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Designs, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The impact of projectiles into reinforced and unreinforced concrete is a topic that has been investigated in varied research through different approaches and is of importance as concrete is an established material to protect against projectile impact. The influence of projectile tip contour and angle of attack (AoA) on damage and penetration depth of the target has not been reported in the literature before. Accordingly, this paper presents a numerical investigation of a rigid projectile impacting a reinforced concrete target and studies the effects of varying the AoA and tip contour of the projectile, through target damage and projectile penetration. View this paper.
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Article
Influence of Sawdust Particle Sizes on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Unfired Clay Blocks
Designs 2021, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030057 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Sawdust, which is a waste/by-product of the wood/timber industry, can be utilised as a valuable raw material in building material production due to its abundance and low cost. However, the application of sawdust in the manufacture of unfired clay blocks has received little [...] Read more.
Sawdust, which is a waste/by-product of the wood/timber industry, can be utilised as a valuable raw material in building material production due to its abundance and low cost. However, the application of sawdust in the manufacture of unfired clay blocks has received little investigation. Furthermore, the impact of different sawdust particle sizes on the properties of unfired clay blocks has not been studied. Therefore, this study screened sawdust at three different particle sizes: SP-a (212 μm < x < 300 μm), SP-b (425 μm < x < 600 μm) and SP-c (1.18 mm < x < 2.00 mm), to examine their effects on the physical and mechanical properties of unfired clay blocks. The density, linear shrinkage, capillary water absorption and flexural and compressive strengths were among the tests performed. Different sawdust percentages, i.e., 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of the total weight of the clay, were considered. The tests results show that when sawdust was added to the mixture, the density of the samples reduced for all particle sizes. However, the linear shrinkage increased in SP-a samples but decreased in the other two particle size samples as the sawdust percentage increased from 2.5% to 10%. On the other hand, the capillary water absorption coefficient increased while the strength decreased with increasing sawdust content for all three groups. The highest compressive strength (CS) and flexural strength (FS) were achieved at 2.5% of sawdust content. Furthermore, it was observed that SP-b (CS—4.74 MPa, FS—2.00 MPa) samples showed the highest strength followed by SP-a (CS—4.09 MPa, FS—1.69 MPa) and SP-c (CS—3.90 MPa, FS—1.63 MPa) samples. Consequently, good-quality unfired clay blocks can be manufactured using sawdust up to 2.5% with particle sizes ranging between 600 and 425 μm. Full article
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Article
Development of a Dynamic Hands-Free Door Opener to Prevent COVID-19 Pandemic Spreading
Designs 2021, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030056 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
The situation caused by COVID-19 has shown several vulnerabilities in the attitudes and habits of modern society, inducing the need to adopt new behaviors that will directly impact daily activities. The quickly spreading virus contaminates the surfaces of handles and objects, and subsequent [...] Read more.
