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Appl. Syst. Innov., Volume 5, Issue 6 (December 2022) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Soft robotics is a fascinating research field that fuses material sciences, robotics, and biology to create new types of robots that enhance human–robot interaction, agility, and adaptability. The field of soft robotics is still faced with a set of key challenges. Among them, overcoming the rich nonlinearity in soft materials to realize precise and reliable control is particularly crucial. In this paper, a nonlinear dynamic model of the resonant-impact dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) system is developed by considering the multiple nonlinearities, viscoelasticity, and electromechanical coupling, which will provide guidance for the performance optimization of resonance-impact DEA systems and their applications. View this paper
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10 pages, 565 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Analyzing a Multi-Objective Financial Planning Model Using Goal Programming
by Teg Alam
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060128 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
Optimal financial planning plays a vital role in maintaining concentration and on the path as the organization extends, when new challenges materialize, and when unpredictable situations pounded. This study aims to develop and implement a goal programming model to evaluate financial planning based [...] Read more.
Optimal financial planning plays a vital role in maintaining concentration and on the path as the organization extends, when new challenges materialize, and when unpredictable situations pounded. This study aims to develop and implement a goal programming model to evaluate financial planning based on the annual financial report of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), which assisted it in developing the financial planning model. This study is mainly designed to analyze SABIC’s budgeting structure; therefore, in order to maximize the benefits from the whole budget, goal programming is implemented for the entire budget. As a result of this study, we identified the following objectives as specific: reduced expenses, increased revenue, increased net profit, increased fixed assets, reduced debt, and increased equity share participation as a result of this project. Moreover, the analysis involved determining whether all objectives were met at the end of the study. Consequently, this study will benefit industrial institutions in achieving their financial objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Mathematics)
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17 pages, 3916 KiB  
Article
Problematizing the Adoption of Formal Methods in the 4IR–5IR Transition
by John Andrew van der Poll
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060127 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
The adoption of formal methods (FMs) as a software development methodology remains low. Advocates of FMs point to the advantages to be gained by producing highly dependable systems, while critics refer to the steep learning curve required to master the underlying mathematics and [...] Read more.
The adoption of formal methods (FMs) as a software development methodology remains low. Advocates of FMs point to the advantages to be gained by producing highly dependable systems, while critics refer to the steep learning curve required to master the underlying mathematics and logic. The situation was similar for artificial intelligence (AI), but the advent of 4IR–5IR technologies has recently made AI a feasible technology for computing. We believe that the same could hold for FMs. In this article, we considered both the advantages and disadvantages of the use of FMs and unpacked them by problematizing the aspects that need to be considered in the 4IR–5IR worlds to facilitate the use of FMs as a viable software development methodology. We made the case that the 5IR embedding of harmonious collaboration between humans and machines could assist with difficult FM interfaces, similar to how human–computer interaction (HCI) has influenced technical and inflexible systems in the past. Since we view FMs as a technology, we further considered the role to be played by technology adoption, exemplified by the various technology adoption models, e.g., the TOE framework. This article culminates in the formulation of a problematization framework for the adoption of FMs in 4IR–5IR. Full article
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11 pages, 953 KiB  
Review
Three-Dimensional Printing and Digital Flow in Human Medicine: A Review and State-of-the-Art
by Rodrigo Salazar-Gamarra, Hans Contreras-Pulache, Gloria Cruz-Gonzales, Salvatore Binasco, William Cruz-Gonzales and Jeel Moya-Salazar
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060126 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
The use of exponential technologies is changing how people live and interact; this has been called the “Fourth Industrial Revolution”. Within these technologies, 3D printing is playing a leading role, especially in health. In this context, this literature review aims to present the [...] Read more.
The use of exponential technologies is changing how people live and interact; this has been called the “Fourth Industrial Revolution”. Within these technologies, 3D printing is playing a leading role, especially in health. In this context, this literature review aims to present the state of the art of 3D printing, its digital workflow and applications in medicine, and the advantages of its use in public health. Consequently, it describes the benefits for the patient and the medical team from a diagnostic stage, a brief history of its development, what is the digital flow when working with a 3D printer, what experiences of its use in medicine, and finally, how this technology used in medicine and public health can be part of the Digital Transformation in Peru. Full article
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15 pages, 1164 KiB  
Article
Combining Earliest Deadline First Scheduling with Scheduled Traffic Support in Automotive TSN-Based Networks
by Luca Leonardi, Lucia Lo Bello and Gaetano Patti
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060125 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
Recent work on automotive communications based on the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards proposed an approach to handle all the real-time frames in a uniform way regardless of their arrival pattern. According to such an approach, instead of binding all the frames of the [...] Read more.
