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Fractal Fract., Volume 6, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 76 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The strength of the soil–structure interface can be mobilized when subjected to cyclic loading. To capture the cyclic mobilization of the soil–structure interface, an advanced elastoplastic approach within the framework of fractional plasticity is developed, where no additional plastic potential is required. Further numerical implementation shows that this approach can reasonably capture the mobilized strength and deformation of the soil–structure interface under cyclic loads. View this paper
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Article
A Reliable Approach for Solving Delay Fractional Differential Equations
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020124 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
In this paper, we study a class of second-order delay fractional differential equations with a variable-order Caputo derivative. This type of equation is an extension to ordinary delay equations which are used in the modeling of several biological systems such as population dynamics, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study a class of second-order delay fractional differential equations with a variable-order Caputo derivative. This type of equation is an extension to ordinary delay equations which are used in the modeling of several biological systems such as population dynamics, epidemiology, and immunology. Usually, fractional differential equations are difficult to solve analytically, and with fractional derivatives of variable-order, they become more challenging. Therefore, the need for reliable numerical techniques is worth investigating. To solve this type of equation, we derive a new approach based on the operational matrix. We use the shifted Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind as the basis for the approximate solutions. A convergence analysis is discussed and the uniform convergence of the approximate solutions is proven. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the efficiency of the presented approach. The computed errors, figures, and tables show that the approximate solutions converge to the exact ones by considering only a few terms in the expansion, and illustrate the novelty of the presented approach. Full article
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Article
Existence Results for Coupled Nonlinear Sequential Fractional Differential Equations with Coupled Riemann–Stieltjes Integro-Multipoint Boundary Conditions
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020123 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the existence of solutions for a fully coupled Riemann–Stieltjes, integro-multipoint, boundary value problem of Caputo-type sequential fractional differential equations. The given system is studied with the aid of the Leray–Schauder alternative and contraction mapping principle. A numerical example [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with the existence of solutions for a fully coupled Riemann–Stieltjes, integro-multipoint, boundary value problem of Caputo-type sequential fractional differential equations. The given system is studied with the aid of the Leray–Schauder alternative and contraction mapping principle. A numerical example illustrating the abstract results is also presented. Full article
Article
Numerical Algorithm for Calculating the Time Domain Response of Fractional Order Transfer Function
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020122 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
This paper proposes new numerical algorithms for calculating the time domain responses of fractional order transfer functions (FOTFs). FOTFs are divided into two categories, explicit fractional order transfer functions (EFOTFs) and implicit fractional order transfer functions (IFOTFs). Transforming an EFOTF into an equivalent [...] Read more.
This paper proposes new numerical algorithms for calculating the time domain responses of fractional order transfer functions (FOTFs). FOTFs are divided into two categories, explicit fractional order transfer functions (EFOTFs) and implicit fractional order transfer functions (IFOTFs). Transforming an EFOTF into an equivalent fractional order differential equation, its time domain response can be obtained by solving the equation by the difference method. IFOTF cannot be transformed into an equivalent equation, so its time domain response cannot be calculated by existing difference methods. A new numerical algorithm is designed for calculating a convolution and its inverse operation, the time domain response of IFOTF can be calculated based on the algorithm. Error analysis shows that the proposed numerical algorithms are of first-order accuracy. Four calculation examples are presented, and the results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. Full article
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Article
Right Fractional Sobolev Space via Riemann–Liouville Derivatives on Time Scales and an Application to Fractional Boundary Value Problem on Time Scales
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020121 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Using the concept of fractional derivatives of Riemann–Liouville on time scales, we first introduce right fractional Sobolev spaces and characterize them. Then, we prove the equivalence of some norms in the introduced spaces, and obtain their completeness, reflexivity, separability and some embeddings. Finally, [...] Read more.
