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Biomimetics, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This research presents results in hydrogen production using biomimetic catalysts based on [email protected] composites. The catalysts were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles and graphene on the surface of zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), and commercial ZnO. The highest amount of hydrogen was reported by ZnO NWs, followed by ZnO NPs and finally commercial ZnO. The high photocatalytic activity of the catalysts is attributed, mainly, to the synergism between the different amount of gold and graphene incorporated, and the surface area of the composites. View this paper
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Article
Facile Synthesis of Antimicrobial Aloe Vera-“Smart” Triiodide-PVP Biomaterials
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030045 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is an eminent threat for the survival of mankind. Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms are a reason for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Plant-based antimicrobial agents are based on synergistic mechanisms which prevent resistance and have been used for centuries [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is an eminent threat for the survival of mankind. Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms are a reason for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Plant-based antimicrobial agents are based on synergistic mechanisms which prevent resistance and have been used for centuries against ailments. We suggest the use of cost-effective, eco-friendly Aloe Vera Barbadensis Miller (AV)-iodine biomaterials as a new generation of antimicrobial agents. In a facile, one-pot synthesis, we encapsulated fresh AV gel with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizing agent and incorporated iodine moieties in the form of iodine (I2) and sodium iodide (NaI) into the polymer matrix. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) verified the composition of AV-PVP-I2, AV-PVP-I2-NaI. AV, AV-PVP, AV-PVP-I2, AV-PVP-I2-NaI, and AV-PVP-NaI were tested in-vitro by disc diffusion assay and dip-coated on polyglycolic acid (PGA) sutures against ten microbial reference strains. All the tested pathogens were more susceptible towards AV-PVP-I2 due to the inclusion of “smart” triiodides with halogen bonding in vitro and on dip-coated sutures. The biocomplexes AV-PVP-I2, AV-PVP-I2-NaI showed remarkable antimicrobial properties. “Smart” biohybrids with triiodide inclusions have excellent antifungal and promising antimicrobial activities, with potential use against surgical site infections (SSI) and as disinfecting agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Functional (Nano)materials)
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Article
Finite Element Analysis of Orthopedic Hip Implant with Functionally Graded Bioinspired Lattice Structures
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030044 - 12 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
The topology optimization (TO) process has the objective to structurally optimize products in various industries, such as in biomechanical engineering. Additive manufacturing facilitates this procedure and enables the utility of advanced structures in order to achieve the optimal product design. Currently, orthopedic implants [...] Read more.
The topology optimization (TO) process has the objective to structurally optimize products in various industries, such as in biomechanical engineering. Additive manufacturing facilitates this procedure and enables the utility of advanced structures in order to achieve the optimal product design. Currently, orthopedic implants are fabricated from metal or metal alloys with totally solid structure to withstand the applied loads; nevertheless, such a practice reduces the compatibility with human tissues and increases the manufacturing cost as more feedstock material is needed. This article investigates the possibility of applying bioinspired lattice structures (cellular materials) in order to topologically optimize an orthopedic hip implant, made of Inconel 718 superalloy. Lattice structures enable topology optimization of an object by reducing its weight and increasing its porosity without compromising its mechanical behavior. Specifically, three different bioinspired advanced lattice structures were investigated through finite element analysis (FEA) under in vivo loading. Furthermore, the regions with lattice structure were optimized through functional gradation of the cellular material. Results have shown that optimal design of hip implant geometry, in terms of stress behavior, was achieved through functionally graded lattice structures and the hip implant is capable of withstanding up to two times the in vivo loads, suggesting that this design is a suitable and effective replacement for a solid implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Additive Manufacturing)
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Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Electrospun Scaffolds Modified with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030043 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
The solution electrospinning process (SEP) is a cost-effective technique in which a wide range of polymeric materials can be electrospun. Electrospun materials can also be easily modified during the solution preparation process (prior SEP). Based on this, the aim of the current work [...] Read more.