Recent work on automotive communications based on the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards proposed an approach to handle all the real-time frames in a uniform way regardless of their arrival pattern. According to such an approach, instead of binding all the frames of the same flow to a traffic class, each periodic or event-driven frame is scheduled based on its absolute deadline according to the Earliest Deadline First (EDF) algorithm. The approach does not impose additional frame overhead and does not require complex offline configurations that would be unsuitable for event-driven traffic. However, EDF scheduling cannot support time-driven communications. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a framework that combines the flexibility of online EDF frame scheduling for both periodic and event-driven traffic with the ability to guarantee temporal isolation to time-driven traffic. The paper describes the design of the proposed approach and the performance obtained using the OMNeT++ simulation environment. Full article
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13 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Behavioural Intention to Play the Nintendo Switch: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model
by Chih-Wei Lin, Yu-Sheng Lin, Yi-Sheng Xie and Jui-Hsiu Chang
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060124 - 9 Dec 2022
Viewed by 4037
Abstract
Ever since the first games launched in the 1970s, the rapid growth of the video games market has successfully attracted more and more purchasers. In this study, we use Nintendo Switch as a case study to examine the extended technology acceptance model (TAM), [...] Read more.
Ever since the first games launched in the 1970s, the rapid growth of the video games market has successfully attracted more and more purchasers. In this study, we use Nintendo Switch as a case study to examine the extended technology acceptance model (TAM), which integrates the factors of Perceived Playfulness and Compatibility to determine their relevance in the usage behavior. A total of 266 questionnaires were obtained using snowball sampling and analyzed using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The study results revealed that the expanded TAM model can be effectively used in this context and it also showed a good fit for the proposed model from the data analyzed. Attitude explained an R2 of 0.85, which indicates that 85% of the variance in user’s behavior intention is accounted by attitude. Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness were significantly positively associated with attitude. Perceived Playfulness was significantly positively associated with Perceived Usefulness. This study also addresses the implications of the findings for researchers and the game marketing strategies practitioners. Full article
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12 pages, 3343 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning Algorithms to Predict Output Electrical Power of an Industrial Steam Turbine
by Kossai Fakir, Chouaib Ennawaoui and Mahmoud El Mouden
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060123 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Among the levers carried in the era of Industry 4.0, there is that of using Artificial Intelligence models to serve the energy interests of industrial companies. The aim of this paper is to estimate the active electrical power generated by industrial units that [...] Read more.
Among the levers carried in the era of Industry 4.0, there is that of using Artificial Intelligence models to serve the energy interests of industrial companies. The aim of this paper is to estimate the active electrical power generated by industrial units that self-produce electricity. To do this, we conduct a case study of the historical data of the variables influencing this parameter to support the construction of three analytical models three analytical models based on Deep Learning algorithms, which are Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), as well as the hybrid CNN algorithm coupled with LSTM (CNN-LSTM). Subsequently, and thanks to the evaluation of the created models through three mathematical metrics which are Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Square Error (MSE), and the variance score (R-squared), we were able to make a comparative study between these models. According to the results of this comparison, we attested that the hybrid model is the one that gives the best prediction results, with the following findings: the variance score was about 98.29%, the value of RMSE was exactly 0.1199 MW, and for MSE the error was equal to 0.0143 MW. The obtained results confirm the reliability of the hybrid model, which can help industrial managers save energy by acting upstream of the process parameters influencing the target variable and avoiding substantial energy bills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence)
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15 pages, 3282 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Dynamics of a Resonant-Impact Dielectric Elastomer Actuator
by Chuang Wu, Anjiang Cai, Xing Gao and Chongjing Cao
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060122 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
