Special Issue "Resistance Training for Performance and Health"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antonio Paoli
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: resistance training; metabolism; fat loss; skeletal muscle physiology; fitness; muscle hypertrophy; fasting; ketogenic diet
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Resistance training (RT) is an important modality of exercise, not only for athletes, but also for the general population. It is well known that RT increases strength and muscle mass, but it can also improve performance, power, and velocity in athletes. Moreover RT is now prescribed by major health organizations to improve health and fitness, in general and special populations, even though, prior to 1990, it was not a part of the recommended guidelines for exercise training and rehabilitation for either the American Heart Association or the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Indeed, in 1990, the ACSM recognized resistance training as a significant component of a comprehensive fitness program for healthy adults of all ages, position subsequently confirmed few years after. Recent data confirmed that RT, when incorporated into a general exercise program, reduces the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, non-insulin dependent diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Moreover, RT prevents osteoporosis, can help with weight loss, and preserve muscle mass and functional capacity in the elderly. However, RT is a multifaceted type of exercise, and should be investigated more thoroughly and rigorously by taking into account the variables involved, including: (1) muscle action used, (2) type of resistance used, (3) volume (total number of sets and repetitions), (4) exercises selected and workout structure (e.g., the number of muscle groups trained), (5) the sequence of exercise performance, (6) rest intervals between sets, (7) repetition velocity, and (8) training frequency.

The aim of this Special Issue is to attract papers that address the role of RT in performance and health, taking into account the different variables of RT. We welcome experimental studies that examine the effect of different resistance training programs on muscle function and morphology, sport performance and health outcomes. Review articles and meta-analyses are also welcome.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • The effect of different resistance training programs (considering the aforementioned variables) on muscle function and morphology
  • Acute responses and chronic adaptations to RT
  • RT for weight loss and weight control
  • Resistance training considerations for athletes in different sports (force, power, velocity, hypertrophy, etc.)
  • Molecular mechanisms of RT

Prof. Dr. Antonio Paoli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • resistance training
  • skeletal muscle
  • muscle strength
  • weight loss
  • performance
  • athletes
  • sport