The solution electrospinning process (SEP) is a cost-effective technique in which a wide range of polymeric materials can be electrospun. Electrospun materials can also be easily modified during the solution preparation process (prior SEP). Based on this, the aim of the current work is the fabrication and nanomodification of scaffolds using SEP, and the investigation of their porosity and physical and mechanical properties. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was selected for scaffold fabrication, and further modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles. After fabrication, porosity calculation and physical and mechanical characterization for all scaffold types were conducted. More precisely, the morphology of the fibers (in terms of fiber diameter), the surface properties (in terms of contact angle) and the mechanical properties under the tensile mode of the fabricated scaffolds have been investigated and further compared against pristine PLA scaffolds (without nanofillers). Finally, the scaffold with the optimal properties was proposed as the candidate material for potential future cell culturing. Full article
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Article
Three-Dimensional Printed Antimicrobial Objects of Polylactic Acid (PLA)-Silver Nanoparticle Nanocomposite Filaments Produced by an In-Situ Reduction Reactive Melt Mixing Process
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030042 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
In this study, an industrially scalable method is reported for the fabrication of polylactic acid (PLA)/silver nanoparticle (AgNP) nanocomposite filaments by an in-situ reduction reactive melt mixing method. The PLA/AgNP nanocomposite filaments have been produced initially reducing silver ions (Ag+) arising [...] Read more.
In this study, an industrially scalable method is reported for the fabrication of polylactic acid (PLA)/silver nanoparticle (AgNP) nanocomposite filaments by an in-situ reduction reactive melt mixing method. The PLA/AgNP nanocomposite filaments have been produced initially reducing silver ions (Ag+) arising from silver nitrate (AgNO3) precursor mixed in the polymer melt to elemental silver (Ag0) nanoparticles, utilizing polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), respectively, as macromolecular blend compound reducing agents. PEG and PVP were added at various concentrations, to the PLA matrix. The PLA/AgNP filaments have been used to manufacture 3D printed antimicrobial (AM) parts by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF). The 3D printed PLA/AgNP parts exhibited significant AM properties examined by the reduction in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria viability (%) experiments at 30, 60, and 120 min duration of contact (p < 0.05; p-value (p): probability). It could be envisaged that the 3D printed parts manufactured and tested herein mimic nature’s mechanism against bacteria and in terms of antimicrobial properties, contact angle for their anti-adhesive behavior and mechanical properties could create new avenues for the next generation of low-cost and on-demand additive manufacturing produced personal protective equipment (PPE) as well as healthcare and nosocomial antimicrobial equipment. Full article
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Review
Stannous Fluoride Effects on Enamel: A Systematic Review
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030041 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
In recent years there has been a lot of talk about toothpastes with a particular chemical compound: stannous fluoride (SnF2). Its presence is currently still highly controversial, as the latter could have negative health effects. The different companies that produce toothpastes [...] Read more.
In recent years there has been a lot of talk about toothpastes with a particular chemical compound: stannous fluoride (SnF2). Its presence is currently still highly controversial, as the latter could have negative health effects. The different companies that produce toothpastes express its dosage in ppm. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze all randomized clinical trials in the literature over the last 10 years and to draw clear results on the function of stannous fluoride, for this purpose the authors performed a Mann–Whitney U Test. Materials: The first analysis of the literature produced a number greater than 800 results, subsequently applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and following a manual analysis of the results, 26 manuscripts have been obtained. Results: From the results analyzed in this review, it could be shown that stannous fluoride does not present important contraindications, if not those commonly reported for fluorine. A meta-analysis on enamel loss has been conducted, it shows that SnF2 products provide better results with a p < 0.05 value. Conclusion: This compound could have significant effects in favor of erosion and recalcification of the enamel, on the biofilm formation, gingival inflammation, and in addition, it could be an important aid in the removal of tooth stains and halitosis. Full article
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Article
Inspection of Biomimicry Approaches as an Alternative to Address Climate-Related Energy Building Challenges: A Framework for Application in Panama
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030040 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
In the Panama context, energy consumption in the building sector is mostly related to the conditioning of indoor spaces for cooling and lighting. Different nature strategies can be mimic to strongly impact these two aspects in the building sector, such as the ones [...] Read more.