Using the concept of fractional derivatives of Riemann–Liouville on time scales, we first introduce right fractional Sobolev spaces and characterize them. Then, we prove the equivalence of some norms in the introduced spaces, and obtain their completeness, reflexivity, separability and some embeddings. Finally, as an application, we propose a recent method to study the existence of weak solutions of fractional boundary value problems on time scales by using variational methods and critical point theory, and, by constructing an appropriate variational setting, we obtain two existence results of the problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section General Mathematics, Analysis)
Article
Fractal Analysis of Particle Distribution and Scale Effect in a Soil–Rock Mixture
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020120 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
A soil–rock mixture (SRM) is a type of heterogeneous geomaterial, and the particle distribution of SRM can be described by fractal theory. At present, it is difficult to quantify the fractal dimension of a particle size distribution and understand the scale effect in [...] Read more.
A soil–rock mixture (SRM) is a type of heterogeneous geomaterial, and the particle distribution of SRM can be described by fractal theory. At present, it is difficult to quantify the fractal dimension of a particle size distribution and understand the scale effect in SRMs. In this study, the fractal theory and discrete element method (DEM) were introduced to solve this problem. First, the particle gradation of SRM was dealt with by using fractal theory. The fractal structure of particle distribution was studied, and a method of calculation of the fractal dimension is presented in this paper. Second, based on the fractal dimension and relative threshold, the particle gradations of SRMs at different scales were predicted. Third, numerical direct shear tests of SRM at different scales were simulated by using the DEM. The scale effects of shear displacement, shear zone, and shear strength parameters were revealed. Last, taking the maximum particle size of 60 mm as the standard value, the piece-wise functional relationship between shear strength parameters and particle size was established. The results are as follows: for SRM in a representative engineering area, by plotting the relationship between particle cumulative mass percentage and particle size, we can judge whether the SRM has a fractal structure; in Southwest China, the frequency of the fractal dimension of the SRM is in the normal distribution, and the median fractal dimension is 2.62; the particle gradations of SRMs at different scales calculated by fractal dimension and relative threshold can expand the study scope of particle size analysis; when the particle size is less than 70 mm, the strength parameters show a parabolic trend with the particle size increases, and if not, a nearly linear trend is found. The proposed method can describe the fractal characteristics of SRM in a representative engineering area and provides a quantitative estimation of shear strength parameters of SRM at different scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Geomaterials)
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Article
On Variable-Order Fractional Discrete Neural Networks: Solvability and Stability
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020119 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Few papers have been published to date regarding the stability of neural networks described by fractional difference operators. This paper makes a contribution to the topic by presenting a variable-order fractional discrete neural network model and by proving its Ulam–Hyers stability. In particular, [...] Read more.
Few papers have been published to date regarding the stability of neural networks described by fractional difference operators. This paper makes a contribution to the topic by presenting a variable-order fractional discrete neural network model and by proving its Ulam–Hyers stability. In particular, two novel theorems are illustrated, one regarding the existence of the solution for the proposed variable-order network and the other regarding its Ulam–Hyers stability. Finally, numerical simulations of three-dimensional and two-dimensional variable-order fractional neural networks were carried out to highlight the effectiveness of the conceived theoretical approach. Full article
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Article
Inclusion Relations for Dini Functions Involving Certain Conic Domains
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020118 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
In recent years, special functions such as Bessel functions have been widely used in many areas of mathematics and physics. We are essentially motivated by the recent development; in our present investigation, we make use of certain conic domains and define a new [...] Read more.