The situation caused by COVID-19 has shown several vulnerabilities in the attitudes and habits of modern society, inducing the need to adopt new behaviors that will directly impact daily activities. The quickly spreading virus contaminates the surfaces of handles and objects, and subsequent contact with the eyes, nose, or mouth is one of the main contagion factors. There is an urgent need to rethink how we interact with the most-touched surfaces, such as door handles in public places with a high flux of people. A revision was performed of the most-used door handles to develop a proposal that could be applied to already existing models, thus avoiding the need for their total replacement. Through interaction between engineering, design, and ergonomics, an auxiliary hands-free door opener device was developed, following iteration improvement from an initial static geometry and culminating in a dynamic system aiming to provide greater ergonomic comfort in its use. The development followed a methodology using 3D modelling supported by 3D printing of the various components to accurately understand their functioning. In addition, the finite element method supported the prediction of the structural behavior of the developed systems. The final models were produced through CNC machining and submitted to functional validation tests with volunteers. The developed HFDO demonstrated relevant differentiation from the existing models on the market: for its geometry and material, but mainly for its strong emphasis on the interaction between the object and the user, resulting from the dynamic component in its use/manipulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
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Article
Cost-Effective Design of IoT-Based Smart Household Distribution System
Designs 2021, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030055 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) plays an indispensable role in present-day household electricity management. Nevertheless, practical development of cost-effective intelligent condition monitoring, protection, and control techniques for household distribution systems is still a challenging task. This paper is taking one step forward into [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) plays an indispensable role in present-day household electricity management. Nevertheless, practical development of cost-effective intelligent condition monitoring, protection, and control techniques for household distribution systems is still a challenging task. This paper is taking one step forward into a practical implementation of such techniques by developing an IoT Smart Household Distribution Board (ISHDB) to monitor and control various household smart appliances. The main function of the developed ISHDB is collecting and storing voltage, current, and power data and presenting them in a user-friendly way. The performance of the developed system is investigated under various residential electrical loads of different energy consumption profiles. In this regard, an Arduino-based working prototype is employed to gather the collected data into the ThingSpeak cloud through a Wi-Fi medium. Blynk mobile application is also implemented to facilitate real-time monitoring by individual consumers. Microprocessor technology is adopted to automate the process, and reduce hardware size and cost. Experimental results show that the developed system can be used effectively for real-time home energy management. It can also be used to detect any abnormal performance of the electrical appliances in real-time through monitoring their individual current and voltage waveforms. A comparison of the developed system and other existing techniques reveals the superiority of the proposed method in terms of the implementation cost and execution time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Home Design)
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Article
An Improved Extended Kalman Filter for Radar Tracking of Satellite Trajectories
Designs 2021, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030054 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Nonlinear state estimation problem is an important and complex topic, especially for real-time applications with a highly nonlinear environment. This scenario concerns most aerospace applications, including satellite trajectories, whose high standards demand methods with matching performances. A very well-known framework to deal with [...] Read more.
Nonlinear state estimation problem is an important and complex topic, especially for real-time applications with a highly nonlinear environment. This scenario concerns most aerospace applications, including satellite trajectories, whose high standards demand methods with matching performances. A very well-known framework to deal with state estimation is the Kalman Filters algorithms, whose success in engineering applications is mostly due to the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Despite its popularity, the EKF presents several limitations, such as exhibiting poor convergence, erratic behaviors or even inadequate linearization when applied to highly nonlinear systems. To address those limitations, this paper suggests an improved Extended Kalman Filter (iEKF), where a new Jacobian matrix expansion point is recommended and a Frobenius norm of the cross-covariance matrix is suggested as a correction factor for the a priori estimates. The core idea is to maintain the EKF structure and simplicity but improve its accuracy. In this paper, two case studies are presented to endorse the proposed iEKF. In both case studies, the classic EKF and iEKF are implemented, and the obtained results are compared to show the performance improvement of the state estimation by the iEKF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Modeling, Simulation and Control)
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Article
The Influence of the Characteristics of the Medium Voltage Network on the Single Line-to-Ground Fault Current in the Resistor Grounded Neutral Networks
Designs 2021, 5(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030053 - 07 Aug 2021
Viewed by 375
Abstract
One important problem in the operation of medium voltage networks is the detection of a single-line-to-ground fault in its incipient state, when the fault resistance values are very high. In a medium voltage (MV) distribution network with a neutral grounding resistor (NGR), one [...] Read more.
One important problem in the operation of medium voltage networks is the detection of a single-line-to-ground fault in its incipient state, when the fault resistance values are very high. In a medium voltage (MV) distribution network with a neutral grounding resistor (NGR), one of the methods employed to discriminate a single line-to-ground fault is the use of an overcurrent relay with an operating characteristic adjusted according to the effective value of the current flowing through the limiting resistor. In case of a single line-to-ground fault with a high fault resistance value, the correct tripping settings of the protective relay require the precise computation of this current. In comparison to the assumptions made by the models from the literature—the three-phase voltage system of the medium voltage busbars is symmetrical and there are no active power losses in the network insulation—the model proposed in this paper considers the pre-fault zero-sequence voltage of the medium voltage busbars and the active power losses in the network insulation, which is necessary in certain fault conditions where the use of the former leads to unacceptable errors. Full article
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Article
Cybersecurity Analysis of Load Frequency Control in Power Systems: A Survey
Designs 2021, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030052 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Today, power systems have transformed considerably and taken a new shape of geographically distributed systems from the locally centralized systems thereby leading to a new infrastructure in the framework of networked control cyber-physical system (CPS). Among the different important operations to be performed [...] Read more.
