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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Nine young, novice, female participants, were trained in cable elbow extensions, unilaterally. They [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Efficacy of Age-Specific High-Intensity Stretch-Shortening Contractions in Reversing Dynapenia, Sarcopenia, and Loss of Skeletal Muscle Quality
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020036
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
During the aging process, skeletal muscle performance and physiology undergoes alterations leading to decrements in functional capacity, health-span, and independence. Background: The utility and implementation of age-specific exercise is a paramount research agenda focusing on ameliorating the loss of both skeletal muscle performance
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During the aging process, skeletal muscle performance and physiology undergoes alterations leading to decrements in functional capacity, health-span, and independence. Background: The utility and implementation of age-specific exercise is a paramount research agenda focusing on ameliorating the loss of both skeletal muscle performance and physiology; yet, to date, no consensus exists as to the most appropriate mechanical loading protocol design or overall exercise prescription that best meets this need. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight the most optimal type of exercise presently available and provide the most current, evidence-based findings for its efficacy. The hypothesis that high-intensity, stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs)—a form of “resistance-type exercise” training—present as the preferred exercise mode for serving as an intervention-based modality to attenuate dynapenia, sarcopenia, and decreased muscle quality with aging, even restoring the overall youthful phenotype, will be demonstrated. Conclusions: Appreciating the fundamental evidence supporting the use of high-intensity SSCs in positively impacting aging skeletal muscle’s responsivity and their use as a specific and sensitive countermeasure is crucial. Moreover, from an applied perspective, SSCs may improve skeletal muscle quality and rejuvenate health-span and, ultimately, lead to augmented functional capacity, independence, and quality of life concomitant with decreased morbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia, Muscle Wasting and Exercise)
Open AccessConcept Paper Multiparametric Approach to Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy: Clinical, Instrumental, and Lifestyle Indications
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020035
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetic disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance and incomplete penetrance. It predominantly affects the right ventricle (RV), predisposing to the origin of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death (SD). The structural basis of the disease consists of
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetic disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance and incomplete penetrance. It predominantly affects the right ventricle (RV), predisposing to the origin of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death (SD). The structural basis of the disease consists of the progressive loss of myocardium with fibro-adipose replacement. ARVC is a “desmosomes” disease involving mutations of proteins such as placoglobin, desmoplachine, placophylline, desmoglein, and desmocollin. In the “classical” form, the disease mainly implicates the RV chamber, while the left ventricle (LV) is involved in advanced stages. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies have identified some phenotypic variants characterized by an early participation of the LV, which can proceed in parallel toward the two ventricles (“biventricular” variant) or prevails over the RV (variant to “left dominance”). These data led to the evolution of the initial definition of ARVC, which is currently considered a genetic disease of both ventricles and, therefore, deserves the denomination “arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy”. Many aspects of diagnosis, treatment, and indications for a correct lifestyle are important in sports medicine. This paper will discuss the clinical management of ARVC, with particular reference to diagnosis, risk stratification, therapy, and indications for physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arrhythmic Events in Sports Medicine and Kinesiology)
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Open AccessEditorial The Epidemic of Obesity and Poor Physical Activity Participation: Will We Ever See a Change?
