During the aging process, skeletal muscle performance and physiology undergoes alterations leading to decrements in functional capacity, health-span, and independence. Background: The utility and implementation of age-specific exercise is a paramount research agenda focusing on ameliorating the loss of both skeletal muscle performance and physiology; yet, to date, no consensus exists as to the most appropriate mechanical loading protocol design or overall exercise prescription that best meets this need. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight the most optimal type of exercise presently available and provide the most current, evidence-based findings for its efficacy. The hypothesis that high-intensity, stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs)—a form of “resistance-type exercise” training—present as the preferred exercise mode for serving as an intervention-based modality to attenuate dynapenia, sarcopenia, and decreased muscle quality with aging, even restoring the overall youthful phenotype, will be demonstrated. Conclusions: Appreciating the fundamental evidence supporting the use of high-intensity SSCs in positively impacting aging skeletal muscle’s responsivity and their use as a specific and sensitive countermeasure is crucial. Moreover, from an applied perspective, SSCs may improve skeletal muscle quality and rejuvenate health-span and, ultimately, lead to augmented functional capacity, independence, and quality of life concomitant with decreased morbidity.
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