In recent years, with the rapid development of soft robots, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) as a novel type of soft actuators have been widely studied. However, DEAs often suffer from low instantaneous output force/power, especially in high payload damping conditions, which limits their [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the rapid development of soft robots, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) as a novel type of soft actuators have been widely studied. However, DEAs often suffer from low instantaneous output force/power, especially in high payload damping conditions, which limits their applications in certain scenarios. Inspired by the vibro-impact mechanisms found in many engineering systems (e.g., pile driving and percussive drilling), a resonant-impact DEA system was proposed in the authors’ previous work to potentially address this limitation. However, due to the complex nonlinearities and unique electromechanically coupled forcing mechanism of DEAs, no nonlinear dynamic model was developed to perform systematic investigations and optimization. In this paper, a nonlinear dynamic model of the resonant-impact DEA system is developed by considering multiple nonlinearities, viscoelasticity, and electromechanical coupling. Using both a numerical model and extensive experiments, the nonlinear dynamics of the resonant-impact DEA system are studied in depth. The effects of several key parameters, including excitation voltage amplitude, constraint gap, constraint stiffness, and number of DEA layers, on the dynamic response of the system are characterized. The findings reported in this paper can provide guidance for the performance optimization of resonance-impact DEA systems and their applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Soft Robotics: Design, Control and Applications)
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12 pages, 803 KiB  
Article
Internet Traffic Prediction with Distributed Multi-Agent Learning
by Weiwei Jiang, Miao He and Weixi Gu
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060121 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
Internet traffic prediction has been considered a research topic and the basis for intelligent network management and planning, e.g., elastic network service provision and content delivery optimization. Various methods have been proposed in the literature for Internet traffic prediction, including statistical, machine learning [...] Read more.
Internet traffic prediction has been considered a research topic and the basis for intelligent network management and planning, e.g., elastic network service provision and content delivery optimization. Various methods have been proposed in the literature for Internet traffic prediction, including statistical, machine learning and deep learning methods. However, most of the existing approaches are trained and deployed in a centralized approach, without considering the realistic scenario in which multiple parties are concerned about the prediction process and the prediction model can be trained in a distributed approach. In this study, a distributed multi-agent learning framework is proposed to fill the research gap and predict Internet traffic in a distributed approach, in which each agent trains a base prediction model and the individual models are further aggregated with the cooperative interaction process. In the numerical experiments, two sophisticated deep learning models are chosen as the base prediction model, namely, long short-term memory (LSTM) and gated recurrent unit (GRU). The numerical experiments demonstrate that the GRU model trained with five agents achieves state-of-the-art performance on a real-world Internet traffic dataset collected in a campus backbone network in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). Full article
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16 pages, 1365 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Depression for Undergraduate Students Based on Imbalanced Data by Using Data Mining Techniques
by Warawut Narkbunnum and Kittipol Wisaeng
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060120 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3519
Abstract
Depression is becoming one of the most prevalent mental disorders. This study looked at five different classification techniques to predict the risk of students’ depression based on their socio-demographics, internet addiction, alcohol use disorder, and stress levels to see if they were at [...] Read more.
Depression is becoming one of the most prevalent mental disorders. This study looked at five different classification techniques to predict the risk of students’ depression based on their socio-demographics, internet addiction, alcohol use disorder, and stress levels to see if they were at risk for depression. We propose a combined sampling technique to improve the performance of the imbalanced classification of university student depression data. In addition, three different feature selection methods, Correlation, Gain ratio, and Relief feature selection algorithms, were used for extracting the most relevant features from the dataset. In our experimental results, we discovered that combining the bootstrapping technique with the Relief selection technique under sampling methods enabled the generation of a relatively well-balanced dataset on depression without significant loss of information. The results show that the overall accuracy in the risk of depression prediction data was 93.16%, outperforming the individual sampling technique. In addition, other evaluation metrics, including precision, recall, and area under the curve (AUC), were calculated for various models to determine the most effective model for predicting risk of depression. Full article
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12 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of the User Experiences Goals for Designing Better Cobots: A Systematic Literature Review
by Inês Margarida Duarte, Ana Pinto, Carla Carvalho, Ana Zornoza and Joana Santos
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060119 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
Collaborative robots are an indispensable element of both industry 4.0 and industry 5.0, the latter of which gives special emphasis to the human facet of the human-robot collaboration. To facilitate such an interaction, attention should be given to the design of the cobot, [...] Read more.