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020034
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 10 June 2018
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Open AccessArticle Morphotypological Prevalence of Individuals Assessed by the Method of Global Postural Reeducation by Proprioceptive and Muscular Rebalancing (GPR/PMR)
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020033
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
Introduction: Postural control integrates information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems, controlling the body position in space. Global Posture Reeducation (GPR) is a clinically well-accepted method that mainly addresses the proprioceptive component of this postural system. Although the GPR presents relevant evidence,
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Introduction: Postural control integrates information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems, controlling the body position in space. Global Posture Reeducation (GPR) is a clinically well-accepted method that mainly addresses the proprioceptive component of this postural system. Although the GPR presents relevant evidence, the postural morphotypology prevalence in the general population is not yet known. Objective: To investigate the morphotypological profile prevalence of individuals evaluated with the GPR method by proprioceptive and muscular rebalancing (GPR/PMR). Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed (prevalence analysis) of patients evaluated by the GPR/PMR method at the Physiotherapy School Clinic of the Serra dos Órgãos University Center. The morphotypological evaluation data were collected and stored in a spreadsheet using the Microsoft Office Excel® program, where the prevalence of each morphotypology (opening, closing, and mixed) was calculated. Results: A total of 123 evaluation sheets were analyzed, of which 50 were men (41%) and 74 were women (59%) with a mean age of 46 years. In the morphotypological diagnosis, the following values were observed: closing (n = 107; 87%); opening (n = 6; 5%) and mixed (n = 9; 7%). The postural diagnosis in closing (87%) presented a statistically significant difference, when compared to the morphotypologies in opening (p < 0.0001) and mixed (p < 0.0001). Few subjects in the sample (n = 5), presented a relation between the mixed work position (standing and sitting) and the mixed morphotypology (p < 0.005). Conclusion: The morphotypological profile of the analyzed population appears to be in closing and does not correlate with the individual’s work position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Human Posture and Movement)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Endothelial Function after Acute Resistance Exercise Using Free Weights
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020032
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
We determined the effects of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) on cardiovascular hemodynamics and endothelial function in resistance-trained individuals. Nineteen young, healthy, resistance-trained individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of ARE or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of
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We determined the effects of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) on cardiovascular hemodynamics and endothelial function in resistance-trained individuals. Nineteen young, healthy, resistance-trained individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of ARE or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-repetition maximum for the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Cardiovascular hemodynamics was assessed using finger photoplethysmography. Forearm blood flow (FBF), and vasodilatory capacity markers, were assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance was calculated by the division of mean FBF by mean arterial pressure. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effects of condition (ARE, CON) across time (rest, recovery). There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) decreases in mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance across conditions and time. There were significant condition-by-time interactions (p ≤ 0.05) for heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output after the ARE compared to the CON and rest. FBF was significantly (p = 0.001) increased during the recovery from ARE, as well as vasodilatory capacity markers such as peak blood flow (p = 0.05) and reactive hyperemia-induced blood flow (p = 0.0001). These data suggest that whole-body free-weight exercises acutely reduced blood pressure while simultaneously augmenting FBF, and vasodilatory capacity markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health)
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Open AccessReview How Exercise and Dietary Intervention Affect the Outcome of Osteosarcopenic Obesity Syndrome?
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020031
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is described as the simultaneous presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and increased adiposity. Over time, older adults with OSO syndrome might be at greater risk for loss of physical function and bone fractures. Furthermore, a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, pharmaceutical drugs,