In recent years, special functions such as Bessel functions have been widely used in many areas of mathematics and physics. We are essentially motivated by the recent development; in our present investigation, we make use of certain conic domains and define a new class of analytic functions associated with the Dini functions. We derive inclusion relationships and certain integral preserving properties. By applying the Bernardi-Libera-Livingston integral operator, we obtain some remarkable applications of our main results. Finally, in the concluding section, we recall the attention of curious readers to studying the q-generalizations of the results presented in this paper. Furthermore, based on the suggested extension, the (p,q)-extension will be a relatively minor and unimportant change, as the new parameter p is redundant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Geometric Function Theory)
Article
Starlike Functions of Complex Order with Respect to Symmetric Points Defined Using Higher Order Derivatives
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020116 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce and study a new subclass of multivalent functions with respect to symmetric points involving higher order derivatives. In order to unify and extend various well-known results, we have defined the class subordinate to a conic region impacted by [...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce and study a new subclass of multivalent functions with respect to symmetric points involving higher order derivatives. In order to unify and extend various well-known results, we have defined the class subordinate to a conic region impacted by Janowski functions. We focused on conic regions when it pertained to applications of our main results. Inclusion results, subordination property and coefficient inequality of the defined class are the main results of this paper. The applications of our results which are extensions of those given in earlier works are presented here as corollaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Geometric Function Theory)
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Article
Estimates for a Rough Fractional Integral Operator and Its Commutators on p-Adic Central Morrey Spaces
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020117 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
In the current paper, we obtain the boundedness of a rough p-adic fractional integral operator on p-adic central Morrey spaces. Moreover, we establish the λ-central bounded mean oscillations estimate for commutators of a rough p-adic fractional integral operator on [...] Read more.
In the current paper, we obtain the boundedness of a rough p-adic fractional integral operator on p-adic central Morrey spaces. Moreover, we establish the λ-central bounded mean oscillations estimate for commutators of a rough p-adic fractional integral operator on p-adic central Morrey spaces. Full article
Article
Modelling of Electron and Thermal Transport in Quasi-Fractal Carbon Nitride Nanoribbons
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020115 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
In this work, using calculations based on the density functional theory, molecular dynamics, non-equilibrium Green functions method, and Monte Carlo simulation, we study electronic and phonon transport in a device based on quasi-fractal carbon nitride nanoribbons with Sierpinski triangle blocks. Modifications of electronic [...] Read more.
In this work, using calculations based on the density functional theory, molecular dynamics, non-equilibrium Green functions method, and Monte Carlo simulation, we study electronic and phonon transport in a device based on quasi-fractal carbon nitride nanoribbons with Sierpinski triangle blocks. Modifications of electronic and thermal conductance with increase in generation g of quasi-fractal segments are estimated. Introducing energetic disorder, we study hopping electron transport in the quasi-fractal nanoribbons by Monte Carlo simulation of a biased random walk with generalized Miller–Abrahams transfer rates. Calculated time dependencies of the mean square displacement bear evidence of transient anomalous diffusion. Variations of anomalous drift-diffusion parameters with localization radius, temperature, electric field intensity, and energy disorder level are estimated. The hopping in quasi-fractal nanoribbons can serve as an explicit physical implementation of the generalized comb model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Dynamics: Theory and Applications)
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Article
Analysis of a Time-Fractional Substantial Diffusion Equation of Variable Order
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020114 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
A time-fractional substantial diffusion equation of variable order is investigated, in which the variable-order fractional substantial derivative accommodates the memory effects and the structure change of the surroundings of the physical processes with respect to time. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions [...] Read more.
A time-fractional substantial diffusion equation of variable order is investigated, in which the variable-order fractional substantial derivative accommodates the memory effects and the structure change of the surroundings of the physical processes with respect to time. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the proposed model are proved, based on which the weighted high-order regularity of the solutions, in which the weight function characterizes the singularity of the solutions, are analyzed. Full article
Article
Pore Structural and Fractal Analysis of the Effects of MgO Reactivity and Dosage on Permeability and F–T Resistance of Concrete
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020113 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Currently, the MgO expansion agent is widely used to reduce the cracking risk of concrete. The influence of MgO reactivity (50 s and 300 s) and dosage (0, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.%, by weight of binder) on the air void, pore structure, [...] Read more.