Collaborative robots are an indispensable element of both industry 4.0 and industry 5.0, the latter of which gives special emphasis to the human facet of the human-robot collaboration. To facilitate such an interaction, attention should be given to the design of the cobot, including its interface, which enables communication with the user. Programming through the interface and performing a task with the robotic device are responsible for the user experience (UX), which comprises both pragmatic and hedonic aspects. In order to design the most positive experience for users, their perspectives must be considered, which is achieved through the identification of UX goals. In this respect, a systematic review was conducted to revise the UX goals present in the literature. The following seven UX goals were identified: safety, relationship, usability, inspiration, flexibility, efficiency, and accomplishment. These findings represent the first systematic categorization of UX goals for the specific design of cobots, that should empirically be tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Innovative Systems for the Factories of the Future)
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30 pages, 2950 KiB  
Article
Model Predictive Control and Its Role in Biomedical Therapeutic Automation: A Brief Review
by Sushma Parihar, Pritesh Shah, Ravi Sekhar and Jui Lagoo
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060118 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3507
Abstract
The reliable and effective automation of biomedical therapies is the need of the hour for medical professionals. A model predictive controller (MPC) has the ability to handle complex and dynamic systems involving multiple inputs/outputs, such as biomedical systems. This article firstly presents a [...] Read more.
The reliable and effective automation of biomedical therapies is the need of the hour for medical professionals. A model predictive controller (MPC) has the ability to handle complex and dynamic systems involving multiple inputs/outputs, such as biomedical systems. This article firstly presents a literature review of MPCs followed by a survey of research reporting the MPC-enabled automation of some biomedical therapies. The review of MPCs includes their evolution, architectures, methodologies, advantages, limitations, categories and implementation software. The review of biomedical conditions (and the applications of MPC in some of the associated therapies) includes type 1 diabetes (including artificial pancreas), anaesthesia, fibromyalgia, HIV, oncolytic viral treatment (for cancer) and hyperthermia (for cancer). Closed-loop and hybrid cyber-physical healthcare systems involving MPC-led automated anaesthesia have been discussed in relatively greater detail. This study finds that much more research attention is required in the MPC-led automation of biomedical therapies to reduce the workload of medical personnel. In particular, many more investigations are required to explore the MPC-based automation of hyperthermia (cancer) and fibromyalgia therapies. Full article
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18 pages, 5126 KiB  
Article
Significance of Sustainable Packaging: A Case-Study from a Supply Chain Perspective
by Zeeshan Asim, Ibrahim Rashid Al Shamsi, Mariam Wahaj, Ahmed Raza, Syed Abul Hasan, Sohaib Ahmed Siddiqui, Alaeldeen Aladresi, Shahryar Sorooshian and Tan Seng Teck
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060117 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 17638
Abstract
The present case study-based research provides insights of the current packaging practices with a supply chain perspective and proposed sustainable packaging options that would cut down the environmental impact from supply chain operations at Midas Safety. The case study is based on qualitative [...] Read more.
The present case study-based research provides insights of the current packaging practices with a supply chain perspective and proposed sustainable packaging options that would cut down the environmental impact from supply chain operations at Midas Safety. The case study is based on qualitative research that used semi-structured open-ended interviews and observations to understand the current processes of the packaging and supply chain department of Midas Safety and how they are planning to adapt sustainability to their processes. Considering the current packaging practices, the study aimed to develop improved sustainable packaging practices with a supply chain aspect in order to cut down the negative environmental aspect such as standardization in packaging for all customers, elimination of wood pallets, developing local suppliers, change in packaging design, making the packaging more compact and lightweight, reducing carbon footprint and fuel consumption by encouraging trade through sea instead of air. The results concluded that internal factors such as alternate packaging material (like Mondi’s Aegispaper, Arjowiggins’ and Corrugated Bubble Wrap) along with the suggested sustainable packaging practices discussed above and external factors such as availability of local vendors are important requirements for successful sustainable packaging development. Full article
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12 pages, 11897 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Models for 3D Printing of Solitary Fibrous Tumor Obtained Using Open-Source Segmentation Software
by Jean Pierre Tincopa, Rodrigo Salazar-Gamarra, Madaleine Lopez-Hinostroza, Belén Moya-Salazar, Hans Contreras-Pulache and Jeel Moya-Salazar
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060116 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
The objective of the present study is to make a comparison between various free and open-source software used for medical image processing, such as 3D Slicer (version 4.11), ITK-Snap (version 3.8), and Invesalius (version 3.1) in its application for the calculation of solitary [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study is to make a comparison between various free and open-source software used for medical image processing, such as 3D Slicer (version 4.11), ITK-Snap (version 3.8), and Invesalius (version 3.1) in its application for the calculation of solitary fibrous tumor volumes. Knowing the size, shape, and volume of mesothelioma is decisive for clinical decision-making by health personnel when performing surgery; the currently used standard procedure is manual segmentation through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This process tends to take a long time to complete. On the other hand, automatic segmentation software is much faster and more user-friendly, so looking for software that gives us greater accuracy when doing this task is very important. This work obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a mesothelioma patient, and the images were segmented in the 3 different programs to evaluate the concordance between the software later. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Informatics and Healthcare Engineering)
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12 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
Quality 4.0 and Cognitive Engineering Applied to Quality Management Systems: A Framework
by Adriana Ventura Carvalho and Tânia Miranda Lima
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060115 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2921
Abstract
In order to create high-quality products, quality engineering must be integrated across the entire product development process. To accomplish the ultimate goal, innovative approaches are required, and a Quality Management System-QMS is imperative to standardize all processes. All business areas depend on people [...] Read more.