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Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is described as the simultaneous presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and increased adiposity. Over time, older adults with OSO syndrome might be at greater risk for loss of physical function and bone fractures. Furthermore, a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, pharmaceutical drugs, and chronic conditions encompass the multifactorial nature of OSO syndrome. Physical activity and a healthy diet play a crucial role in management and treatment of OSO syndrome. Research has shown that even low-intensity physical activity or daily habitual activity can maintain bone mineral density, muscle strength, and improve muscle quality, and reduce adiposity. However, older adults with high risk of fall and injuries require tailored exercise intensity. Also, balanced daily intake of vitamin D, calcium, and protein is important in prevention and treatment of OSO syndrome in postmenopausal women. Effective measurement of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength is required when detecting OSO syndrome and to evaluate the balance, strength and endurance of elder individuals and severity of the condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle Surgical and Rehabilitative Treatment of Misdiagnosed Posterior Dislocation of the Shoulder: Case Series
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020030
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: Posterior gleno-humeral joint (GHJ) dislocation is a rare injury accounting for 2.7–3% of all shoulder dislocations. Early detection is the key for an effective treatment. Poor clinical outcomes or prosthetic solutions depend on the severity of the lesions at the time of
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Background: Posterior gleno-humeral joint (GHJ) dislocation is a rare injury accounting for 2.7–3% of all shoulder dislocations. Early detection is the key for an effective treatment. Poor clinical outcomes or prosthetic solutions depend on the severity of the lesions at the time of trauma and worsening of the McLaughlin lesion during the months when the dislocation remains unrecognized or untreated. The aim of the study is to report our experience in treating, and clinically and radiographically evaluate the outcomes of, four neglected posterior GHJ dislocations. Methods: Four patients with inveterate posterior dislocation of the shoulder were evaluated. In three cases, the technique of McLaughlin was performed, and in one case, plication of the subscapularis tendon was performed. During the follow up, patients were clinically evaluated using the Constant shoulder score; an imaging investigation, using X-ray integrated with computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was assessed. Results: Following the Constant criteria, treated shoulders reported an excellent outcome with an average score of 91. The mean score of untreated shoulders was 92.5. The humeral appearance that resulted was radiographically well-structured. Surgical treatment with McLaughlin lesion or transposition of the subscapularis were satisfactory from a subjective and objective point of view. To perform surgery soon as possible after the traumatic episode is considered a positive prognostic factor. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Psychological Pressure Distorts High Jumpers’ Perception of the Height of the Bar
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020029
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
The effects of psychological pressure on perceiving the height of a jump bar just before starting a high jump run was investigated. University students (n = 14) training for a high jump event performed 15 trials (3 practice, 6 high-pressure, and 6
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The effects of psychological pressure on perceiving the height of a jump bar just before starting a high jump run was investigated. University students (n = 14) training for a high jump event performed 15 trials (3 practice, 6 high-pressure, and 6 low-pressure) in counterbalanced order in their daily practice environment. The height of the bar was judged as significantly higher on high-pressure trials compared to low-pressure trials (p = 0.030). A regression analysis indicated that participants who reported increased subjective perceived pressure tended to judge the bar to be higher (r = 0.468, p = 0.091). There was no significant difference between high-pressure and low-pressure trials for the performance index, defined as the success rate (p = 0.209). This study provides the first evidence that environmental perceptions prior to executing a motor task under pressure may make performance of the task appear to be more difficult. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Human Posture and Movement)
Open AccessArticle Triceps Brachii Muscle Strength and Architectural Adaptations with Resistance Training Exercises at Short or Long Fascicle Length
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020028
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistance training at short or long triceps brachii fascicle length induces different muscular strength and architectural adaptations. Nine young, novice, female participants, were trained for 6 weeks (two sessions/week) performing 6 sets × 6-RM