Today, power systems have transformed considerably and taken a new shape of geographically distributed systems from the locally centralized systems thereby leading to a new infrastructure in the framework of networked control cyber-physical system (CPS). Among the different important operations to be performed for smooth generation, transmission, and distribution of power, maintaining the scheduled frequency, against any perturbations, is an important one. The load frequency control (LFC) operation actually governs this frequency regulation activity after the primary control. Due to CPS nature, the LFC operation is vulnerable to attacks, both from physical and cyber standpoints. The cyber-attack strategies ranges from a variety of attacks such as jamming the network communication, time-delay attack, and false data injection. Motivated by these perspectives, this paper studies the cybersecurity issues of the power systems during the LFC operation, and a survey is conducted on the security analysis of LFC. Various cyber-attack strategies, their mathematical models, and vulnerability assessments are performed to understand the possible threats and sources causing failure of frequency regulation. The LFC operation of two-area power systems is considered as a tutorial example to quantify the vulnerabilities. Mitigation strategies through control theoretic approaches are then reviewed and highlighted for LFC operation under cyber-attack. Full article
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Article
A New Off-Board Electrical Vehicle Battery Charger: Topology, Analysis and Design
Designs 2021, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030051 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 635
Abstract
The extensive use of electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce concerns about climate change and fossil fuel shortages. One of the main obstacles to accepting EVs is the limitation of charging stations, which consists of high-charge batteries and high-energy charging infrastructure. A new transformer-less [...] Read more.
The extensive use of electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce concerns about climate change and fossil fuel shortages. One of the main obstacles to accepting EVs is the limitation of charging stations, which consists of high-charge batteries and high-energy charging infrastructure. A new transformer-less topology for boost dc-dc converters with higher power density and lower switch stress is proposed in this paper, which may be a suitable candidate for high-power fast-charging battery chargers of EVs. Throughout this paper, two operating modes of the proposed converter, continuous current mode (CCM) and discontinuous current mode (DCM), are analyzed in detail. Additionally, critical inductances and design considerations for the proposed converter are calculated. Finally, real-time verifications based on hardware-in-loop (HiL) simulation are carried out to assess the correctness of the proposed theoretical concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Autonomous and Unmanned Systems)
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Article
Load Frequency Control Based on the Bees Algorithm for the Great Britain Power System
Designs 2021, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030050 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 511
Abstract
This paper focuses on using the Bees Algorithm (BA) to tune the parameters of the proposed Fuzzy Proportional–Integral–Derivative with Filtered derivative (Fuzzy PIDF), Fractional Order PID (FOPID) controller and classical PID controller developed to stabilize and balance the frequency in the Great Britain [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on using the Bees Algorithm (BA) to tune the parameters of the proposed Fuzzy Proportional–Integral–Derivative with Filtered derivative (Fuzzy PIDF), Fractional Order PID (FOPID) controller and classical PID controller developed to stabilize and balance the frequency in the Great Britain (GB) power system at rated value. These controllers are proposed to meet the requirements of the GB Security and Quality of Supply Standard (GB-SQSS), which requires frequency to be brought back to its nominal value after a disturbance within a specified time. This work is extended to employ the proposed fuzzy structure controller in a dual-area interconnected power system. In comparison with controllers tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Teaching Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO) used for the same systems, simulation results show that the Fuzzy PIDF tuned by BA is able to significantly reduce the deviation in the frequency and tie-line power when a sudden disturbance is applied. Furthermore, the applied controllers tuned by BA including the Fuzzy PIDF prove their high robustness against a wide range of system parametric uncertainties and different load disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Engineering)
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Article
Simulation of the Effects of Angle of Attack and Projectile Contour in Damage Development in Reinforced Concrete
Designs 2021, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030049 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The impact of projectiles in reinforced or unreinforced concrete is of prime importance in applied mechanics and engineering. Parameters such as penetration depth, velocity or energy of the projectile, and the geometry and the angle of attack of the projectile are the most [...] Read more.