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Effects of Suspension Training on Strength and Power Performances
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3040051 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Suspension Training (ST) workouts include a variety of movements requiring the individual to maintain balance while performing various resistance exercises in an interval fashion. Although ST is thought to elicit higher muscle activations than traditional exercises, only limited information is available on its [...] Read more.
Suspension Training (ST) workouts include a variety of movements requiring the individual to maintain balance while performing various resistance exercises in an interval fashion. Although ST is thought to elicit higher muscle activations than traditional exercises, only limited information is available on its acute effects on strength and power performances, especially in relation to gender. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the strength and power acute responses after ST, also in relation to gender. Eighty-eight (46 males, 42 females) participants were administered countermovement jumps (CMJ), squat jumps (SJ), lower limb Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC) at 90° angle knee extension, and grip strength (handgrip) before (PRE) and after (POST) a 50 min ST session involving upper, lower body and core exercises. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to evaluate the differences (p < 0.05) in relation to gender and experimental session. After ST session, significantly higher values emerged in males, whereas no significant changes were found in females. Findings indicate that ST as a form of exercise is useful to maintain and improve acute strength and power performances, especially in male participants. Future studies should be carried out to explore the gender-related differences in response to acute bout of ST exercises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Sex Comparisons for Very Short-Term Dynamic Constant External Resistance Training
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3040050 - 18 Oct 2018
Abstract
This study compared sex responses for strength and barbell velocity from very short-term resistance training (VST, consisting of 2–3 training sessions) for an upper body dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) exercise (bench press [BP]). Ten females (mean ± standard deviation (SD) age: 21.3 [...] Read more.
This study compared sex responses for strength and barbell velocity from very short-term resistance training (VST, consisting of 2–3 training sessions) for an upper body dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) exercise (bench press [BP]). Ten females (mean ± standard deviation (SD) age: 21.3 ± 3 years, height: 166.2 ± 6 cm, body mass: 71.4 ± 10.7 kg) and 10 males (mean ± SD age: 24.6 ± 4 years, height: 179.5 ± 8 cm, body mass: 88.6 ± 11 kg) completed a pre-test visit to determine the BP 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as well as the mean (BPMV) and peak (BPPV) barbell velocities from the BP 1RM. The VST involved three training visits where the participants performed 5 sets of 6 repetitions, at 65% of the 1RM. The post-test followed the same procedures as the pre-test visit. There were significant increases in 1RM strength for both the males (5.1%) and females (5.4%) between pre-test and post-test. There were no significance differences between sex for mean (BPMV) and peak (BPPV); however, overall there was a 32.7% increase in BPMV and a 29.8% increase in BPPV. These findings indicated an increase in strength and barbell velocity for both males and females as a result of VST upper body DCER exercise in untrained subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Importance of Lean Body Mass for the Rate of Force Development in Taekwondo Athletes and Track and Field Throwers
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030043 - 10 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The rate of force development (RFD) is vital for power athletes. Lean body mass (LBM) is considered to be an essential contributor to RFD, nevertheless high RFD may be achieved by athletes with either high or low LBM. The aim of the study [...] Read more.
The rate of force development (RFD) is vital for power athletes. Lean body mass (LBM) is considered to be an essential contributor to RFD, nevertheless high RFD may be achieved by athletes with either high or low LBM. The aim of the study was to describe the relationship between lower-body LBM and RFD, and to compare RFD in taekwondo athletes and track and field (T&F) throwers, the latter having higher LBM when compared to taekwondo athletes. Nine taekwondo athletes and nine T&F throwers were evaluated for countermovement jumping, isometric leg press and leg extension RFD, vastus lateralis (VL), and medial gastrocnemius muscle architecture and body composition. Lower body LBM was correlated with RFD 0–250 ms (r = 0.81, p = 0.016). Taekwondo athletes had lower LBM and jumping power per LBM. RFD was similar between groups at 30–50 ms, but higher for throwers at 80–250 ms. RFD adjusted for VL thickness was higher in taekwondo athletes at 30 ms, but higher in throwers at 200–250 ms. These results suggest that lower body LBM is correlated with RFD in power trained athletes. RFD adjusted for VL thickness might be more relevant to evaluate in power athletes with low LBM, while late RFD might be more relevant to evaluate in athletes with higher LBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Endothelial Function after Acute Resistance Exercise Using Free Weights
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020032 - 01 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
We determined the effects of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) on cardiovascular hemodynamics and endothelial function in resistance-trained individuals. Nineteen young, healthy, resistance-trained individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of ARE or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of [...] Read more.
We determined the effects of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) on cardiovascular hemodynamics and endothelial function in resistance-trained individuals. Nineteen young, healthy, resistance-trained individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of ARE or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-repetition maximum for the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Cardiovascular hemodynamics was assessed using finger photoplethysmography. Forearm blood flow (FBF), and vasodilatory capacity markers, were assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance was calculated by the division of mean FBF by mean arterial pressure. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effects of condition (ARE, CON) across time (rest, recovery). There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) decreases in mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance across conditions and time. There were significant condition-by-time interactions (p ≤ 0.05) for heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output after the ARE compared to the CON and rest. FBF was significantly (p = 0.001) increased during the recovery from ARE, as well as vasodilatory capacity markers such as peak blood flow (p = 0.05) and reactive hyperemia-induced blood flow (p = 0.0001). These data suggest that whole-body free-weight exercises acutely reduced blood pressure while simultaneously augmenting FBF, and vasodilatory capacity markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Triceps Brachii Muscle Strength and Architectural Adaptations with Resistance Training Exercises at Short or Long Fascicle Length
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3020028 - 22 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistance training at short or long triceps brachii fascicle length induces different muscular strength and architectural adaptations. Nine young, novice, female participants, were trained for 6 weeks (two sessions/week) performing 6 sets × 6-RM [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistance training at short or long triceps brachii fascicle length induces different muscular strength and architectural adaptations. Nine young, novice, female participants, were trained for 6 weeks (two sessions/week) performing 6 sets × 6-RM (repetition maximum) unilateral cable exercises either with push-downs at short fascicle length (S) or overhead extensions with the contralateral arm at long fascicle length (L) of triceps brachii. Before and after training, 1-RM elbow extension and triceps brachii muscle architecture were evaluated. Muscle architecture was analyzed at 50% and 60% of the upper-arm length. Two-dimensional longitudinal muscle area of the triceps long head was also analyzed. The results indicated that 1-RM increased 40.1 ± 21.3% and 44.5 ± 20.1% (p < 0.01) after S and L, respectively. Muscle thickness at 50% length was increased 10.7 ± 15.3% (p < 0.05) and 13.7 ± 9.0% (p < 0.01) after S and L, while at 60% it was increased 15.5 ± 18.8% (p < 0.05) and 19.4 ± 16.3% (p < 0.01), respectively. Longitudinal muscle area increased similarly after S and L (p < 0.01). Fascicle angle and length were not altered with training. These results indicate that muscle strength and architecture of elbow extensors adapt similarly during the first six weeks of resistance training at either long or short fascicle length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Role of Velocity Based Training in the Strength Periodization for Modern Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3040055 - 16 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Resistance training (RT) is considered the most important method to improve the athlete’s strength and rate of force development (RFD). In the last decade, the importance of monitoring velocity during RT has drastically grown, because of an increased availability of linear position transducers [...] Read more.
Resistance training (RT) is considered the most important method to improve the athlete’s strength and rate of force development (RFD). In the last decade, the importance of monitoring velocity during RT has drastically grown, because of an increased availability of linear position transducers (LPT) and inertial measurement units (IMU). The purpose of this review is to analyze the existing literature on testing techniques and performance strategies used to enhance strength and power performance of elite athletes, by monitoring the velocity of resistance training. The authors focus in particular on the level of effort of resistance training defined by velocity; how the loss of velocity correlates with the degree of fatigue and how it can be used to enhance the performance of competitive athletes; the use of LPT as part of the daily routine of the strength and conditioning programs in competitive sport. It is therefore critical for the sports scientists to have a correct understanding of the basic concepts of the velocity-based training and their application to elite sports. The ultimate goal is to give some indications on the velocity-based resistance training integration in the programs of different sports in the high performance environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health)
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