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistance training at short or long triceps brachii fascicle length induces different muscular strength and architectural adaptations. Nine young, novice, female participants, were trained for 6 weeks (two sessions/week) performing 6 sets × 6-RM (repetition maximum) unilateral cable exercises either with push-downs at short fascicle length (S) or overhead extensions with the contralateral arm at long fascicle length (L) of triceps brachii. Before and after training, 1-RM elbow extension and triceps brachii muscle architecture were evaluated. Muscle architecture was analyzed at 50% and 60% of the upper-arm length. Two-dimensional longitudinal muscle area of the triceps long head was also analyzed. The results indicated that 1-RM increased 40.1 ± 21.3% and 44.5 ± 20.1% (p < 0.01) after S and L, respectively. Muscle thickness at 50% length was increased 10.7 ± 15.3% (p < 0.05) and 13.7 ± 9.0% (p < 0.01) after S and L, while at 60% it was increased 15.5 ± 18.8% (p < 0.05) and 19.4 ± 16.3% (p < 0.01), respectively. Longitudinal muscle area increased similarly after S and L (p < 0.01). Fascicle angle and length were not altered with training. These results indicate that muscle strength and architecture of elbow extensors adapt similarly during the first six weeks of resistance training at either long or short fascicle length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in a Primary Healthcare Center in Goiania City
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020027
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in volunteers supported by a primary healthcare center in Goiania city. Methods: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was calculated using data from a public primary healthcare
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Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in volunteers supported by a primary healthcare center in Goiania city. Methods: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was calculated using data from a public primary healthcare center in the city of Goiania, Brazil, which serves approximately 10,000 patients. Data were collected between September and October 2011 from individuals aged 20 years or older via medical records. Seven hundred and eighty-nine patients participated in the present study, 546 women (43.9 ± 16.4 years, 66.2 ± 13.3 kg, 1.6 ± 0.1 m) and 243 men (46.0 ± 17.2 years, 73.7 ± 14.7 kg, 1.7 ± 0.1 m). RESULTS: The analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in BMI distribution between genders (p = 0.0763), however, there was a significant difference between age groups (p = 0.0000) and a significant association between gender and age (p = 0.0196). The percentage of overweight and obesity was above 40% and the percentage of obese was 15% in the population studied. The results show a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults, especially the elderly. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults and the elderly, with a significant difference between age groups and an increase in BMI with age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biochemical Profile and Body Composition Alteration of Amateur Bodybuilders during the Pre-Contest Period
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020026
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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The paper aims to analyze body composition and biochemical profile alterations in amateur bodybuilders during the cutting phase of a contest preparation, and to discuss them in light of scientific evidence. For the purpose of this study, bodybuilders and coaches provided details of
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The paper aims to analyze body composition and biochemical profile alterations in amateur bodybuilders during the cutting phase of a contest preparation, and to discuss them in light of scientific evidence. For the purpose of this study, bodybuilders and coaches provided details of drug administration, supplement use and training schedule. The four participants were two men competing in different Men’s Physique categories, one woman in the Wellness category, and one woman competing in the Bikini category. Participants were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition before and after the cutting phase. There was an evident decrease in body fat for most of the participants during the cutting phase without evident loss of fat-free mass. In general, participants performed high volume resistance training combined with aerobic training. Regarding drug administration, participants used high doses of anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), combined with clenbuterol, thyroid hormone, and ephedrine. Blood analysis revealed alterations in lipid profiles, with increased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. There were marked alterations in markers of liver (aspartate aminotransferase) and cardiac (MB isoenzyme creatine kinase) damage. Our analysis suggests that the strategies adopted by bodybuilders during the pre-contest phase (high use of AAS and stimulant-based substances) may result in an increased risk of heart disease and liver dysfunction. Full article
Open AccessEditorial Preventing Violence and Social Exclusion through Sport and Physical Activity: The SAVE Project
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020025
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Sport Against Violence and Exclusion (SAVE), a project cofounded by the Erasmus + Program of the European Union, seeks to prevent violent and socially exclusive behaviors through physical activity. The current editorial shows a range of possible interpretations of these two phenomena from
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Sport Against Violence and Exclusion (SAVE), a project cofounded by the Erasmus + Program of the European Union, seeks to prevent violent and socially exclusive behaviors through physical activity. The current editorial shows a range of possible interpretations of these two phenomena from both a psychological and sociological point of view, offering helpful methods to coaches who train children (ages 6 to 12)in grass-root sport clubs. Following a thorough analysis, partners from seven EU countries (Lithuania, Italy, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Austria, and Spain) will be able to identify skills and techniques for coaches to ensure inclusive training methods as well as to provide them with effective conflict resolution tools. Furthermore, both trainers and parents will have access to an online platform with useful information regarding these issues. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Use of 3D Scanning to Determine Whole-Body Volume While Wearing a Triathlon Wetsuit