The impact of projectiles in reinforced or unreinforced concrete is of prime importance in applied mechanics and engineering. Parameters such as penetration depth, velocity or energy of the projectile, and the geometry and the angle of attack of the projectile are the most critical factors, among several others, that determine whether the concrete body will tolerate damage due to the impact or not. For numerical simulations of damage, the Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma (RHT) concrete failure is an established approach, which is also used in this research. In this work, numerical simulations have been performed on shooting a rigid large-scale projectile with different tip contours at a concrete target that is reinforced with steel. For each tip contour, the angle of attack varied. The penetration depth of the projectile tip and the damage of the target were reported for the different tip contours as a function of the angle of attack. The results show that the maximal damage occurred at ~45° of the angle of attack, while penetration of the projectile into the target increased with increasing the angle of attack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Architecture Design)
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Article
Optimization of Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Systems for Indoor Acoustic Comfort
Designs 2021, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030048 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The indoor air quality inside living spaces is a fundamental factor in providing adequate comfort. In order to do this, a minimum air exchange must be ensured. This can be obtained by means of natural or mechanical ventilation or using the Controlled Mechanical [...] Read more.
The indoor air quality inside living spaces is a fundamental factor in providing adequate comfort. In order to do this, a minimum air exchange must be ensured. This can be obtained by means of natural or mechanical ventilation or using the Controlled Mechanical Ventilation system (CMV). CMV ensures better energy performance, as in the winter period, the warm air that comes out of the building preheats the cold air that enters, and the opposite occurs in the summer period. A possible problem with CMV is the noise of the fans due to the movement of air and to the electric motor rotation. This work presents the results of acoustic measurements performed on an apartment equipped with CMV, operating in a single and simultaneous mode. Acoustic simulations are also presented using raytracing software on three typical apartments. The acoustic simulation carried out using an adequately calibrated 3D model has proved to be a valid support for the study of noise in rooms connected by doors and corridors. By differentiating the fan speed of the CMV, a considerable acoustic comfort improvement was obtained in the bedrooms and in the living room/kitchen. Class I for living rooms and class I or II for bedrooms according to the EN 16798-1 standard were achieved through speed optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Conventional Buildings)
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Article
Smart Monitoring Pad for Prediction of Pressure Ulcers with an Automatically Activated Integrated Electro-Therapy System
Designs 2021, 5(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030047 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Pressure ulcers (PU) are deep scars on the skin that cause pain, infections and severe health complications. Most movement-impaired subjects are vulnerable to PU, leading to permanent and irreversible skin damage. The system proposed in this paper aims to prevent PU formation with [...] Read more.
Pressure ulcers (PU) are deep scars on the skin that cause pain, infections and severe health complications. Most movement-impaired subjects are vulnerable to PU, leading to permanent and irreversible skin damage. The system proposed in this paper aims to prevent PU formation with the design and implementation of a wirelessly controlled device that predicts PUs before their occurrence and attempts to prevent it using therapeutic feedback. A flexible pad that consists of multiple types of sensors is used, theses sensors continuously and non-invasively monitor ulcer-related vital signs in vulnerable areas, and uses these data to predict PU with a decision-making process. When PU is detected an electrical stimulation (ES) unit is automatically activated. Stimulation prevents PU formation by increasing local blood flow to the simulated area and eliminating the main factor that leads to PU formation. The system successfully monitored and predicted PU; tests were performed on three healthy volunteers and one volunteer with sacral ulcers. Results including readings of blood oxygenation, force, humidity and temperature were recorded as graphs to monitor decay/increase in values more efficiently. Full article
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Article
An Innovative Ford Sedan with Enhanced Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) via Augmented Reality and Additive Manufacturing
Designs 2021, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030046 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The design of an E segment, executive, midsize sedan car was chosen to fill a gap in the market of the Ford brand and to achieve the goal of innovation looking towards the future. Ford has not owned an E-segment flagship sports sedan [...] Read more.