Currently, the MgO expansion agent is widely used to reduce the cracking risk of concrete. The influence of MgO reactivity (50 s and 300 s) and dosage (0, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.%, by weight of binder) on the air void, pore structure, permeability and freezing–thawing (F–T) resistance of concrete were studied. The results indicate (1) the addition of 4–8 wt.% reactive MgO (with reactivity of 50 s and termed as M50 thereafter) and weak reactive MgO (with reactivity of 300 s and termed M300 thereafter) lowers the concrete’s compressive strength by 4.4–17.2%, 3.9–16.4% and 1.9–14.6% at 3, 28 and 180 days, respectively. The increase in MgO dosage and reactivity tends to further reduce the concrete strength at all hydration ages. (2) Permeability of the concrete is closely related to the pore structure. M50 can densify the pore structure and lower the fraction of large capillary pores at an early age, thus it is beneficial for the impermeability of concrete. In contrast, M300 can enhance the 180-day impermeability of concrete since it can densify the pore structure only at a late age. (3) The influence of MgO on F–T resistance is minor since MgO could not change the air void parameters. (5) MgO concretes exhibit obvious fractal characteristics. The fractal dimension of the pore surface (Ds) exhibits a close relationship with the permeability property of concrete. However, no correlation can be found between F–T resistance and Ds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Cement-based Materials)
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Article
Regularity of Fractional Heat Semigroup Associated with Schrödinger Operators
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020112 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 668
Abstract
Let L=Δ+V be a Schrödinger operator, where the potential V belongs to the reverse Hölder class. By the subordinative formula, we introduce the fractional heat semigroup [...] Read more.
Let L=Δ+V be a Schrödinger operator, where the potential V belongs to the reverse Hölder class. By the subordinative formula, we introduce the fractional heat semigroup {etLα}t>0, 0<α<1, associated with L. By the aid of the fundamental solution of the heat equation: tu+Lu=tuΔu+Vu=0, we estimate the gradient and the time-fractional derivatives of the fractional heat kernel Kα,tL(·,·), respectively. This method is independent of the Fourier transform, and can be applied to the second-order differential operators whose heat kernels satisfy the Gaussian upper bounds. As an application, we establish a Carleson measure characterization of the Campanato-type space BMOLγ(Rn) via the fractional heat semigroup {etLα}t>0. Full article
Article
Electronically Controlled Power-Law Filters Realizations
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020111 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
A generalized structure that is capable of implementing power-law filters derived from 1st and 2nd-order mother filter functions is presented in this work. This is achieved thanks to the employment of Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) as active elements, because of the electronic tuning [...] Read more.
A generalized structure that is capable of implementing power-law filters derived from 1st and 2nd-order mother filter functions is presented in this work. This is achieved thanks to the employment of Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) as active elements, because of the electronic tuning capability of their transconductance parameter. Appropriate design examples are provided and the performance of the introduced structure is evaluated through simulation results using the Cadence Integrated Circuits (IC) design suite and Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) transistors models available from the Austria Mikro Systeme (AMS) 0.35 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2021 Feature Papers by Fractal Fract's Editorial Board Members)
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Article
On a Nonlocal Problem for Mixed-Type Equation with Partial Riemann-Liouville Fractional Derivative
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020110 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The present paper presents a study on a problem with a fractional integro-differentiation operator in the boundary condition for an equation with a partial Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. The unique solvability of the problem is proved. In the hyperbolic part of the considered domain, [...] Read more.
The present paper presents a study on a problem with a fractional integro-differentiation operator in the boundary condition for an equation with a partial Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. The unique solvability of the problem is proved. In the hyperbolic part of the considered domain, the functional equation is solved by the iteration method. The problem is reduced to solving the Volterra integro-differential equation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Calculus and Fractals in Mathematical Physics)
Article
Hybrid Differential Inclusion Involving Two Multi-Valuedoperators with Nonlocal Multi-Valued Integral Condition
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020109 - 13 Feb 2022
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The present paper is devoted to the existence of solution for the Hybrid differential inclusions of the second type. Here, we present the inclusion problem with two multi-valued maps. In addition, it is considered with nonlocal integral boundary condition [...] Read more.
