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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Research over the past 20 years has suggested that strategically reducing carbohydrate (CHO) [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle The Uncontrolled Manifold Concept Reveals That the Structure of Postural Control in Recurve Archery Shooting Is Related to Accuracy
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030048
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we examine the structure of postural variability in six elite-level recurve archers using the uncontrolled manifold concept. Previous research showed equivocal results for the relationship between postural control and shooting accuracy, but these studies were mainly limited to a descriptive
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In this study, we examine the structure of postural variability in six elite-level recurve archers using the uncontrolled manifold concept. Previous research showed equivocal results for the relationship between postural control and shooting accuracy, but these studies were mainly limited to a descriptive approach to postural variability/stability and did not take the simultaneous movements of the upper limb joints into account. In this study, we show that the goal-equivalent variability which stabilizes the orientation of the arrow in space is significantly larger than that of the non-goal-equivalent variability in arrows of high accuracy (score 9 or 10). Conversely, arrows of lower accuracy (score 6, 7, or 8) failed to reach significant thresholds throughout the majority of the aiming phase. This analysis reveals that it is not necessary (or even possible) for elite archers to minimize the movements of all degrees of freedom during aiming, but rather that the structure of variability of the redundant kinematic chain is exploited so that the relevant performance variable (orientation of the arrow) is stabilized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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Open AccessArticle Perceived Barriers to Exercise in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury Vary by Age
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030047
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Physical activity and exercise are important adjuncts to medical treatment for overall health in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, many individuals do not partake in the recommended weekly exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate the barriers to exercise
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Physical activity and exercise are important adjuncts to medical treatment for overall health in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, many individuals do not partake in the recommended weekly exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate the barriers to exercise after TBI and determine whether these barriers varied by age. The sample was 172 adults with moderate to severe TBI who completed Barriers to Physical Exercise and Disability (B-PED) survey. Lack of interest, motivation, and energy as well as cost, lack of counseling on exercise by a physician, not having home equipment, and being too lazy were reported as barriers to exercise by all age groups. Those aged 35 to 54-years-old were more likely to report that cost, lack of transportation, having health concerns, not knowing where to exercise, and fear of leaving the home as barriers to exercise than those aged 18 to 34-years-old or 55-years-old and older. Overall, adults with TBI report multiple barriers to exercise, and these barriers vary by age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Aging)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Profile and Myocardial Performance of Renal Transplant Recipients Participating in Unsupervised Physical Exercise as a Prescription Program
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030046
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Introduction: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at high cardiovascular risk (CV) compared to the general population, especially after surgical treatment. The literature supports the role of supervised exercise intervention; however no data are available regarding the effects of unsupervised exercise programs. We investigated
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Introduction: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at high cardiovascular risk (CV) compared to the general population, especially after surgical treatment. The literature supports the role of supervised exercise intervention; however no data are available regarding the effects of unsupervised exercise programs. We investigated whether a home exercise program could reduce CV risk in RTR based on possible changes in renal and cardiometabolic parameters and myocardial performance measured by echocardiography. Methods: From a large cohort of 60 RTRs, 30 RTRs (12 females and 18 males 48.3 ± 12.3 years) participated in individualized and unsupervised training programs for 6 months, at moderate intensity. Cardiometabolic risk factors, anthropometric parameters, lipid and glycemic blood sample profiles were studied as was myocardial performance from the 2D echo examination at T0, and T6 months. Results: The lipid profile remained in the range of a low level of risk, although there was no significant improvement, whereas myocardial performance, in particular the EF, was significantly improved. Conclusions: A home exercise program for at least 6 months produces positive effects on myocardial function and helps maintain a low cardiovascular risk profile. The trend supports the importance of highlighting the role of a correct reconditioning of lifestyle in RTR, from the exercise program without supervision to moderate intensity, where well tolerated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Internal Loads, but Not External Loads and Fatigue, Are Similar in Young and Middle-Aged Resistance-Trained Males during High Volume Squatting Exercise
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030045
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract
Little is known about the internal and external loads experienced during resistance exercise, or the subsequent fatigue-related response, across different age groups. This study compared the internal (heart rate, OMNI ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), session RPE) and external loads (peak velocity and
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Little is known about the internal and external loads experienced during resistance exercise, or the subsequent fatigue-related response, across different age groups. This study compared the internal (heart rate, OMNI ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), session RPE) and external loads (peak velocity and power and volume load) during high volume squatting exercise (10 × 10 at 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM)) and the fatigue-related response (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), resting doublet force, peak power, and blood lactate) in young (n = 9; age 22.3 ± 1.7 years) and middle-aged (n = 9; age 39.9 ± 6.2 years) resistance-trained males. All internal load variables and peak velocity illustrated unclear differences between groups during exercise. Peak power and volume load were likely higher in the young group compared to their middle-aged counterparts. The unclear differences in MVC, VA and blood lactate between groups after exercise were accompanied by very likely greater decrements in resting doublet force and peak power at 20 and 80% 1RM in the middle-aged group compared to the young group. These data indicate that internal load is not different between young and middle-aged resistance-trained males, though certain external load measures and the fatigue response are. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Aging)
