. Arboviruses and malaria pose a growing threat to public health, affecting not only the general population but also immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. Individuals in vulnerable groups are at a higher risk of severe complications from the co-circulation and transmission of
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. Arboviruses and malaria pose a growing threat to public health, affecting not only the general population but also immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. Individuals in vulnerable groups are at a higher risk of severe complications from the co-circulation and transmission of ZIKV, malaria, and FLAVI fever. In sub-Saharan countries, such as Nigeria, these mosquito-borne infections have clinical presentations that overlap with other diseases (dengue, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and O’nyong o’nyong virus), making them a diagnostic challenge for clinicians in regions where they co-circulate. Vertical transmission can have a devastating impact on maternal health and fetal outcomes, including an increased risk of fetal loss and premature birth. Despite the global recognition of the burden of malaria and arboviruses, particularly ZIKV and other flaviviruses, there is limited data on their prevalence in Nigeria. In urban settings, where these diseases are endemic and share common biological, ecological, and economic factors, they may impact treatment outcomes and lead to epidemiological synergy. Hence, it is imperative to conduct sero-epidemiological and clinical studies to better understand the disease burden and hidden endemicity, thereby enabling improved prevention and clinical management. Method
. Serum samples collected from outpatients between December 2020 and November 2021 in three regions of Nigeria were tested for the presence of IgG antibody seropositivity against ZIKV and FLAVI using immunoblot serological assay. Results
. The overall cohort co-circulation antibody seropositivity of ZIKV, FLAVI and malaria was 24.0% (209/871). A total of 19.2% (167/871) of the study participants had ZIKV-seropositive antibodies and 6.2% (54/871) were FLAVI-seropositive, while 40.0% (348/871) of the subjects had malaria parasite antigens. Regional analysis revealed that participants from the southern region had the highest antibody seropositivity against ZIKV (21.7% (33/152)) and FLAVI (8.6% (13/152)), whereas those from the central region had a higher malaria parasite antigen (68.5% (287/419)). Conclusions
. This study represents the largest comparative cross-sectional descriptive sero-epidemiological investigation of ZIKV-FLAVI and malaria cocirculation in Nigeria. The findings of this study revealed increased antibody seropositivity, hidden endemicity, and the burden of ZIKV, FLAVI, and malaria co-circulating in Nigeria.