In order to create high-quality products, quality engineering must be integrated across the entire product development process. To accomplish the ultimate goal, innovative approaches are required, and a Quality Management System-QMS is imperative to standardize all processes. All business areas depend on people and processes, but quality is especially dependent on them. A QMS can benefit from the application of Quality 4.0—Q4.0 and Cognitive Engineering—CE aspects to reduce the workload and cognitive capacity required from QMS specialists, using these technologies to tackle long-standing quality concerns and to re-optimize to deliver creative solutions. The decision to implement a QMS based on Q4.0 technologies is difficult to take due to the challenge that is to automatize dispersed activities. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework that aids in the application of a Q4.0 QMS. The relationship between quality management practices and Industry 4.0 technologies that improve quality are deeply studied and connected with CE practices to develop an advanced framework, that makes it easier to overview all the dispersed activities within the manufacturing environment gathered as one, and simplify the application of new technologies to the QMS activities. The proposed framework was developed as result of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Innovative Systems for the Factories of the Future)
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22 pages, 10949 KiB  
Article
Experimental Modeling of a New Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Fuzzy Controller Based Maximum Power Point Tracking from a Photovoltaic System
by Mohamed Fawzy El-Khatib, Mohamed-Nabil Sabry, Mohamed I. Abu El-Sebah and Shady A. Maged
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060114 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Conventional control methods, which follow the maximum power point (MPP), suffer from being slow or inaccurate during sudden changes in irradiance and temperature. These problems can be solved using artificial intelligence algorithms. The current study proposes a new multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) fuzzy logic controller [...] Read more.
Conventional control methods, which follow the maximum power point (MPP), suffer from being slow or inaccurate during sudden changes in irradiance and temperature. These problems can be solved using artificial intelligence algorithms. The current study proposes a new multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for maximizing the overall output performance of a photovoltaic system. The MDOF-FLC was compared to the simplified universal intelligent PID controller (SUI-PID) using the MDOF concept and the normal FLC. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed MDOF-FLC controller has a 37.8% and 58.1% faster response with a better rise time compared to the SUIPID controller and the normal FLC, respectively. At the same time, the error, measured by the integral time absolute error (ITAE), was 29.4% and 62.5% lower, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control and Systems Engineering)
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16 pages, 2102 KiB  
Article
Exploring Transaction Security on Consumers’ Willingness to Use Mobile Payment by Using the Technology Acceptance Model
by Shuo-Chang Tsai, Chih-Hsien Chen and Keng-Chang Shih
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060113 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4434
Abstract
In recent years, with the increase in Fintech innovation, mobile payment has played an important role. This research is to investigate factors affecting consumers’ willingness to use mobile payment. The study found that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have a significant [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the increase in Fintech innovation, mobile payment has played an important role. This research is to investigate factors affecting consumers’ willingness to use mobile payment. The study found that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have a significant positive impact on consumer’s adoption of mobile payments. In addition, from empirical research on the mediating effect of transaction security on attitudes toward using it and behavioral intention to use, the study found that transaction security has a significant mediating effect, and empirical data shows that transaction security can strengthen consumers’ behavior towards using mobile payment intention, this also explained why the penetration rate of mobile payments in developed countries is lower than in developing countries. In summary, to encourage consumers to willingly use the new mobile payment tool, in addition to making the tool easy to use and useful, it is crucial that transaction security can assure consumers’ willingness to use mobile payment. Full article
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15 pages, 3427 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed Components Using Fused Deposition Modeling: Optimization Using the Desirability Approach and Machine Learning Regressor
by Vijaykumar S. Jatti, Mandar S. Sapre, Ashwini V. Jatti, Nitin K. Khedkar and Vinaykumar S. Jatti
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060112 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
The fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique involves the deposition of a fused layer of material according to the geometry designed in the software. Several parameters affect the quality of parts produced by FDM. This paper investigates the effect of FDM printing process parameters [...] Read more.
The fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique involves the deposition of a fused layer of material according to the geometry designed in the software. Several parameters affect the quality of parts produced by FDM. This paper investigates the effect of FDM printing process parameters on tensile strength, impact strength, and flexural strength. The effects of process parameters such as printing speed, layer thickness, extrusion temperature, and infill percentage are studied. Polyactic acid (PLA) was used as a filament material for printing test specimens. The experimental layout is designed according to response surface methodology (RSM) and responses are collected. Specimens are prepared for testing of these parameters as per ASTM standards. A mathematical model for each of the responses is developed based on the nonlinear regression method. The desirability approach, nonlinear regression, as well as experimental values are in close agreement with each other. The desirability approach predicted the tensile strength, impact strength, and flexural strength with a less percentage error of 3.109, 6.532, and 3.712, respectively. The nonlinear regression approach predicted the tensile strength, impact strength, and flexural strength with a less percentage error of 2.977, 6.532, and 3.474, respectively. The desirability concept and nonlinear regression approach resulted in the best mechanical property of the FDM-printed part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering)
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25 pages, 18357 KiB  
Article
Augmented Reality Applications for Learning Geography in Primary Education
by Christina Volioti, Euclid Keramopoulos, Theodosios Sapounidis, Konstantinos Melisidis, Georgios Christoforos Kazlaris, George Rizikianos and Christos Kitras
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060111 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3922
Abstract
Augmented Reality is an emerging educational technology that has the potential to provide innovative methods of teaching and create engaging learning experiences. Augmented Reality applications implementing game-based design could enrich education by increasing motivation and engagement and enabling better learning outcomes. Similarly, Augmented [...] Read more.
Augmented Reality is an emerging educational technology that has the potential to provide innovative methods of teaching and create engaging learning experiences. Augmented Reality applications implementing game-based design could enrich education by increasing motivation and engagement and enabling better learning outcomes. Similarly, Augmented Reality, in the context of Geography, could enhance the learning process and the user experience through the visualization of the content and a better understanding of abstract concepts. Therefore, in this study, (a) three specially designed Augmented Reality applications are described for teaching Geography in the fifth and sixth grades, and (b) an extensive usability evaluation study is reported using the three applications. Teachers (N = 6) and pupils (N = 43) from the fifth and sixth grades, as well as computer science students (N = 43) participated to assess the usability of the proposed Augmented Reality apps. The results were positive since the proposed Augmented Reality apps provided high-level usability. Finally, they revealed that there was acceptance for the Augmented Reality technology by all participants and a willingness to be incorporated into the teaching process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Virtual Reality Technologies and Their Applications)
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16 pages, 824 KiB  
Article
Strategic Behavior Categorization in Information Technology Outsourcing: An Analysis Based on Knowledge Transfer and Relational Governance
by Thiago Poleto, Thyago Celso Cavalcante Nepomuceno, Victor Diogho Heuer de Carvalho and Ana Paula Cabral Seixas Costa
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060110 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
This paper proposes a strategic behavior categorization between the contractor and the provider in information technology (IT) outsourcing. We identified four behaviors (or attitudes) focusing specifically on the contractors’ attitudes: (a) conservative, (b) collaborative, (c) opportunistic, and (d) transformational. Theoretical concepts from IT [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a strategic behavior categorization between the contractor and the provider in information technology (IT) outsourcing. We identified four behaviors (or attitudes) focusing specifically on the contractors’ attitudes: (a) conservative, (b) collaborative, (c) opportunistic, and (d) transformational. Theoretical concepts from IT Outsourcing, Relational Governance, and Knowledge Transfer were used to derive the study hypotheses. A questionnaire was developed to collect the information to test the hypotheses. An empirical analysis of a sample of 247 Brazilian companies was used, supporting the grouping of the companies as follows: 38.49% of them had the conservative attitude; 29.14% of them had the collaborative attitude; 14.97% of them had the opportunistic attitude; and 17.40% of them had the transformational attitude. We found that the relational attitudes should be adjusted to the individual contractors’ conditions, specific characteristics, and sectors. Our results also emphasize that the type of outsourced activity (traditional or customized) enables the managers to identify the need to balance the participation in relational governance. This study brings innovations to the understanding of the importance of the relationship between the contractor and the supplier, supporting, for example, the prioritization of new relational profiles according to the level of the IT service that was contracted, whether it is traditional or customized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Systems)