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Open AccessCase Report Open Tibial Fracture in a Non-Compliant Patient: A Case Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030044
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
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Abstract
Open tibial fractures represent the most frequent fractures of long bones, comprising approximately 1.9% of all fractures. Although locked intramedullary nailing is the gold standard for treating closed and unstable tibia diaphyseal fractures, for most exposed fractures, an external fixator can first be
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Open tibial fractures represent the most frequent fractures of long bones, comprising approximately 1.9% of all fractures. Although locked intramedullary nailing is the gold standard for treating closed and unstable tibia diaphyseal fractures, for most exposed fractures, an external fixator can first be used, followed by conversion through an intramedullary nail. The present report describes the case of a 17-year-old male who presented with a complex multi-segmented displaced tibia fracture, type 42-C3, with exposure of IIIB type according to the Gustilo–Anderson classification, and with an attached disrupted fracture of peroneal malleolus, type 44-B2. External fixation was the preferred treatment method. Before the definitive surgical treatment, the patient had a second accident that caused refracture and damage to the soft tissues and external fixation system. This prolonged the time estimated for the conversion from the external fixator to the intramedullary nail. The reported case shows the use of various treatment steps with different timelines and an intervention with vacuum-assisted closure therapy for soft tissue healing as well as subsequent intramedullary nailing in order to reach the definitive healing of a non-compliant patient. These combined methods achieved an acceptable reduction and good stability of such a complex fracture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Lean Body Mass for the Rate of Force Development in Taekwondo Athletes and Track and Field Throwers
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030043
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
The rate of force development (RFD) is vital for power athletes. Lean body mass (LBM) is considered to be an essential contributor to RFD, nevertheless high RFD may be achieved by athletes with either high or low LBM. The aim of the study
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The rate of force development (RFD) is vital for power athletes. Lean body mass (LBM) is considered to be an essential contributor to RFD, nevertheless high RFD may be achieved by athletes with either high or low LBM. The aim of the study was to describe the relationship between lower-body LBM and RFD, and to compare RFD in taekwondo athletes and track and field (T&F) throwers, the latter having higher LBM when compared to taekwondo athletes. Nine taekwondo athletes and nine T&F throwers were evaluated for countermovement jumping, isometric leg press and leg extension RFD, vastus lateralis (VL), and medial gastrocnemius muscle architecture and body composition. Lower body LBM was correlated with RFD 0–250 ms (r = 0.81, p = 0.016). Taekwondo athletes had lower LBM and jumping power per LBM. RFD was similar between groups at 30–50 ms, but higher for throwers at 80–250 ms. RFD adjusted for VL thickness was higher in taekwondo athletes at 30 ms, but higher in throwers at 200–250 ms. These results suggest that lower body LBM is correlated with RFD in power trained athletes. RFD adjusted for VL thickness might be more relevant to evaluate in power athletes with low LBM, while late RFD might be more relevant to evaluate in athletes with higher LBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health)
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Open AccessEditorial The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Exercise-Induced Immune Response
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030042
Received: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
We are glad to introduce the ninth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last few years in the field of Exercise-Induced Immune Response, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate
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We are glad to introduce the ninth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last few years in the field of Exercise-Induced Immune Response, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for sport seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessReview Dietary Manipulations Concurrent to Endurance Training
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030041
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
The role of an athlete’s dietary intake (both timing and food type) goes beyond simply providing fuel to support the body’s vital processes. Nutritional choices also have an impact on the metabolic adaptations to training. Over the past 20 years, research has suggested
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The role of an athlete’s dietary intake (both timing and food type) goes beyond simply providing fuel to support the body’s vital processes. Nutritional choices also have an impact on the metabolic adaptations to training. Over the past 20 years, research has suggested that strategically reducing carbohydrate (CHO) availability during an athlete’s training can modify the metabolic responses in lieu of simply maintaining a high CHO diet. Several methods have been explored to manipulate CHO availability and include: Low-carb, high-fat (LCHF) diets, performing two-a-day training without glycogen restoration between sessions, and a “sleep-low” approach entailing a glycogen-depleting session in the evening without consuming CHO until after a morning training session performed in an overnight fasted state. Each of these methods can confer beneficial metabolic adaptations for the endurance athlete including increases in mitochondrial enzyme activity, mitochondrial content, and rates of fat oxidation, yet data showing a direct performance benefit is still unclear. Full article
Open AccessReview Effect of Attentional Focus Instructions on Motor Learning and Performance of Patients with Central Nervous System and Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030040
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Exercise is one of the main rehabilitative interventions, commonly used to improve performance and motor learning. During the application of attentional focus strategies, External Focus of Attention (EFA) aiming at the movement effect has been reported to have more efficacy than Internal Focus