In the Panama context, energy consumption in the building sector is mostly related to the conditioning of indoor spaces for cooling and lighting. Different nature strategies can be mimic to strongly impact these two aspects in the building sector, such as the ones presented here. A comprehensive analysis regarding literature related to biomimicry-based approaches destined to improve buildings designs is presented here. This analysis is driven by the increasing energy regulations demands to meet future local goals and to propose a framework for applications in Panama. Such biomimicry-based approaches have been further analyzed and evaluated to propose the incorporation of organism-based design for three of the most climate types found in Panama. Consequently, a SWOT analysis helped realized the potential that biomimicry-based approaches might have in improving the odds of in meeting the local and global regulations demands. The need for multidisciplinary collaboration to accomplish biomimicry-based-designed buildings, brings an increment in the competitivity regarding more trained human-assets, widening the standard-construction-sector thinking. Finally, the analysis presented here can serve as the foundation for further technical assessment, via numerical and experimental means. Full article
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Article
Biomimetic Catalysts Based on [email protected]–Graphene Composites for the Generation of Hydrogen by Water Splitting
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030039 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
For some decades, the scientific community has been looking for alternatives to the use of fossil fuels that allow for the planet’s sustainable and environmentally-friendly development. To do this, attempts have been made to mimic some processes that occur in nature, among which [...] Read more.
For some decades, the scientific community has been looking for alternatives to the use of fossil fuels that allow for the planet’s sustainable and environmentally-friendly development. To do this, attempts have been made to mimic some processes that occur in nature, among which the photosystem-II stands out, which allows water splitting operating with different steps to generate oxygen and hydrogen. This research presents promising results using synthetic catalysts, which try to simulate some natural processes, and which are based on [email protected]–graphene compounds. These catalysts were prepared by incorporating different amounts of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%) and graphene (1 wt.%) on the surface of synthesized zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), along with a commercial form (commercial ZnO) for comparison purposes. The highest amount of hydrogen (1127 μmol/hg) was reported by ZnO NWs with a gold and graphene loadings of 10 wt.% and 1 wt.%, respectively, under irradiation at 400 nm. Quantities of 759 μmol/hg and 709 μmol/hg were obtained with catalysts based on ZnO NPs and commercial ZnO, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of all composites increased with respect to the bare semiconductors, being 2.5 times higher in ZnO NWs, 8.8 times higher for ZnO NPs, and 7.5 times higher for commercial ZnO. The high photocatalytic activity of the catalysts is attributed, mainly, to the synergism between the different amount of gold and graphene incorporated, and the surface area of the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Nanotechnology Vol. 2)
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Article
Development of the Third Generation of the Dual-Reciprocating Drill
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030038 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
The dual-reciprocating drill (DRD) is a low-mass alternative to traditional drilling techniques biologically inspired by the wood wasp ovipositor, which is used to drill into wood in order to lay its eggs. The DRD reciprocates two halves lined with backwards-facing teeth, enabling it [...] Read more.
The dual-reciprocating drill (DRD) is a low-mass alternative to traditional drilling techniques biologically inspired by the wood wasp ovipositor, which is used to drill into wood in order to lay its eggs. The DRD reciprocates two halves lined with backwards-facing teeth, enabling it to generate traction forces that reduce the required overhead penetration force. While previous research has focused on experimental testing of the drill’s operational and design parameters, numerical simulation techniques are being developed to allow the rapid testing of multiple designs, complementing and informing experimental testing campaigns. The latest DRD design iteration integrated a novel internal actuation mechanism and demonstrated the benefits of adding controlled lateral movements. This paper presents an exploration of how bit morphology affects drilling performance and a preliminary study of discrete element method (DEM) simulations for modelling DRD interactions in regolith. These have shown how regolith grain size and microscopic behaviour significantly affects the performance of different drill designs, and demonstrated how customisable drills can exploit the properties of various substrates. Two system prototypes are also being developed for the DRD’s third generation, each utilising novel actuation and sampling mechanisms. A final drill design will then be deployed from a planetary rover and perform the first DRD drilling and sampling operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetics from Concept to Reality)
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Article
Finite Element Analysis Investigate Pulmonary Autograft Root and Leaflet Stresses to Understand Late Durability of Ross Operation
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030037 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
Ross operation might be a valid option for congenital and acquired left ventricular outflow tract disease in selected cases. As the pulmonary autograft is a living substitute for the aortic root that bioinspired the Ross operation, we have created an experimental animal model [...] Read more.