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20 pages, 770 KiB  
Article
Underlying Factors and Strategies for Organizational BIM Capabilities: The Case of Iran
by Mohammad Sadra Rajabi, Mohammad Rezaeiashtiani, Afiqah R. Radzi, Alireza Famili, Amirhossein Rezaeiashtiani and Rahimi A. Rahman
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060109 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3773
Abstract
Building information modeling (BIM) has a significant role in the architecture, engineering, construction, and operation (AECO) industries. Most BIM benefits have not been grasped due to the lack of organizational BIM capabilities (OBIMCs). Accordingly, organizations must develop intuitive strategies to support BIM implementation [...] Read more.
Building information modeling (BIM) has a significant role in the architecture, engineering, construction, and operation (AECO) industries. Most BIM benefits have not been grasped due to the lack of organizational BIM capabilities (OBIMCs). Accordingly, organizations must develop intuitive strategies to support BIM implementation and to fulfill the promised benefits. This study investigates the impact of different capability factors on OBIMC and the underlying strategies to improve OBIMC in Iran. Particularly, this study builds a structural equation model to explain the links between the capability factors and strategies linked to OBIMC in Iran. A systematic literature review of twenty-six papers and semi-structured interviews with fifteen BIM specialists identified nineteen capability factors and fourteen strategies. A survey of 126 BIM professionals was used to assess the importance of the capability factors and strategies. To analyze the collected data, first, an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed. Then, Partial Least-Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was employed. The EFA generated two constructs for the capability factors: OBIMC and organizational capabilities (OCA). Furthermore, it categorized the strategies into two constructs: BIM capability requirement (BIMCR) and organizational culture (OCU). The structural equation model demonstrates that BIMCR and OCU enhance OCA and OBIMC. These two elements are also positively impacted by BIMCR. Industry professionals and policymakers can use these findings to develop strategic plans and to prioritize efforts. The significant contribution of this study is to illuminate the interrelationship between capability factors and strategies related to OBIMC in Iran. Full article
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13 pages, 321 KiB  
Article
Variation on Work Demands and Sleep Disturbances Concerning Fixed and Rotating Shifts in the Water, Sanitation, and Waste Sector
by Ana Dionísio, Teresa P. Cotrim, Júlia Teles and José Carvalhais
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060108 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1672
Abstract
The growing production of waste and increased use of water and sanitation systems worldwide have been pressuring the water, sanitation, and waste sectors. This study analyzed the perception of the determinants of work activity among workers from the water, sanitation, and waste sector [...] Read more.
The growing production of waste and increased use of water and sanitation systems worldwide have been pressuring the water, sanitation, and waste sectors. This study analyzed the perception of the determinants of work activity among workers from the water, sanitation, and waste sector in Portugal, the variation in the work demands among different shift types, and the main predictors of sleep disturbances. Data collection was performed through a questionnaire administered to 300 workers in 2017 and 2019. An ageing population was identified in all shift types. Possible occupational trajectories with changes from the fixed night and early morning shifts to daytime and fast rotating shifts may be linked to health conditions. Workers in fixed night and early morning shifts perceived higher physical demands and environmental discomfort, lower social support, and job dissatisfaction. Workers in daytime or fast rotating shifts perceived higher cognitive demands. Sleep disturbances were perceived more negatively among those working permanently on night and early morning shifts. The main predictors of sleep disturbance in both years were the type of shift, and high physical demands. The study highlights the relevance of characterizing the work demands to establish future strategies to improve the health and well-being of shift workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Innovative Systems for the Factories of the Future)
11 pages, 8587 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Based Predictive Modeling of Electrical Discharge Machining of Cryo-Treated NiTi, NiCu and BeCu Alloys
by Vijaykumar S. Jatti, Rahul B. Dhabale, Akshansh Mishra, Nitin K. Khedkar, Vinaykumar S. Jatti and Ashwini V. Jatti
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060107 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
The advancement in technology has attracted researchers to electric discharge machining (EDM) for providing a practical solution for overcoming the limitations of conventional machining. The current study focused on predicting the Material Removal Rate (MRR) using machine learning (ML) approaches. The process parameters [...] Read more.
