# Development of the Third Generation of the Dual-Reciprocating Drill

^{*}

^{†}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Evolution of the DRD

#### 1.1.1. Parameters Defining the DRD Operation

#### 1.1.2. Integrated Actuation Mechanism

## 2. Methods

#### 2.1. Drill Bit Morphological Design

#### 2.2. Numerical Modelling of the DRD

#### 2.2.1. Overview of the Simulation Techniques Used for Drill/Soil Interactions

#### 2.2.2. Preliminary Numerical Study

#### 2.3. Development of System Prototypes

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Drill Bit Morphological Design

#### 3.2. Numerical Modelling of the DRD with EDEM

^{−1}, with downwards motion being positive, to represent the reciprocal action of the drilling process. Two contact models, Hertz-Mindlin and Hertz-Mindlin with Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) cohesion, were considered in this study. The former is a standard contact model in which only normal and tangential contacts were considered, while the latter introduces a cohesion force between the contacts.

## 4. Discussion

#### 4.1. Development of the Internally Actuated System Prototype

^{3}[6] and Beagle 2’s PLUTO [5], which respectively have diameters of 27 mm and 20 mm, and lengths of 396 mm and 280 mm. The architecture chosen for this design will also be used to explore how different types of reciprocation may benefit the drilling performance.

#### 4.2. Development of the Dual Reciprocation Oscillation Drill (DROD) System Prototype

^{3}located behind the drill bits. This compartment can be opened or closed at a certain depth by a shutter, which is operated by a linear motor located at the main actuation system.

#### Kinematic Analysis of the DROD

_{1}is the distance between A and B. The motion system’s inputs and outputs can be coupled in this form:

_{p}is the number of lower pair joints, such as the hinged and sliding joints (L

_{p}= 5), and H

_{p}is the number of higher pair joints, such as the follower/cam and pin/wedge contacts (H

_{p}= 4). During the motion of the drill bit, points A, B and C change location to A’, B’, and C’, with point A only moving in the longitudinal direction. The position of the origin of frame oxy with respect to OXY can be derived by:

_{1}= 6 mm and a

_{2}= 8 mm) and wedges (with angles ψ

_{1}= 8° and ψ

_{2}= 5.8°) are considered, so that the effects of changing these parameters on the final bit motion, and consequently defining the dominant parameter for improving the drilling performance, can be investigated.

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Lab-based test model [15].

**Figure 5.**Proposed morphological designs for the drill bits [18].

**Figure 7.**The drilling times and averages for all Bits in SSC-2 and ES-3. Adapted from [18].

**Figure 8.**Drilling depth profile vs. time for all Bits in (

**a**) SSC-2 and (

**b**) ES-3. Adapted from [18].

**Figure 9.**(

**a**) Numerical model of Bit 1 and (

**b**) the loading profile in terms of imposed velocity on the bit.

**Figure 11.**Comparison of the drill–regolith interactions at t = 3 s with (

**a**) the Hertz-Mindlin and (

**b**) Hertz-Mindlin with JKR contact models.

**Figure 12.**Picture of the bi-directional screw and sleeve nuts, with the red and blue translation arrows of the sleeve nuts corresponding to clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation of the screw respectively.

**Figure 14.**CAD cut-out model showing the sampling mechanism’s compartments in the drill head cone and the shutter in the closed and open positions.

**Figure 16.**CAD model of the cylindrical cam with dual followers for the reciprocation motion, showing

**1**: the DC motor as the fixed (ground) part,

**2**: the cylindrical cam, and

**3**and

**4**: the followers.

**Figure 17.**CAD model of the wedge at the end of the DROD for the oscillation motion, showing

**3**and

**4**: the followers,

**5**and

**6**: the oscillating bits, and

**7**: the wedge as the fixed (ground) part.

**Figure 18.**Synthesis of the reciprocation and oscillation processes, showing the movements of the drill as it performs one full reciprocation cycle.

**Figure 22.**Plots of the bit tip’s (

**a**) linear velocity $\dot{x}$ in the linear displacement space x and (

**b**) linear velocity $\dot{y}$ in the linear displacement space y.

**Table 1.**Design features of the drills. Each bit has a height of 160 mm [18].

Drill Bit | Surface Profile | Teeth Angle | Cross-Section Contour | Half Bit Volume ×10^{3} (mm^{3}) |
---|---|---|---|---|

O | Cylindrical, conical tip | Straight, H = 0° | Circular | 15.75 |

1 | Concave | Straight, H = 0° | Circular | 9.65 |

2 | Convex | Straight, H = 0° | Circular | 11.63 |

3 | Concave | Helical, H_{max} = 20° | Circular | 9.32 |

4 | Concave | Straight, H = 0° | Rhombic | 7.891 |

5 | Concave | No teeth | Circular | 8.50 |

6 | Concave | No teeth | Circular | 15.26 |

**Table 2.**Reduction ratios of the drilling times for the Bits with respect to Bit O [18].

Drill Bit | SSC-2% | ES-3% |
---|---|---|

1 | 29.8 | 41.4 |

2 | - | 20.1 |

3 | - | 36.8 |

4 | 32.7 | 46.1 |

5 | 56.5 | 53 |

6 | 40.3 | 48 |

**Table 3.**Features of the proposed bits and their capabilities with different regoliths (+ + + Outstanding, + + Excellent, + Good, o Fair, – Poor, – – Bad) [18].

Design Features | Fine Grain Regolith | Coarse Grain Regolith | Potential Icy Regolith |
---|---|---|---|

Cylindrical profile | o | – | – – |

Concave profile | + | + + | + + |

Convex profile | – – | + | + + |

Circular cross-section | o | o | o |

Diamond cross-section | + | + + | + + + |

Helical teeth | – – | + + | + + + |

Without teeth | + + + | + | – |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Pitcher, C.; Alkalla, M.; Pang, X.; Gao, Y.
Development of the Third Generation of the Dual-Reciprocating Drill. *Biomimetics* **2020**, *5*, 38.
https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030038

**AMA Style**

Pitcher C, Alkalla M, Pang X, Gao Y.
Development of the Third Generation of the Dual-Reciprocating Drill. *Biomimetics*. 2020; 5(3):38.
https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030038

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Pitcher, Craig, Mohamed Alkalla, Xavier Pang, and Yang Gao.
2020. "Development of the Third Generation of the Dual-Reciprocating Drill" *Biomimetics* 5, no. 3: 38.
https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5030038