fractures. Results demonstrate the ability of surface hardness surveys to distinguish between non-impacted surfaces of the target stone and surfaces which shattered/sheared upon impact. Whilst spatial distribution analysis (“heat mapping”) of Equotip data did not correlate directly with surface fractures, permeability data heat maps were found to be indicative of surface fracture distribution. The data suggests that compaction of the stone matrix at the impact crater results in a lesser reduction of hardness in this area relative to the wider damaged surface. Surveys of impacted stone using the methods outlined here can identify damage patterns that are not visible to the naked eye, thus aiding in damage identification on fragile sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geology and Heritage: From Natural to Built Heritage)
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Article
Salt Weathering of 7th Century CE Granite Monument of Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram—Scientific Investigation and Conservation Strategy
Heritage 2019, 2(1), 230-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2010017 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
Salt-induced deterioration of architectural heritage is accelerated drastically in marine environments. This paper investigates the deterioration mechanism of the Shore Temple using various analytical techniques. Deteriorated and pristine stone samples were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), thin section studies, and SEM in [...] Read more.
Salt-induced deterioration of architectural heritage is accelerated drastically in marine environments. This paper investigates the deterioration mechanism of the Shore Temple using various analytical techniques. Deteriorated and pristine stone samples were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), thin section studies, and SEM in order to understand the deterioration mechanism. The meteorological and micro-climatic conditions of Shore Temple in the tropical Indian climate were studied, as they have played a vital role in the deterioration of the stone matrix. The sides of the temple that face the sea as well as the upper part of the temple show intense alveolarization and the stone variety was petrologically identified as “garnetiferous hornblende biotite granite”. The evaluation of results in terms of the efficacy of ethyl silicate consolidation of stone after desalination is very difficult due to continuous sea sprays. The compatible lime rendering evidenced in the shelter area and then scientifically examined during this study may be applied as a protective layer to safeguard and conserve the lone Pallava edifice on the seashore from deterioration in tropical and hygric saline conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geology and Heritage: From Natural to Built Heritage)
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