The advancement in technology has attracted researchers to electric discharge machining (EDM) for providing a practical solution for overcoming the limitations of conventional machining. The current study focused on predicting the Material Removal Rate (MRR) using machine learning (ML) approaches. The process parameters considered are namely, workpiece electrical conductivity, gap current, gap voltage, pulse on time and pulse off time. Cryo-treated workpiece viz, Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloys, Nickel Copper (NiCu) alloys, and Beryllium copper (BCu) alloys and cryo-treated pure copper as tool electrode was considered. In the present research work, four supervised machine learning regression and three supervised machine learning classification-based algorithms are used for predicting the MRR. Machine learning result showed that gap current, gap voltage and pulse on time are most significant parameters that effected MRR. It is observed from the results that the Gradient boosting regression-based algorithm resulted in the highest coefficient of determination value for predicting MRR while Random Forest classification based resulted in the highest F1-Score for obtaining MRR. Full article
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13 pages, 4947 KiB  
Article
Implementation and Investigation of an Advanced Induction Machine Field-Oriented Control Strategy Using a New Generation of Inverters Based on dSPACE Hardware
by Mouna Es-saadi, Hamid Chaikhy and Mohamed Khafallah
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060106 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Widely used in industrial applications, the induction machine is the subject of many researches. Many are aimed at developing its performances, such torque ripples, current distortions or even rotor speed response, by using different control strategies or even replacing two level inverters in [...] Read more.
Widely used in industrial applications, the induction machine is the subject of many researches. Many are aimed at developing its performances, such torque ripples, current distortions or even rotor speed response, by using different control strategies or even replacing two level inverters in a field oriented control strategy with a new generation of inverters. This paper presents an advanced asynchronous machine field-oriented control strategy with a three level neutral point clamped inverter. The attractive performances of the field oriented control strategy using a three level neutral point clamped inverter are experimentally tested. Both conventional and new field-oriented control strategies are implemented in a dSPACE board induction machine. To highlight the advantages of the new control strategy, conventional and improved strategies are studied in open loop and closed loop conditions using integral proportional and proportional integral controllers, in term of current distortions, torque and speed response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control and Systems Engineering)
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19 pages, 8998 KiB  
Article
Improvement of the Sensor Capability of the NAO Robot by the Integration of a Laser Rangefinder
by Vincenzo Bonaiuto and Andrea Zanela
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2022, 5(6), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5060105 - 24 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2343
Abstract
This paper focuses on integrating a laser rangefinder system with an anthropomorphic robot (NAO6—Aldebaran, United Robotics Group) to improve its sensory and operational capabilities, as part of a larger project concerning the use of these systems in “assisted living” activities. This additional sensor [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on integrating a laser rangefinder system with an anthropomorphic robot (NAO6—Aldebaran, United Robotics Group) to improve its sensory and operational capabilities, as part of a larger project concerning the use of these systems in “assisted living” activities. This additional sensor enables the robot to reconstruct its surroundings by integrating new information with that identified by the on-board sensors. Thus, it can identify more objects in a scene and detect any obstacles along its navigation path. This feature will improve the efficiency of navigation algorithms, increasing movement competence in environments where people live and work. Indeed, these environments are characterized by details and specificities within a range of distances that best suit the new robot design. The paper presents a laser finder integration project that consists of two different parts, which are as follows: the former, the mechanical part, provided the NAO robot’s head; the latter, the software, provided the robot with proper software drivers to enable integration of the new sensor with its acquisition system. Some experimental results in an actual environment are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Mechatronics and Robotic Systems)
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