The present paper is devoted to the existence of solution for the Hybrid differential inclusions of the second type. Here, we present the inclusion problem with two multi-valued maps. In addition, it is considered with nonlocal integral boundary condition η(0)0σΔs,η(s)ds, where Δ is a multi-valued map. Relative compactness of the set 0σΔs,η(s)ds in L2(0,ε),R is used to justify the condensing condition for some created operators. Fixed point theorems connected with the weak compactness manner is utilized to explore the results throughout this paper. Full article
Article
Analysis of Lie Symmetries with Conservation Laws and Solutions of Generalized (4 + 1)-Dimensional Time-Fractional Fokas Equation
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020108 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
High-dimensional fractional equations research is a cutting-edge field with significant practical and theoretical implications in mathematics, physics, biological fluid mechanics, and other fields. Firstly, in this paper, the (4 + 1)-dimensional time-fractional Fokas equation in a higher-dimensional integrable system is studied by using [...] Read more.
High-dimensional fractional equations research is a cutting-edge field with significant practical and theoretical implications in mathematics, physics, biological fluid mechanics, and other fields. Firstly, in this paper, the (4 + 1)-dimensional time-fractional Fokas equation in a higher-dimensional integrable system is studied by using semi-inverse and fractional variational theory. Then, the Lie symmetry analysis and conservation law analysis are carried out for the higher dimensional fractional order model with the symmetry of fractional order. Finally, the fractional-order equation is solved using the bilinear approach to produce the rogue wave and multi-soliton solutions, and the fractional equation is numerically solved using the Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Computational Physics with Fractional Application)
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Article
Some Fixed-Disc Results in Double Controlled Quasi-Metric Type Spaces
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020107 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 749
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce new types of general contractions for self mapping on double controlled quasi-metric type spaces, where we prove the existence and uniqueness of fixed disc and circle for such mappings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Initial and Boundary Value Problems for Differential Equations)
Article
Fractional p(·)-Kirchhoff Type Problems Involving Variable Exponent Logarithmic Nonlinearity
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020106 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate a fractional p(·)-Kirchhoff type problem involving variable exponent logarithmic nonlinearity. With the help of the Nehari manifold approach, the existence and multiplicity of nontrivial weak solutions for the above problem are obtained. The main [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate a fractional p(·)-Kirchhoff type problem involving variable exponent logarithmic nonlinearity. With the help of the Nehari manifold approach, the existence and multiplicity of nontrivial weak solutions for the above problem are obtained. The main aspect and challenges of this paper are the presence of double non-local terms and logarithmic nonlinearity. Full article
Article
Mixed Neutral Caputo Fractional Stochastic Evolution Equations with Infinite Delay: Existence, Uniqueness and Averaging Principle
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020105 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
The aim of this article is to consider a class of neutral Caputo fractional stochastic evolution equations with infinite delay (INFSEEs) driven by fractional Brownian motion (fBm) and Poisson jumps in Hilbert space. First, we establish the local and global existence and uniqueness [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to consider a class of neutral Caputo fractional stochastic evolution equations with infinite delay (INFSEEs) driven by fractional Brownian motion (fBm) and Poisson jumps in Hilbert space. First, we establish the local and global existence and uniqueness theorems of mild solutions for the aforementioned neutral fractional stochastic system under local and global Carathéodory conditions by using the successive approximations, stochastic analysis, fractional calculus, and stopping time techniques. The obtained existence result in this article is new in the sense that it generalizes some of the existing results in the literature. Furthermore, we discuss the averaging principle for the proposed neutral fractional stochastic system in view of the convergence in mean square between the solution of the standard INFSEEs and that of the simplified equation. Finally, the obtained averaging theory is validated with an example. Full article
Article
Mathematical Approach to Distant Correlations of Physical Observables and Its Fractal Generalisation
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020104 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 603
Abstract