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020024
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: Commercial 3 Dimension (3D) scanners are relatively new to anthropometry. The purpose of this study was to explore ability of using a 3D imaging instrument to measure body volume with and without wearing a wetsuit. Three experiments were conducted to achieve this
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Background: Commercial 3 Dimension (3D) scanners are relatively new to anthropometry. The purpose of this study was to explore ability of using a 3D imaging instrument to measure body volume with and without wearing a wetsuit. Three experiments were conducted to achieve this purpose: (1) to determine if the 3D imaging instrument could accurately measure volume of static objects; (2) to determine the resolution of accuracy of measuring volume of static objects; and (3) to compare whole-body volume of wearing a wetsuit using 3D imaging as well as another body volume measure (air displacement technique). Methods: Three experiments were performed: (1) measurement of volume of a mannequin head and a box using a 3D scanner, water displacement (for mannequin head), and dimension measurements (for box) techniques for determining volume, (2) volume measurements of 1, 2, and 3 layers of neoprene to assess the resolution capabilities of the 3D scanner, and (3) body volume with and without wearing a wetsuit using a 3D scanner and BodPod (air displacement instrument). Results: (1) Mannequin head volume using the 3D scanner was 1.46% greater than a water displacement technique; the box volume from scanning was significantly greater than volume calculated by measuring dimensions of a box. (2) The volume of a single layer of neoprene was 25.3% less with scanning than the criterion; the volume of two layers was 27.2% less than the criterion; the volume of three layers was not significantly different from the criterion. (3) Body volume was not influenced by the interaction of wetsuit and device; body volume was on average 5% greater with wetsuit than without regardless of instrument. Conclusions: We demonstrated that body volume as measured by a 3D scanner increased when a wetsuit was worn. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020023
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
We are glad to introduce the sixth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last years in the field of physical activity and sedentary behavior, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to
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We are glad to introduce the sixth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last years in the field of physical activity and sedentary behavior, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the sport seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Fatigue on Electromyographic Activity Patterns of the Knee Joint Muscles in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed and Deficient Patients during Landing Task
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020022
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
Lower extremity fatigue causes a number of neuromuscular alterations that may increase the risk of knee (re)injury. It has therefore been suggested that fatigue-resistance training be incorporated into injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects
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Lower extremity fatigue causes a number of neuromuscular alterations that may increase the risk of knee (re)injury. It has therefore been suggested that fatigue-resistance training be incorporated into injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fatigue on knee-muscle activity patterns after anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL). Twelve healthy, 12 ACL reconstructed (ACLR) and 12 ACL deficient (ACLD) recreationally active male volunteers participated in this case-control study. Fatigue was induced via repetitive sets of double-leg squats and drop landings. Muscle activity was assessed via surface electromyography during a single-leg drop landing task pre- and post-fatigue. After fatigue, medial hamstring, lateral hamstring and vastus lateralis muscles turned on significantly earlier in ACLR compared to the control group. Significantly greater vastus medialis muscle activity was observed in ACLD compared to ACLR and control participants post-fatigue. Finally, fatigue decreased lateral gastrocnemius muscle activity in ACLD and control participants. It seems ACLR patients rely on earlier muscle pre-activation to establish knee joint stability upon landing after fatigue. This feed-forward strategy should be emphasized during post-operative rehabilitation in ACLR patients. Furthermore, according to our results, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles play an important role in establishing knee joint stability post impact in ACLD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Restrictions in the Ankle Sagittal- and Frontal-Plane Range of Movement during Simulated Walking with Different Types of Orthoses
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020021
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