Ross operation might be a valid option for congenital and acquired left ventricular outflow tract disease in selected cases. As the pulmonary autograft is a living substitute for the aortic root that bioinspired the Ross operation, we have created an experimental animal model in which the vital capacity of the pulmonary autograft (PA) has been studied during physiological growth. The present study aims to determine any increased stresses in PA root and leaflet compared to the similar components of the native aorta. An animal model and a mathematical analysis using finite element analysis have been used for the purpose of this manuscript. The results of this study advance our understanding of the relative benefits of pulmonary autograft for the management of severe aortic valve disease. However, it launches a warning about the importance of the choice of the length of the conduits as mechanical deformation, and, therefore, potential failure, increases with the length of the segment subjected to stress. Understanding PA root and leaflet stresses is the first step toward understanding PA durability and the regions prone to dilatation, ultimately to refine the best implant technique. Full article
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Article
Characterisation of the Interaction among Oil-In-Water Nanocapsules and Mucin
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030036 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Mucins are glycoproteins present in all mucosal surfaces and in secretions such as saliva. Mucins are involved in the mucoadhesion of nanodevices carrying bioactive molecules to their target sites in vivo. Oil-in-water nanocapsules (NCs) have been synthesised for carrying N,N′-(di-m-methylphenyl)urea (DMTU), a [...] Read more.
Mucins are glycoproteins present in all mucosal surfaces and in secretions such as saliva. Mucins are involved in the mucoadhesion of nanodevices carrying bioactive molecules to their target sites in vivo. Oil-in-water nanocapsules (NCs) have been synthesised for carrying N,N′-(di-m-methylphenyl)urea (DMTU), a quorum-sensing inhibitor, to the oral cavity. DMTU-loaded NCs constitute an alternative for the treatment of plaque (bacterial biofilm). In this work, the stability of the NCs after their interaction with mucin is analysed. Mucin type III from Sigma-Aldrich has been used as the mucin model. Mucin and NCs were characterised by the multi-detection asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation technique (AF4). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ζ-potential analyses were carried out to characterise the interaction between mucin and NCs. According to the results, loading DMTU changes the conformation of the NC. It was also found that the synergistic interaction between mucin and NCs was favoured within a specific range of the mucin:NC ratio within the first 24 h. Studies on the release of DMTU in vitro and the microbial activity of such NCs are ongoing in our lab. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Nanotechnology Vol. 2)
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Article
How to Build a Biological Machine Using Engineering Materials and Methods
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030035 - 26 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
We present work in 3D printing electric motors from basic materials as the key to building a self-replicating machine to colonise the Moon. First, we explore the nature of the biological realm to ascertain its essence, particularly in relation to the origin of [...] Read more.
We present work in 3D printing electric motors from basic materials as the key to building a self-replicating machine to colonise the Moon. First, we explore the nature of the biological realm to ascertain its essence, particularly in relation to the origin of life when the inanimate became animate. We take an expansive view of this to ascertain parallels between the biological and the manufactured worlds. Life must have emerged from the available raw material on Earth and, similarly, a self-replicating machine must exploit and leverage the available resources on the Moon. We then examine these lessons to explore the construction of a self-replicating machine using a universal constructor. It is through the universal constructor that the actuator emerges as critical. We propose that 3D printing constitutes an analogue of the biological ribosome and that 3D printing may constitute a universal construction mechanism. Following a description of our progress in 3D printing motors, we suggest that this engineering effort can inform biology, that motors are a key facet of living organisms and illustrate the importance of motors in biology viewed from the perspective of engineering (in the Feynman spirit of “what I cannot create, I cannot understand”). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Design and Techniques for Space Applications)
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Review
Biomimetic Aspects of Restorative Dentistry Biomaterials
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030034 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2872
Abstract
Biomimetic has emerged as a multi-disciplinary science in several biomedical subjects in recent decades, including biomaterials and dentistry. In restorative dentistry, biomimetic approaches have been applied for a range of applications, such as restoring tooth defects using bioinspired peptides to achieve remineralization, bioactive [...] Read more.