In this paper, the new mathematical correlation of two quantum systems that were initially allowed to interact and then separated is being formulated and analyzed. These correlations are illustrated by many examples and are also connected with fractals at a certain level. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, the new mathematical correlation of two quantum systems that were initially allowed to interact and then separated is being formulated and analyzed. These correlations are illustrated by many examples and are also connected with fractals at a certain level. The main idea of the paper arises from the EPR paradox, the paradox of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that occurs when the measurement of a physical observable performed on one system has an immediate effect on the other separate system being entangled with it. That is a physical phenomenon, especially when the particles are separated by a large distance. In this paper, we define distant correlations as the advanced method for the exact interpretation of strong connection and influence among those particles even when they are widely separated. On the given topological space (X,τ), we define a notion of τ-metric such that the set X is a τ-metric space and we prove some properties of these spaces. By using this new proposed model, we nullify the contradiction that appears in the EPR paradox. An illustrative example involving fractals is given. This innovative mathematical approach to this physical phenomenon may be attractive for future research in the field of quantum physics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Materials Structure and Fractal Nature)
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Article
Asset Pricing Model Based on Fractional Brownian Motion
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020099 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 841
Abstract
This paper introduces one unique price motion process with fractional Brownian motion. We introduce the imaginary number into the agent’s subjective probability for the reason of convergence; further, the result similar to Ito Lemma is proved. As an application, this result is applied [...] Read more.
This paper introduces one unique price motion process with fractional Brownian motion. We introduce the imaginary number into the agent’s subjective probability for the reason of convergence; further, the result similar to Ito Lemma is proved. As an application, this result is applied to Merton’s dynamic asset pricing framework. We find that the four order moment of fractional Brownian motion is entered into the agent’s decision-making. The decomposition of variance of economic indexes supports the possibility of the complex number in price movement. Full article
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Article
Common Fixed Point Theorems for Two Mappings in Complete b-Metric Spaces
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020103 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Our paper is devoted to the issue of the existence and uniqueness of common fixed points for two mappings in complete b-metric spaces by virtue of the new functions F and θ, respectively. Moreover, two specific examples to indicate the validity [...] Read more.
Our paper is devoted to the issue of the existence and uniqueness of common fixed points for two mappings in complete b-metric spaces by virtue of the new functions F and θ, respectively. Moreover, two specific examples to indicate the validity of our results are also given. Eventually, the generalized forms of Jungck fixed point theorem in the above spaces is investigated. Different from related literature, the conditions that the function F needs to satisfy are weakened, and F only needs to be non-decreasing in this paper. To some extent, our conclusions and methods improve the results of previous literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Initial and Boundary Value Problems for Differential Equations)
Article
The Multi-Switching Sliding Mode Combination Synchronization of Fractional Order Non-Identical Chaotic System with Stochastic Disturbances and Unknown Parameters
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020102 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
This paper deals with the issue of the multi-switching sliding mode combination synchronization (MSSMCS) of fractional order (FO) chaotic systems with different structures and unknown parameters under double stochastic disturbances (SD) utilizing the multi-switching synchronization method. The stochastic disturbances are considered as nonlinear [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the issue of the multi-switching sliding mode combination synchronization (MSSMCS) of fractional order (FO) chaotic systems with different structures and unknown parameters under double stochastic disturbances (SD) utilizing the multi-switching synchronization method. The stochastic disturbances are considered as nonlinear uncertainties and external disturbances. Our theoretical part considers that the drive-response systems have the same or different dimensions. Firstly, a FO sliding surface is established in terms of the fractional calculus. Secondly, depending on the FO Lyapunov stability theory and the sliding mode control technique, the multi-switching adaptive controllers (MSAC) and some suitable multi-switching adaptive updating laws (MSAUL) are designed. They can ensure that the state variables of the drive systems are synchronized with the different state variables of the response systems. Simultaneously, the unknown parameters are assessed, and the upper bound values of stochastic disturbances are examined. Selecting the suitable scale matrices, the multi-switching projection synchronization, multi-switching complete synchronization, and multi-switching anti-synchronization will become special cases of MSSMCS. Finally, examples are displayed to certify the usefulness and validity of the scheme via MATLAB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional Order Controllers: Design and Applications)
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Article
Impact of Non-Uniform Periodic Magnetic Field on Unsteady Natural Convection Flow of Nanofluids in Square Enclosure
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020101 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
In this article, unsteady free convective heat transport of copper-water nanofluid within a square-shaped enclosure with the dominance of non-uniform horizontal periodic magnetic effect is investigated numerically. Various nanofluids are also used to investigate temperature performance. The Brownian movement of nano-sized particles is [...] Read more.