Different types of orthoses are available to clinicians for non-surgical treatment of acute ankle sprains. The goal of this study was to scientifically compare the movement restrictions in the sagittal and frontal plane during simulated walking between one adaptable semi-rigid brace (OrthoTri-PhaseTM
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Different types of orthoses are available to clinicians for non-surgical treatment of acute ankle sprains. The goal of this study was to scientifically compare the movement restrictions in the sagittal and frontal plane during simulated walking between one adaptable semi-rigid brace (OrthoTri-PhaseTM), four non-adaptable semi-rigid braces (OrthoStandardTM, MalleoLocTM, MalleoSprintTM, VACOankleTM), and one rigid cast. Predefined time sequences of rotational moments and axial loading during gait were applied via an ankle joint simulator, with the pneumatic pressure inside the orthoses kept constant to ensure the same condition for different trials and orthoses. The peak ranges of motion (RoMs) in the frontal and sagittal plane during gait were analyzed for statistically significant differences using single-factorial ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni analysis. Significant differences in peak plantar-/dorsiflexion and in-/eversion RoM during gait were found between different types of orthoses. In the sagittal plane, the rigid cast most significantly restricted overall RoM followed by the Ortho Tri-PhaseTM in Phase 1 and the Ortho StandardTM. The peak restriction in-/eversion RoM of the VACOankleTM came closest to the rigid cast, with a shift towards inversion. The VACOankleTM allowed for significantly larger dorsiflexion movement compared to all other orthoses. The present results may help clinicians in the decision-making process of finding the optimal orthosis for individual patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Actual vs. Perceived Motor Competence in Children (8–10 Years): An Issue of Non-Veridicality
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020020
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the between- and within-sex differences in actual and perceived locomotor and object control skills in children (8–10 year). All participants (58 children (29 boys; 9.5 ± 0.6 years; 1.44 ± 0.09 m; 39.6 ± 9.5
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the between- and within-sex differences in actual and perceived locomotor and object control skills in children (8–10 year). All participants (58 children (29 boys; 9.5 ± 0.6 years; 1.44 ± 0.09 m; 39.6 ± 9.5 kg; body mass index; 18.8 ± 3.1 kg·m2)) completed the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children. Between- and within-sex differences were assessed using independent and paired samples t-tests, respectively. For all tests, effect sizes and Bayes factors were calculated. There were significant differences (p < 0.001) between sexes for perceived locomotor and perceived object control skills (boys > girls), with Bayes factors extremely in favour of the alternate hypothesis (BF: 55,344 and 460, respectively). A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between girls’ actual and perceived locomotor skills (d = −0.88; 95% confidence interval: −0.46 to −1.34), with Bayes factors extremely in favour of the alternate hypothesis (BF: 483). A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between boys’ actual and perceived object control skills (d = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.2 to 1.12), with Bayes factors very strongly in favour of the alternate hypothesis (BF: 41). These findings suggest that there exists an issue of non-veridicality between actual and perceived motor competence skills, and their subsets, and a sex-mediated discord in children (8–10 years). Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report Reliability and Validity of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Mitochondrial Capacity Measurement in Skeletal Muscle
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020019
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Establish reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) mitochondrial capacity measurement and assess validity using heating and cooling interventions. We recruited 13 participants for four visits. Two visits consisted of a series of blood pressure occlusions proximal to the NIRS probe and electrical stimulation to
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Establish reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) mitochondrial capacity measurement and assess validity using heating and cooling interventions. We recruited 13 participants for four visits. Two visits consisted of a series of blood pressure occlusions proximal to the NIRS probe and electrical stimulation to the thigh, calf and forearm for reliability. Visits 3 and 4 required heating or cooling of the three muscles, using the protocol above. The between day reliability coefficient of variation (CV) in the forearm was 3% and time constant (TC) average was 41.9 ± 9.2 seconds (s). The within day CV in the forearm = 4.5%, the calf = 5.5% and the thigh = 4.6% (n = 13). Within day reliability for the cold condition in the forearm = 5.9%, calf = 4.3% and thigh = 4.4% and within day for the hot condition in the forearm = 6.4%, calf = 5.3% and thigh = 4.6%. The cold condition increased TC in the forearm, but decreased TC with heat (p < 0.05). The thigh decreased mitochondrial capacity with heat (p < 0.05), but cold was no different from control. These results suggest NIRS mitochondrial capacity has good within and between day reliability and temperature changes the mitochondrial capacity time constant. Full article
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