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Exercise is one of the main rehabilitative interventions, commonly used to improve performance and motor learning. During the application of attentional focus strategies, External Focus of Attention (EFA) aiming at the movement effect has been reported to have more efficacy than Internal Focus of Attention (IFA) aiming at movement characteristics in healthy subjects. There are not many studies that compare the EFA and IFA instructions in people with Musculoskeletal (MSK) and Central Nervous System disorders (CNS). The purpose of this systematic review is to determine if IFA or EFA, in patients with CNS or MSK, may improve performance and have some effects on motor learning. Databases used for research: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PEDro, PsycINFO, SCOPUS. Inclusion criteria: Randomized Controlled Trial, quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial, enrolled subjects with CNS or with MSK and compared the efficacy of EFA and IFA. The studies suggest that the EFA is better than IFA in affecting the movement execution in patients with MSK, while conflicted findings emerge in presence of CNS disorders. Studies included in the qualitative analysis showed heterogeneous methodological features in study design and conductance, so results must be interpreted with caution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle Physical Health Mediates the Relationship between Psychological Well-Being and Engagement in Exercise across Age in a German Sample
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030039
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
The prevalence of chronic illness among middle-aged and older adults is increasing worldwide as the population continues to age. One way to prevent the continued increase and subsequent negative outcomes of chronic illness is to increase the number of individuals who engage in
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The prevalence of chronic illness among middle-aged and older adults is increasing worldwide as the population continues to age. One way to prevent the continued increase and subsequent negative outcomes of chronic illness is to increase the number of individuals who engage in exercise. Thus, it is important to examine which factors predict engagement in exercise in middle-aged and older adults. As a result, the current study examined the relationship between physical health, psychological well-being, and engagement in exercise in a sample of middle-aged and older German adults. We found that increased age was associated with less frequent engagement in exercise. We also found that physical health mediated the relationship between psychological well-being and engagement in exercise. Finally, we found that age did not moderate the relationship between subjective well-being and engagement in exercise, suggesting that the role of physical health as a mediator was similar in older adults compared to middle-aged adults. These findings have important implications for interventions seeking to promote exercise among adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Aging)
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Open AccessConcept Paper Exercise and Cancer Survivors: Lessons Learned from a Multi-Faceted Model for Exercise Prescription
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030038
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
Cancer is the second leading cause of death, and the most common diagnosis among the general population is breast and colon cancer. Recently, an increasing number of new cases of invasive breast and colon cancer have been estimated, and more people die from
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death, and the most common diagnosis among the general population is breast and colon cancer. Recently, an increasing number of new cases of invasive breast and colon cancer have been estimated, and more people die from these diseases. In addition to the genetic pattern, diet and lifestyle including smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentary behaviour have also been identified as potential risks factors. Recent studies of cancer survivors have shown the beneficial effects of regular physical activity to reduce the prevalence of comorbidity, muscle atrophy, weight changes, reduced aerobic capacity, fatigue, depression, and reduced quality of life. Dedicated and individual programs are crucial for achieving the goals of improving quality of life and reducing comorbidities. A multidisciplinary approach is fundamental: lifestyle assessment, including estimating the level of physical activity, as well as nutritional habits, may be the first step. A periodic cardiovascular examination is crucial for detecting asymptomatic early myocardial failure. According to current ACSM guidelines, different levels of exercise (low-moderate 40% and moderate up to 60% of the maximal HR) may be prescribed, and patients enrolled may follow the exercise program if in the absence of contraindications. The current paper reports observations from our clinical practice and provides practical strategies that bridge contemporary, published guidelines into practice within a multi-disciplinary team working with cancer survivors in Italy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of a Sports-Oriented Primary School on Students’ Physical Literacy and Cognitive Performance
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030037
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 23 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
As only a small group of children fulfil the guidelines for physical activity, interventions are necessary to promote active lifestyles. We examined the effects of a sports-oriented primary school (N = 79) in comparison to a regular primary school (N =
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As only a small group of children fulfil the guidelines for physical activity, interventions are necessary to promote active lifestyles. We examined the effects of a sports-oriented primary school (N = 79) in comparison to a regular primary school (N = 90) on students’ physical literacy and cognitive performance. To evaluate the implementation of the sports-oriented school curriculum a process evaluation was conducted, in which the school curriculum was analysed and guideline-based interviews were carried out with the schoolteachers and the school director. To measure students’ physical literacy and cognitive performance several tests were used. Small positive effects of the sports-oriented primary school on students’ physical literacy were shown in standing long jump and attitudes towards physical activity. There were no differences between the groups regarding cognitive performance. This study provides the first insights on how a sports-oriented school can promote students’ physical literacy in the future. The results are in line with previous research that shows that when children spend more time in physical education and overall physical activities at school, no negative consequences result for their cognitive performance. In future, long-term evaluations of the effects of sports-oriented schools are required to receive valid results on the effects on students. Full article
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