In this article, unsteady free convective heat transport of copper-water nanofluid within a square-shaped enclosure with the dominance of non-uniform horizontal periodic magnetic effect is investigated numerically. Various nanofluids are also used to investigate temperature performance. The Brownian movement of nano-sized particles is included in the present model. A sinusoidal function of the y coordinate is considered for the magnetic effect, which works as a non-uniform magnetic field. The left sidewall is warmed at a higher heat, whereas the right sidewall is cooled at a lower heat. The upper and bottom walls are insulated. For solving the governing non-linear partial differential equation, Galerkin weighted residual finite element method is devoted. Comparisons are made with previously published articles, and we found there to be excellent compliance. The influence of various physical parameters, namely, the volume fraction of nanoparticles, period of the non-uniform magnetic field, Rayleigh number, the shape and diameter of nanoparticles, and Hartmann number on the temperature transport and fluid flow are researched. The local and average Nusselt number is also calculated to investigate the impact of different parameters on the flow field. The results show the best performance of heat transport for the Fe3O4-water nanofluid than for other types of nanofluids. The heat transport rate increases 20.14% for Fe3O4-water nanofluid and 8.94% for TiO2-water nanofluid with 1% nanoparticles volume. The heat transportation rate enhances with additional nanoparticles into the base fluid whereas it decreases with the increase of Hartmann number and diameter of particles. A comparison study of uniform and non-uniform magnetic effects is performed, and a higher heat transfer rate is observed for a non-uniform magnetic effect compared to a uniform magnetic effect. Moreover, periods of magnetic effect and a nanoparticle’s Brownian movement significantly impacts the temperature transport and fluid flow. The solution reaches unsteady state to steady state within a very short time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Computational Physics with Fractional Application)
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Article
Adaptive Fractional Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on Rough Set and Particle Swarm Optimization
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020100 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
This paper proposes a new image enhancement algorithm. At first, the paper uses the combination of rough set and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to distinguish the smooth area, edge and texture area of the image. Then, according to the results of image [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new image enhancement algorithm. At first, the paper uses the combination of rough set and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to distinguish the smooth area, edge and texture area of the image. Then, according to the results of image segmentation, an adaptive fractional differential filter is used to enhance the image. Finally, the experimental results show that the image enhanced by this algorithm has clear edge, rich texture details, and retains the information of the smooth area of the image. Full article
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Article
Generalized Mittag-Leffler Kernel Form Solutions of Free Convection Heat and Mass Transfer Flow of Maxwell Fluid with Newtonian Heating: Prabhakar Fractional Derivative Approach
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020098 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
In this article, the effects of Newtonian heating along with wall slip condition on temperature is critically examined on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of Prabhakar-like non integer Maxwell fluid near an infinitely vertical plate under constant concentration. For the sake of generalized memory [...] Read more.