The design of an E segment, executive, midsize sedan car was chosen to fill a gap in the market of the Ford brand and to achieve the goal of innovation looking towards the future. Ford has not owned an E-segment flagship sports sedan for years, since the historic 1960s Falcon. Starting from the latter assumption and considering that the major car manufacturers are currently investing heavily in E-segment cars, it is important to design a new model, which has been called the Eagle. This model proposed here is to fill the gap between Ford and other companies that are already producing sport cars for the electric sector and to complete Ford’s proposal. The presented methodology is based on SDE, on which many design tools are implemented, such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Benchmarking (BM), and Top Flop Analysis (TPA). A market analysis follows in order to identify the major competitors and their key characteristics considering style and technology. The results are used to design an innovative car. Based on the most developed stylistic trends, the vehicle is first sketched and then drawn in the 2D and 3D environments for prototyping. This result leads to the possibility of 3D printing the actual model as a maquette using the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology and testing it in different configurations in Augmented Reality (AR). These two final applications unveil the possibilities of Industry 4.0 as enrichment for SDE and in general rapid prototyping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerospace, Vehicles, and Civil Engineering Design Automation)
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Article
Study of the Effect of Vertical Airfoil Endplates on Diffusers in Vehicle Aerodynamics
Designs 2021, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030045 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Diffusers and the floor ahead of them create the majority of the downforce a vehicle creates. Outside motorsports, the diffuser is relatively unused, although its interaction with the ground is a consistent field of study owing to the aerodynamic benefits. The diffuser flow [...] Read more.
Diffusers and the floor ahead of them create the majority of the downforce a vehicle creates. Outside motorsports, the diffuser is relatively unused, although its interaction with the ground is a consistent field of study owing to the aerodynamic benefits. The diffuser flow behavior is governed by three fluid-mechanical mechanisms: ground interaction, underbody upsweep, and diffuser upsweep. In addition, four different flow regimes appear when varying ride height, the vortices of which have great importance on downforce generation. The present study focuses on the diffuser’s fluid-dynamic characteristics undertaken within an academic framework with the objective of finding and understanding a high level of performance in these elements. Once the functioning of diffusers has been analyzed and understood, a new configuration is proposed: rear vertical airfoil endplates. The aim of the paper is to study the effect in performance of vertical airfoil endplates on diffusers in vehicle aerodynamics in a simplified geometry. The candidate to this geometry is the inversed Ahmed body, a geometry that is used as a model that simulates the flow behavior of car diffusers. Three different diffuser configurations are performed, namely 0° diffuser, 25° diffuser, and in the third case vertically installed rear vertical airfoil endplates are added to the 25° diffuser Ahmed body to change the flow field. These analyses are carried out by using open-source CFD simulation software OpenFOAM. An inlet velocity of 20 m/s is considered, as this is a typical velocity when cornering in motorsport. It is concluded that the 25° diffuser configuration generated more downforce than the 0° diffuser, which makes sense as the aim of adding a diffuser is to increase the amount of downforce produced. In addition, and as a result of the newly proposed configuration, the 25° diffuser Ahmed body with the vertical airfoil endplates emerges in a substantial increase of downforce thanks to the low-pressure zone generated at the back of the body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Autonomous and Unmanned Systems)
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Article
Le Corbusier’s Urban Planning as a Cultural Legacy. An Approach to the Case of Chandigarh
Designs 2021, 5(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030044 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
The uniqueness and importance of Le Corbusier’s work were ratified by the recognition and inclusion of 17 of his projects as heritage legacy on UNESCO’s (The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage List in 2016. Despite the disciplinary diversity of [...] Read more.
