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Condens. Matter, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 6 articles

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Article
On Three “Anomalous” Measurements of Nonlinear QPC Conductance
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7030049 - 10 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Practical mesoscopic devices based on quantum point contacts (QPCs) must function at operating point involving large internal driving fields. Experimental evidence has accumulated to display anomalous nonlinear features of QPC response beyond the capacities of accepted tunnelling-based models of nonlinear quantum transport. Here, [...] Read more.
Practical mesoscopic devices based on quantum point contacts (QPCs) must function at operating point involving large internal driving fields. Experimental evidence has accumulated to display anomalous nonlinear features of QPC response beyond the capacities of accepted tunnelling-based models of nonlinear quantum transport. Here, we recall the physical setting of three anomalous QPC experiments and review how, for two of them, a microscopically based nonequilibrium quantum kinetic description—the correct physical boundary conditions being crucial—has already overcome the predictive limitations of standard nonequilibrium mesoscopic models. The third experiment remains a significant challenge to all theorists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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Article
MgB2 Thin Films Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition Using Nd:YAG Laser in an In Situ Two-Step Process
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7030048 - 02 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Magnesium diboride (MgB2) thin films on r-cut sapphire (r-Al2O3) single crystals were fabricated by a precursor, which was obtained at room temperature via a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method using a Nd:YAG laser, and [...] Read more.
Magnesium diboride (MgB2) thin films on r-cut sapphire (r-Al2O3) single crystals were fabricated by a precursor, which was obtained at room temperature via a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method using a Nd:YAG laser, and an in situ postannealing process. The onset superconducting transition, Tconset, and zero-resistivity transition, Tczero, were observed at 33.6 and 31.7 K, respectively, in the MgB2 thin films prepared by a Mg-rich target with a ratio of Mg:B = 3:2. The critical current density, Jc, calculated from magnetization measurements reached up to 0.9 × 106 A cm−2 at 20 K and 0 T. The broad angular Jc peak was found at 28 K when the magnetic fields were applied in a direction parallel to the film surface (θ = 90°). This could be indicative of the granular structure with randomly oriented grains. Our results demonstrate that this process is a promising candidate for the fabrication of MgB2 superconducting devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Layered Superconductors III)
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Review
Identifying Redox Orbitals and Defects in Lithium-Ion Cathodes with Compton Scattering and Positron Annihilation Spectroscopies: A Review
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7030047 - 26 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions that transfer conduction electrons from the anode to the cathode are the fundamental processes responsible for generating power in Li-ion batteries. Electronic and microstructural features of the cathode material are controlled by the nature of the redox orbitals and how [...] Read more.
Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions that transfer conduction electrons from the anode to the cathode are the fundamental processes responsible for generating power in Li-ion batteries. Electronic and microstructural features of the cathode material are controlled by the nature of the redox orbitals and how they respond to Li intercalation. Thus, redox orbitals play a key role in performance of the battery and its degradation with cycling. We unravel spectroscopic descriptors that can be used to gain an atomic-scale handle on the redox mechanisms underlying Li-ion batteries. Our focus is on X-ray Compton Scattering and Positron Annihilation spectroscopies and the related computational approaches for the purpose of identifying orbitals involved in electrochemical transformations in the cathode. This review provides insight into the workings of lithium-ion batteries and opens a pathway for rational design of next-generation battery materials. Full article
Review
Perspectives of Gas Phase Ion Chemistry: Spectroscopy and Modeling
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7030046 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 300
Abstract
The study of ions in the gas phase has a long history and has involved both chemists and physicists. The interplay of their competences with the use of very sophisticated commercial and/or homemade instrumentations and theoretical models has improved the knowledge of thermodynamics [...] Read more.
The study of ions in the gas phase has a long history and has involved both chemists and physicists. The interplay of their competences with the use of very sophisticated commercial and/or homemade instrumentations and theoretical models has improved the knowledge of thermodynamics and kinetics of many chemical reactions, even if still many stages of these processes need to be fully understood. The new technologies and the novel free-electron laser facilities based on plasma acceleration open new opportunities to investigate the chemical reactions in some unrevealed fundamental aspects. The synchrotron light source can be put beside the FELs, and by mass spectrometric techniques and spectroscopies coupled with versatile ion sources it is possible to really change the state of the art of the ion chemistry in different areas such as atmospheric and astro chemistry, plasma chemistry, biophysics, and interstellar medium (ISM). In this manuscript we review the works performed by a joint combination of the experimental studies of ion–molecule reactions with synchrotron radiation and theoretical models adapted and developed to the experimental evidence. The review concludes with the perspectives of ion–molecule reactions by using FEL instrumentations as well as pump probe measurements and the initial attempt in the development of more realistic theoretical models for the prospective improvement of our predictive capability. Full article
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Article
Nanocomposites Based on Cerium, Lanthanum, and Titanium Oxides Doped with Silver for Biomedical Application
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7030045 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Nanosized composites CeO2–Ag, La2O3–Ag, and TiO2–Ag are a class of nanomaterials suitable for photocatalysis, optical devices, and photoelectrochemical elements. Further, nanocomposites with several wt.% of silver can be used as creating materials for pathogenic virus [...] Read more.
Nanosized composites CeO2–Ag, La2O3–Ag, and TiO2–Ag are a class of nanomaterials suitable for photocatalysis, optical devices, and photoelectrochemical elements. Further, nanocomposites with several wt.% of silver can be used as creating materials for pathogenic virus inactivation with pandemic-neutralizing potential. Thus, CeO2–Ag, La2O3–Ag, and TiO2–Ag nanocomposites are prospective materials due to their optical and biological activity. In the present work, CeO2–Ag, La2O3–Ag, and TiO2–Ag nanocomposites were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The morphological and optical properties and the structure of the prepared nanocomposites were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption based on BET, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL). Both oxide matrixes corresponded to the cubic crystal lattice with the inclusion of argentum into the crystal lattice of oxides at relative low c(Ag) and reduction of silver on particle surface at 5 wt.% Ag and greater. The CeO2, TiO2, and La2O3 with a concentration of 4 wt.% Ag inhibited the growth processes of prokaryotic cells of E. coli, Bacillus sp., and S. aureus compared to pure oxides. Influenza A virus and herpes completely suppressed reproduction by nanocomposites of CeO2–Ag (2, 5 wt.%) and La2O3–Ag (2, 5 wt.%) action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanocomposite Materials)
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Article
Effect of Metallic and Non-Metallic Additives on the Synthesis of Fullerenes in Thermal Plasma
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7030044 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 303
Abstract
The effect of metallic (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Ti) and non-metallic additives (Si, B) on the formation of fullerenes from graphite powders was studied in radiofrequency (RF) thermal plasma. The main component of the synthesized fullerene mixtures was C60, but higher [...] Read more.
The effect of metallic (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Ti) and non-metallic additives (Si, B) on the formation of fullerenes from graphite powders was studied in radiofrequency (RF) thermal plasma. The main component of the synthesized fullerene mixtures was C60, but higher fullerenes (C70, C82, and C84) could be detected as well. Fe and Cu additives increased the fullerene content in the soot. In contrast, the fullerene formation decreased in the presence of Ti, Si, and B as compared to the synthesis without additives. However, Ti and B addition enhanced the formation of higher fullerenes. We provide experimental evidence that decreasing the reactor pressure results in a lower yield of fullerene production, in accordance with thermodynamic calculations and numerical simulations published earlier. In the presence of titanium, a significant quantity of TiC was also formed as a by-product. The fullerene mixture synthesized with boron additives showed higher stability during storage in ambient conditions as compared to other samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanocomposite Materials)
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