In this article, the effects of Newtonian heating along with wall slip condition on temperature is critically examined on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of Prabhakar-like non integer Maxwell fluid near an infinitely vertical plate under constant concentration. For the sake of generalized memory effects, a new mathematical fractional model is formulated based on a newly introduced Prabhakar fractional operator with generalized Fourier’s law and Fick’s law. This fractional model has been solved analytically and exact solutions for dimensionless velocity, concentration, and energy equations are calculated in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions by employing the Laplace transformation method. Physical impacts of different parameters such as α, Pr, β, Sc, Gr, γ, and Gm are studied and demonstrated graphically by Mathcad software. Furthermore, to validate our current results, some limiting models such as classical Maxwell model, classical Newtonian model, and fractional Newtonian model are recovered from Prabhakar fractional Maxwell fluid. Moreover, we compare the results between Maxwell and Newtonian fluids for both fractional and classical cases with and without slip conditions, showing that the movement of the Maxwell fluid is faster than viscous fluid. Additionally, it is visualized that both classical Maxwell and viscous fluid have relatively higher velocity as compared to fractional Maxwell and viscous fluid. Full article
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Article
Reduced-Order H Filter Design for Singular Fractional-Order Systems
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020097 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 562
Abstract
This paper investigates the problem of reduced-order H filter design for singular fractional-order systems with order 0<α<1. It provides necessary and sufficient conditions for designs of both reduced-order H filters and zeroth-order H filters. When [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the problem of reduced-order H filter design for singular fractional-order systems with order 0<α<1. It provides necessary and sufficient conditions for designs of both reduced-order H filters and zeroth-order H filters. When reduced to special cases, the present results are shown to include those in recent works as special cases. Illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the results. Full article
Article
Application of Fractals to Evaluate Fractures of Rock Due to Mining
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020096 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Fractures caused by mining are the main form of water inrush disaster. However, the temporal and spatial development characteristics of fractures of the rock mass due to mining are not clearly understood at present. In this paper, two geometric parameters, namely, fractal dimension [...] Read more.
Fractures caused by mining are the main form of water inrush disaster. However, the temporal and spatial development characteristics of fractures of the rock mass due to mining are not clearly understood at present. In this paper, two geometric parameters, namely, fractal dimension and fracture entropy, are proposed to determine the spatial and temporal states of rock mass fractures caused by mining. The spatial and temporal structure characteristics of fractures in the rock mass due to mining are simulated with physical scale model testing based on digital image processing technology. A spatiotemporal model is created to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of hot and cold spots of the fractures based on a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results indicate that the fractal dimensions and entropy of the fractures network in the rock mass increase and decrease with the progression of mining, respectively, which can be examined in three stages. When the fractal dimension of the fractures in rock mass rapidly increases, the conductive fracture zone has a saddle shape. The fracture entropy of fracture has periodic characteristics in the advancing direction of the panel, which reflects the characteristics of periodic weighting. The fractal dimension and fracture entropy of fractures of the rock mass increase with time, and the rock mass system undergoes a process of increasing entropy. When the fractal dimension and fracture entropy of the fractures increase, the spatiotemporal state of fractures in rock mass caused by mining is initiated. When the fractal dimension and fracture entropy of the fractures decrease, the spatiotemporal state of fractures in rock mass is closed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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Article
Segmentation of Concrete Cracks by Using Fractal Dimension and UHK-Net
Fractal Fract. 2022, 6(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract6020095 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Concrete wall surfaces are prone to cracking for a long time, which affects the stability of concrete structures and may even lead to collapse accidents. In view of this, it is necessary to recognize and distinguish the concrete cracks. Then, the stability of [...] Read more.
Concrete wall surfaces are prone to cracking for a long time, which affects the stability of concrete structures and may even lead to collapse accidents. In view of this, it is necessary to recognize and distinguish the concrete cracks. Then, the stability of concrete will be known. In this paper, we propose a novel approach by fusing fractal dimension and UHK-Net deep learning network to conduct the semantic recognition of concrete cracks. We first use the local fractal dimensions to study the concrete cracking and roughly determine the location of concrete crack. Then, we use the U-Net Haar-like (UHK-Net) network to construct the crack segmentation network. Ultimately, the different types of concrete crack images are used to verify the advantage of the proposed method by comparing with FCN, U-Net, YOLO v5 network. Results show that the proposed method can not only characterize the dark crack images, but also distinguish small and fine crack images. The pixel accuracy (PA), mean pixel accuracy (MPA), and mean intersection over union (MIoU) of crack segmentation determined by the proposed method are all greater than 90%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Cement-based Materials)
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