The uniqueness and importance of Le Corbusier’s work were ratified by the recognition and inclusion of 17 of his projects as heritage legacy on UNESCO’s (The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage List in 2016. Despite the disciplinary diversity of his entire career, it is his architectural work that enjoys the greatest levels of dissemination and recognition. Consequently, it is assumed that Le Corbusier’s architectural work is more protected than its urban plans. This article aims to advance the recognition of the latter. To this end, it proposes a cartographic and documentary review of his projects, a specialized bibliographic review, as well as a review of national and international databases on his built work. Of 88 built works, at least 51 have some kind of heritage protection. In any case, less attention is paid to the urban dimension of his work. The city of Chandigarh presents a series of particularities, apart from being the only Corbusierian city built, which could raise the need for its safeguarding and recognition as a cultural legacy. 20th-century urban planning, and Chandigarh in particular, require the application of criteria complementary to those usually applied in heritage protection in object-based approaches. Full article
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Article
Enterprise Design Thinking: An Investigation on User-Centered Design Processes in Large Corporations
Designs 2021, 5(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030043 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Design thinking (DT) is considered a “human-centered” or “user-needs” process that leads to business innovation. Promising practices of DT application in real life have gained popularity in business, such as IBM’s the loop, IDEO’s 3I model, Design Council’s double diamond model, and Stanford’s [...] Read more.
Design thinking (DT) is considered a “human-centered” or “user-needs” process that leads to business innovation. Promising practices of DT application in real life have gained popularity in business, such as IBM’s the loop, IDEO’s 3I model, Design Council’s double diamond model, and Stanford’s d.school model. However, many existing studies have targeted DT models in a small group setting, such as a startup environment or a small group in an educational institution. The primary purpose of this paper was to investigate how large corporate environments that have multiple departments with a waterfall culture define and apply DT in real use. The first part of this paper introduces the most popular DT models used in the industry and some insights into their use in the field; the second part examines the experiences of 20 professionals who have experience with DT in the large organizational environment through in-depth interviews. As a result, this paper offers three major insights regarding the use of DT in the field. The third part of this study suggests an appropriate enterprise DT model for large corporations based on the problem-solving activities already undertaken by employees. This study is important as the first step toward understanding DT implementation in large corporations. Full article
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Review
Using NLP for Fact Checking: A Survey
Designs 2021, 5(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030042 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
In recent years, disinformation and “fake news” have been spreading throughout the internet at rates never seen before. This has created the need for fact-checking organizations, groups that seek out claims and comment on their veracity, to spawn worldwide to stem the tide [...] Read more.
In recent years, disinformation and “fake news” have been spreading throughout the internet at rates never seen before. This has created the need for fact-checking organizations, groups that seek out claims and comment on their veracity, to spawn worldwide to stem the tide of misinformation. However, even with the many human-powered fact-checking organizations that are currently in operation, disinformation continues to run rampant throughout the Web, and the existing organizations are unable to keep up. This paper discusses in detail recent advances in computer science to use natural language processing to automate fact checking. It follows the entire process of automated fact checking using natural language processing, from detecting claims to fact checking to outputting results. In summary, automated fact checking works well in some cases, though generalized fact checking still needs improvement prior to widespread use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Media Analysis)
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Article
Signal Processing Algorithm Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform
Designs 2021, 5(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030041 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
The use of digital technologies for processing and diagnosing electrocardiogram signals using wavelet-analysis can significantly improve the efficiency and quality of parameter estimations of the pacemaker configuration during implantation. It is also efficient in the process of correction of functional modes of cardiac [...] Read more.