Biomimetic has emerged as a multi-disciplinary science in several biomedical subjects in recent decades, including biomaterials and dentistry. In restorative dentistry, biomimetic approaches have been applied for a range of applications, such as restoring tooth defects using bioinspired peptides to achieve remineralization, bioactive and biomimetic biomaterials, and tissue engineering for regeneration. Advancements in the modern adhesive restorative materials, understanding of biomaterial–tissue interaction at the nano and microscale further enhanced the restorative materials’ properties (such as color, morphology, and strength) to mimic natural teeth. In addition, the tissue-engineering approaches resulted in regeneration of lost or damaged dental tissues mimicking their natural counterpart. The aim of the present article is to review various biomimetic approaches used to replace lost or damaged dental tissues using restorative biomaterials and tissue-engineering techniques. In addition, tooth structure, and various biomimetic properties of dental restorative materials and tissue-engineering scaffold materials, are discussed. Full article
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Article
Promises and Presuppositions of Biomimicry
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030033 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
Under the umbrella of biologically informed disciplines, biomimicry is a design methodology that proponents often assert will lead to a more sustainable future. In realizing that future, it becomes necessary to discern specifically what biomimicry’s “promises” are in relation to sustainable futures, and [...] Read more.
Under the umbrella of biologically informed disciplines, biomimicry is a design methodology that proponents often assert will lead to a more sustainable future. In realizing that future, it becomes necessary to discern specifically what biomimicry’s “promises” are in relation to sustainable futures, and what is required in order for them to be fulfilled. This paper presents research examining the webpages of the Biomimicry Global Network (BGN) to extract the claims and promises expressed by biomimicry practitioners. These promises are assessed using current literature to determine their presuppositions and requirements. Biomimicry’s promises are expressed in terms of potential for innovation, sustainability, and transformation and appear to depend on perceived relationships between humanity and nature; nature and technology; the underlying value judgements of practitioners. The findings emphasize that in order for the communicated promise of biomimicry to be realized, a particular ethos and respectful engagement with nature must accompany the technological endeavors of the practice. Full article
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Review
Cationic Nanostructures for Vaccines Design
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030032 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Subunit vaccines rely on adjuvants carrying one or a few molecular antigens from the pathogen in order to guarantee an improved immune response. However, to be effective, the vaccine formulation usually consists of several components: an antigen carrier, the antigen, a stimulator of [...] Read more.
Subunit vaccines rely on adjuvants carrying one or a few molecular antigens from the pathogen in order to guarantee an improved immune response. However, to be effective, the vaccine formulation usually consists of several components: an antigen carrier, the antigen, a stimulator of cellular immunity such as a Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) ligand, and a stimulator of humoral response such as an inflammasome activator. Most antigens are negatively charged and combine well with oppositely charged adjuvants. This explains the paramount importance of studying a variety of cationic supramolecular assemblies aiming at the optimal activity in vivo associated with adjuvant simplicity, positive charge, nanometric size, and colloidal stability. In this review, we discuss the use of several antigen/adjuvant cationic combinations. The discussion involves antigen assembled to (1) cationic lipids, (2) cationic polymers, (3) cationic lipid/polymer nanostructures, and (4) cationic polymer/biocompatible polymer nanostructures. Some of these cationic assemblies revealed good yet poorly explored perspectives as general adjuvants for vaccine design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Nanotechnology Vol. 2)
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Article
Surfactant Interactions with Protein-Coated Surfaces: Comparison between Colloidal and Macroscopically Flat Surfaces
Biomimetics 2020, 5(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030031 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Surface interactions with polymers or proteins are extensively studied in a range of industrial and biomedical applications to control surface modification, cleaning, or biofilm formation. In this study we compare surfactant interactions with protein-coated silica surfaces differing in the degree of curvature (macroscopically [...] Read more.
Surface interactions with polymers or proteins are extensively studied in a range of industrial and biomedical applications to control surface modification, cleaning, or biofilm formation. In this study we compare surfactant interactions with protein-coated silica surfaces differing in the degree of curvature (macroscopically flat and colloidal nanometric spheres). The interaction with a flat surface was probed by means of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) while dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to study the interaction with colloidal SiO2 (radius 15 nm). First, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with both SiO2 surfaces to create a monolayer of coating protein was studied. Subsequently, the interaction of these BSA-coated surfaces with a non-ionic surfactant (a decanol ethoxylated with an average number of eight ethoxy groups) was investigated. A fair comparison between the results obtained by these two techniques on different geometries required the correction of SPR data for bound water and DLS results for particle curvature. Thus, the treated data have excellent quantitative agreement independently of the geometry of the surface suggesting the formation of multilayers of C10PEG over the protein coating. The results also show a marked different affinity of the surfactant towards BSA when the protein is deposited on a flat surface or individually dissolved in solution. Full article
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