The use of digital technologies for processing and diagnosing electrocardiogram signals using wavelet-analysis can significantly improve the efficiency and quality of parameter estimations of the pacemaker configuration during implantation. It is also efficient in the process of correction of functional modes of cardiac pacemaker and diagnostics to eliminate postoperative complications, etc. A special processing of complex cardio signals at a qualitatively new level is an indispensable condition for the decisive improvement of the processing of current values of diagnosed parameters, widespread use of digital instruments for sound and informed decision-making on the provision of medical care and the treatment of people with diseases of the cardiovascular system. The article discusses the approximation method. Digital technologies are implemented using MATLAB computing environment. Full article
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Article
Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on the Physical Infrastructure: Changes and Challenges
Designs 2021, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030040 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Over the last few years, autonomous vehicles (AVs) have witnessed tremendous worldwide interest. Although AVs have been extensively studied in the literature regarding their benefits, implications, and public acceptance, research on the physical infrastructure requirements for autonomous vehicles is still in the infancy [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, autonomous vehicles (AVs) have witnessed tremendous worldwide interest. Although AVs have been extensively studied in the literature regarding their benefits, implications, and public acceptance, research on the physical infrastructure requirements for autonomous vehicles is still in the infancy stage. For the road infrastructure, AVs can be very promising; however, AVs might introduce new risks and challenges. This paper investigates the impact of AVs on the physical infrastructure with the objective of revealing the infrastructure changes and challenges in the era of AVs. In AVs, the human factor, which is the major factor that influences the geometric design, will not be a concern anymore so the geometric design requirements can be relaxed. On the other hand, the decrease in the wheel wander, because of the lane-keeping system, and the increase in the lane capacity, because of the elimination of the human factor, will bring an accelerated rutting potential and will quickly deteriorate the pavement condition. Additionally, the existing structural design methods for bridges are not safe to support autonomous truck platoons. For parking lots, AVs have the potential to significantly increase the capacity of parking lots using the blocking strategy. However, the implementation of this parking strategy faces multiple issues such as the inconsistent marking system. Finally, AVs will need new infrastructure facilities such as safe harbor areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Highway Geometric Design and Safety)
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Article
Back-Support Exoskeleton Control Strategy for Pulling Activities: Design and Preliminary Evaluation
Designs 2021, 5(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030039 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 589
Abstract
The execution of manual material handling activities in the workplace exposes workers to large lumbar loads that increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and low back pain. In particular, the redesign of the workplace is making the execution of pulling activities more common, [...] Read more.
The execution of manual material handling activities in the workplace exposes workers to large lumbar loads that increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and low back pain. In particular, the redesign of the workplace is making the execution of pulling activities more common, as an alternative to lifting and carrying tasks. The biomechanical analysis of the task revealed a substantial activation of the spinal muscles. This suggests that the user may benefit from the assistance of a back-support exoskeleton that reduces the spinal muscle activity and their contribution to lumbar compression. This work addresses this challenge by exploiting the versatility of an active back-support exoskeleton. A control strategy was specifically designed for assisting pulling that modulates the assistive torques using the forearm muscle activity. These torques are expected to adapt to the user’s assistance needs and the pulled object mass, as forearm muscle activity is considered an indicator of grip strength. We devised laboratory experiments to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy. We found that, for the majority of the subjects, back muscle activity reductions were associated with the exoskeleton use. Furthermore, subjective measurements reveal advantages in terms of perceived support, comfort, ease of use, and intuitiveness. Full article
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Article
Multi-Layered Documentation of Heritage Villages: The Case of Tinbak, Qatar
Designs 2021, 5(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5030038 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Heritage settlements have long histories that consist of multiple layers of urban layouts, building forms, and culture. Looking at the first layer that formed the initiation stage of the growth becomes a difficult task because of the disguise of other successive layers. This [...] Read more.
Heritage settlements have long histories that consist of multiple layers of urban layouts, building forms, and culture. Looking at the first layer that formed the initiation stage of the growth becomes a difficult task because of the disguise of other successive layers. This article studies the abandoned village of Tinbak in Qatar that exemplifies a settlement at its initial stage of development. The method of examining a societal normative image of culturally suitable domiciliary development adds to the understanding of a heritage settlement layout. However, the village lacks literature sources and urban and architectural documentation. So, this article presents the first documentation of the tangible characteristics of both urban morphology and architectural typology. Site visits, oral documentation, photographic records and a 3D Faro scanner with a 130 m range were utilized to record and document the physical environment. Full article
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